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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
array of organisms together with their physical environment
How do ecosystems interact?
Through a one-way flow of energy and the cycling of vital raw materials
primary producers
convert sunlight energy to chemial bond energy, using it to synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials
heterotrophs who feed on the tissues, products, and remains of other organisms
Eat flesh
Eat plants
Eat detritus (particles of decomposing organic matter)
Prokaryotic or fungal heterotroph, obtains carbon and energy by breaking down organic wastes and remains
Eat all things
Eats dead things
Trophic Levels
Classification system for organisms in the ecosystem
Food Chain
Straight line sequence of steps by whcich teh energy and nutrients stored in the tissues of organisms at the lowest trophic level moves up to higher levels
Food Web
Cross connection of different food chains
Why can't energy transfers be 100% efficient?
Energy is lost at each step
Grazing Food Web
Energy stored by producers flows to herbivores, then carnivores, then decomposers
Detrital Food Web
Energy from producers flows mainly into detrivores and decomposers
Synthetic organic pesticide
fifth trophic level
top carnivore (fourth-level consumer)
fourth trophic level
carnivore (third-level consumer)
third trophic level
carnivore (second-level consumer)
second trophic level
herbivore (primary consumer)
first trophic level
autotroph (primary producer)
Consists of a nucleic acid (chromosome) enclosed in a protein coat and sometimes an outer membranous envelope. It can replicate only in specific types of cells called host cells.
Where MUST viruses replicate?
Living cells of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
The class of viruses that infect bacterial cells
Simple membrane sacs that could surround and protect information-storing templates and metabolic events
Archaean Eon
3.8-2.5 billion years ago
Prokaryotic Conjugation
Donor cell's sex pilus latches onto a recipient cell and then retracts, pulling it close; transfers plasmid to the recipient
Infections, disease-causing agents that invade target species and multiply in or on them
Lateral Gene Transfer
Transfer of genetic information between cells by conjugation or some other process
Extreme halophiles
Archaea that live in salty habitats; produce ATP by aerobic reactions
Archaea that live in oxygen-free habitats; produce ATP by stripping electrons from hydrogen gas or alcohols
Extreme Termophiles
Archaea that use sulfur as the electron acceptor or donor for mating ATP; live in temperatures over 80 degrees C
Flagellated Protozoans
Protist that moves using flagella
Protective covering that formed from cell secretions
Protozoan that holds the euglenoid body and gives it shape
Microscopic organisms that drift or swim weakly in water
Ciliated protozoans; has alveoli beneath the outer membrane
Cilates, dinoflagellates, apicomplexans
Causes diseaases like genital herpes, chicken pox, shingles, mononucleosis, & cold sores
Herpes simplex
type I causes fever blisters and cold sores; type II is te STD
Causes smallpox in humans and cowpox; immunize people with cowpox to protect from smallpox
Hepatitus virus
causes liver disease
Hepatitis A
Highly contageous; most common; not too fatal; found in unsanitary stuff
Hepatitis B
Most feared; liver disease
Hepatitis C
Least known and hard to diagnose
Hemorrhagic diseases
Causes tissue breakdown and bleeding
unsanitary conditions are responsible; unknown host
Marburg hemorrhagic fever
caused by virus close to Ebola; African Green Monkeys
Lassa Fever
natural host is in a rodent common in AFrica
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever
Ticks transmission;
Dengue fever
Mosquitoes transmit
found in saliva, urine, and feces of deer, mice, and other rodents; fatal lung infection
HIV: weakesn immune system so infected people get diseases uninfected people can resist; primates; RNA
Human Papilloma Virus
associated with genital warts and causes cervical cancer
Influenza Virus A
Epidemic flue
Influenza Virus B
Bird flu
Norwalk Virus
Cruise ships; diarrhea in humans; second most comon; transmitted through fecal-oral route
Bacteria; found in dairy, makes products through fermentation
Bacteria; live in soil; makes important antibiotics
Bacteria; mutualists with legumes, live on their roots; important in nitrogen fixation
Bacteria; blue-green algae; chloroplasts descend from it; photosynthesize; many can also fix nitrogen
Bacteria; type of cyanobacteria; can produce toxins called microcystins that can be harmful to wildlife and humans
Escherichia coli
Bacteria; lives in intestines of most animals; usually harmless/beneficial; used as an indicator of feces contamination
Bacteria; lives in intestines; typhoid fever; found in meat and eggs
Bacteria; – most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in US; found in cattle, sheep, chickens, people infected by eating fecally contaminated, undercooked, meat or poultry or by drinking unpasteurized milk
Bacteria; live on or with animals; cause tooth decay, pneumonia acne, cold and flu symptoms, sore throat, infections after surgery
Bacteria; – cause of legionare’s disease; pneumonia-like disease of lungs; inhabits streams, ponds and cooling tower of AC units
Bacteria; soil inhabitant; only known prokaryote that can transfer DNA to eukaryotes; caused plant cancer
Neisseria meningococcus
Bacteria; pathogenic strain passed t hrough intimate contact that causes meningitis
Meisseria gonorrhoea
Bacteria; responsible for the STD gonorrhoea
Bacteria; anaerobic spore maker