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72 Cards in this Set

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ecosystem
array of organisms together with their physical environment
How do ecosystems interact?
Through a one-way flow of energy and the cycling of vital raw materials
primary producers
convert sunlight energy to chemial bond energy, using it to synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials
consumers
heterotrophs who feed on the tissues, products, and remains of other organisms
Carnivores
Eat flesh
Herbivores
Eat plants
Detritivores
Eat detritus (particles of decomposing organic matter)
Decomposers
Prokaryotic or fungal heterotroph, obtains carbon and energy by breaking down organic wastes and remains
Omnivore
Eat all things
Scavenger
Eats dead things
Trophic Levels
Classification system for organisms in the ecosystem
Food Chain
Straight line sequence of steps by whcich teh energy and nutrients stored in the tissues of organisms at the lowest trophic level moves up to higher levels
Food Web
Cross connection of different food chains
Why can't energy transfers be 100% efficient?
Energy is lost at each step
Grazing Food Web
Energy stored by producers flows to herbivores, then carnivores, then decomposers
Detrital Food Web
Energy from producers flows mainly into detrivores and decomposers
DDT
Synthetic organic pesticide
fifth trophic level
top carnivore (fourth-level consumer)
fourth trophic level
carnivore (third-level consumer)
third trophic level
carnivore (second-level consumer)
second trophic level
herbivore (primary consumer)
first trophic level
autotroph (primary producer)
Virus
Consists of a nucleic acid (chromosome) enclosed in a protein coat and sometimes an outer membranous envelope. It can replicate only in specific types of cells called host cells.
Where MUST viruses replicate?
Living cells of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Bacteriophages
The class of viruses that infect bacterial cells
Proto-cells
Simple membrane sacs that could surround and protect information-storing templates and metabolic events
Archaean Eon
3.8-2.5 billion years ago
Prokaryotic Conjugation
Donor cell's sex pilus latches onto a recipient cell and then retracts, pulling it close; transfers plasmid to the recipient
Pathogen
Infections, disease-causing agents that invade target species and multiply in or on them
Lateral Gene Transfer
Transfer of genetic information between cells by conjugation or some other process
Extreme halophiles
Archaea that live in salty habitats; produce ATP by aerobic reactions
Methanogens
Archaea that live in oxygen-free habitats; produce ATP by stripping electrons from hydrogen gas or alcohols
Extreme Termophiles
Archaea that use sulfur as the electron acceptor or donor for mating ATP; live in temperatures over 80 degrees C
Flagellated Protozoans
Protist that moves using flagella
Cyst
Protective covering that formed from cell secretions
Pellicle
Protozoan that holds the euglenoid body and gives it shape
Plankton
Microscopic organisms that drift or swim weakly in water
Ciliates
Ciliated protozoans; has alveoli beneath the outer membrane
Alveolates
Cilates, dinoflagellates, apicomplexans
Herpesvirus
Causes diseaases like genital herpes, chicken pox, shingles, mononucleosis, & cold sores
Herpes simplex
type I causes fever blisters and cold sores; type II is te STD
Poxvirus
Causes smallpox in humans and cowpox; immunize people with cowpox to protect from smallpox
Hepatitus virus
causes liver disease
Hepatitis A
Highly contageous; most common; not too fatal; found in unsanitary stuff
Hepatitis B
Most feared; liver disease
Hepatitis C
Least known and hard to diagnose
Hemorrhagic diseases
Causes tissue breakdown and bleeding
Ebola
unsanitary conditions are responsible; unknown host
Marburg hemorrhagic fever
caused by virus close to Ebola; African Green Monkeys
Lassa Fever
natural host is in a rodent common in AFrica
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever
Ticks transmission;
Dengue fever
Mosquitoes transmit
Hantaviruses
found in saliva, urine, and feces of deer, mice, and other rodents; fatal lung infection
Retroviruses
HIV: weakesn immune system so infected people get diseases uninfected people can resist; primates; RNA
Human Papilloma Virus
associated with genital warts and causes cervical cancer
Influenza Virus A
Epidemic flue
Influenza Virus B
Bird flu
Norwalk Virus
Cruise ships; diarrhea in humans; second most comon; transmitted through fecal-oral route
Lactobacillus
Bacteria; found in dairy, makes products through fermentation
Streptomyces
Bacteria; live in soil; makes important antibiotics
Rhyzobium
Bacteria; mutualists with legumes, live on their roots; important in nitrogen fixation
Cyanobacteria
Bacteria; blue-green algae; chloroplasts descend from it; photosynthesize; many can also fix nitrogen
Microcystis
Bacteria; type of cyanobacteria; can produce toxins called microcystins that can be harmful to wildlife and humans
Escherichia coli
Bacteria; lives in intestines of most animals; usually harmless/beneficial; used as an indicator of feces contamination
Salmonella
Bacteria; lives in intestines; typhoid fever; found in meat and eggs
Campylobacter
Bacteria; – most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in US; found in cattle, sheep, chickens, people infected by eating fecally contaminated, undercooked, meat or poultry or by drinking unpasteurized milk
Staphylococcus
Bacteria; live on or with animals; cause tooth decay, pneumonia acne, cold and flu symptoms, sore throat, infections after surgery
Legionella
Bacteria; – cause of legionare’s disease; pneumonia-like disease of lungs; inhabits streams, ponds and cooling tower of AC units
Agrobacterium
Bacteria; soil inhabitant; only known prokaryote that can transfer DNA to eukaryotes; caused plant cancer
Neisseria meningococcus
Bacteria; pathogenic strain passed t hrough intimate contact that causes meningitis
Meisseria gonorrhoea
Bacteria; responsible for the STD gonorrhoea
Clostirdium
Bacteria; anaerobic spore maker