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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the "Temple" of Serapis in Pozzuoli, Italy?
-showed atleast some point sea-level had gone up and down
-history has many processes, meaning the earth is old
What kind of organisms are most likely to survive and breed?
organisms best adapted to the environments in which they occur
What can change the mix of traits in a population?
If the environments change
What is "deep time" and who proposed it?
-"We find no vestige of a beginning or end"
-means can't find rocks from the "very" beginning
-James Hutton
Where did Darwin get his first contact with diversity?
In the tropics
Where did Darwin's first real eye opener occur for diversity?
Galapagos Islands
(Peruvian Iguanas, own turtles, finches)
How did Darwin end up on the Beagle?
-FitzRoy approached Henslow for a companion and Henslow suggested Darwin
What did the Evolutionary Option propose or "doubt" about evolution?
-no time
-no viable mechanism
Who proposed the Evolutionary Option?
Jean- Baptiste Lamarck
What is the single most reason why change occurs?
Natural selection
What are some examples of natural variation in populations?
*mutations and genetic recombination
-copy errors
-post-copy damage (radiation,chemicals)
*conscious selection of parents and progeny
*change of population
How many different finches did Darwin find on the Galapagos Islands?
-would send all his findings to specialists
Who did Darwin get a boost about evolution and what was it called?
-Charles Lyell
- his book called "Principles of Geology", given to him by Henslow
What book established the foundations of modern geology?
Principles of Geology
What conclusion did Darwin come to about the theory on the age of earth?
in order for the earth to change you need time
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
-French naturalist
-his concept of evolution was all species are descended from other species
What did Lamarck mistaken in his findings? and why was it challenged?
-he assumed that new structures in an organism apperar because of a "inner want"
-no way to prove by experimentation
What kind of animals did Lamarck wrongly propose about?
-Giraffes aquired longer necks by stretching to reach leaves
-snakes evolved from lizzards that had a strong preference to slither
Charles Darwin
-first to propose a hypothesis with convincing evidence
-wrote "On the Origin of Species is 1859
Natural Selection
-proposed by Darwin and Wallace
-singular most reason why change occurs
-individuals with variations that are most favorable for survival and reproduction in a given environment can survive and reproduce
Why did Darwin praise Lamarck?
for perceiving that the descendants of formers creatures have undergone biological change and are different from their ancestors
What concepts did Darwin and Wallace come to understand about natural selection after years of careful data collection
-more organisms are born than they survive
-always variation among offspring
-competition for resources
What weakness did Darwin's Theory encounter?
did not explain the reason/cause of variation in plants and animals
Rev. J.S. Henslow
-Cambridge Professor-theology& botany
Captain Robert FitzRoy
H.M.S. Beagle
-a voyage of exploration
Charles Lyell
-english geologist
-wrote "Principles of Geology" which expanded on Hutton's ideas
What are some of Lyell's principles of stratigraphy?
-cross-cutting relationships
-fragments within larger rock masses are older than the rock masses in which they are enclosed(ex:rock containing fragments is younger)
Cross- Cutting Relationships
the feature that is cut is older than the feature that does the cutting
(ex: fossils in rocks)
fragments that appear in another rock
Principles of Geology
-attempt to explain the former changes of the Earth's surface,by reference to causes in operation
-extended work of Hutton
-age of earth
James Hutton
-saw the natural processes of the past were the same as today
-Edinburgh physician and geologist
-"We find no vestige of a beinning or end"
-saw earth everchanging where new things arise slowly but continue to balance their loss
What book did Darwin receive before his voyage?
by Charles Lyell "Principles of Geology"
-FitzRoy told Darwin not to pay attention to the theory of the age of earth
What theories about similiarity did Darwin conclude from the "Principles of Geology"
in order for the earth to change you need time
earth's history depends on the earth today by oberserving the events that happend
What geologic processes did Huton experiment with?
-how waves wash onto the shore
What was Hutton "famous for" about the positioning of rocks?
Uniconformity, but he had not discovered how to correlate different locations with age
Thomas Malthus
-wrote "Essay on Population"
- as geometric population growth and arithmetic resource increase WAR,FAMINE,AND STRIFE, can occur if not maintained
Why was Darwin reluctant to publish his findings on natural selection?
-confided in Lyell and J.Hooker and they credited Darwin before anybody else
-naturalists didnt believe Darwin because he didnt know the cause of variation
Russel Wallace
-wrote manuscript on his own ideas about natural selection(had no experiments)
-sent Darwin his findings of the basic concepts of natural selection
What was R. Wallace's writings about his work in Malay about?
problems explaining distributions along the island change