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126 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define: systems development
A process for creating and maintaining information systems.
Five components of an information system are:
hardware, software, data, procedures, and people.
Scope of systems development vs. program development
program development is only concered with software and some data, not all five components.
Personal system
Supports one person with limited set of requirements
Workgroup system
Supports a group of people normally with a single application
Supports many workgroups with many different applications
Supports many different organizations with many different cultures, different countries and heritages
Development Challenges:
Difficulties in determining requirements, Changes in requirements, Scheduling and budgeting difficulties, Changing technology
Systems Development Life Cycle [SDLC Development phases]
– System definition
– Requirements analysis
– Component design
– Implementation
– System maintenance (fix or enhance)
SDLC System Definition Phase
Define project
– Goals and objectives
– Scope–statement of work
Assess feasibility
– Cost (budget)
– Schedule
– Technical
-Organizational feasibility
Form a project team
– Project manager
– In-house IT staff
– Outside consultants
– User representatives (management and staff)
SDLC Requirement Analysis Phase Tasks
Conduct interviews, evaluate existing systems, determine new functions, reports, queries, consider security, create data model
Most Important phase in system development:
System Requirement phase
SDLC Component Design Phase
Determine hardware and programs, design database, procedures, and create job definitions.
SDLC Design phase procedures:
– Normal operations
– Backup of transactions anddata
– System failure recovery
SDLC Implementation Phase
Build, test, and convert the users to the new system.

User training and procedures are verified.
SDLC System Implementation options:
Pilot, phase, parallel, plunge
Implementation options - Pilot:
Implement the entire system on a limited portion of the business
Implementation options - Phase:
New system is installed in pieces across the organization
Implementation options - Parallel:
New system runs in parallel with the old system for a while
Implementation options - Plunge:
The old system is turned off and the new system is turned on
SDLC Maintenance Phase:
Changes, enhancements, patches, security fixes
Problems with SDLC:
Seldom runs smoothly, budgeting and scheduling conflicts, difficult to document requirements
Rapid Application Process (RAD)
Break up the design and implementation phases of the
SDLC into smaller pieces.

Design and implement the pieces using as much computer assistance as
RAD Characteristics
Design / implement / fix development process
– Incremental development (divide and conquer)
-Continuous user involvement throughout
-Extensive use of prototypes
-Joint Application Design (JAD)
-CASE Tools
A mock up of any component of a new system: Form, Report, Query
Joint Application Design
-Incorporates feedback and
testing earlier in the development process.
-A short design meeting to keep the scope of the component small enough that the design can be completed in a short period.
CASE and Visual Tools
(Computer-assisted system engineering) tool is a computer system that aids in the development of computer programs or systems.
• CASE tools have a repository that contains documents, data, prototypes,and code generator to improve development.
and program code for the software or system under development.
Object-Oriented Systems Development
Came from Object oriented programming. Uses Unified Modeling Language (UML, a series of diagramming techniques that facilitates OOP development.
• Unified Process (UP) was designed for use with UML.
Stages in the Unified Process
Inception "sdlc definition"
Elaboration "iteration"
Construction "iteration"
Transition "sdlc implementation"
Maintenence "sdlc maintenence"
Unified Process Elaboration Phase
• The elaboration phase is where developers construct and test the
framework and architecture of the new system.
– Including requirements, determination, design, programming, and testing
– Use Case is the tool for documenting requirements

• This phase addresses the aspects of the system that have the most risk
and uncertainty.
Unified Process Construction Phase
Where developers design, implement, and test
the easier, lower-risk features and functions that were not addressed
during elaboration.
Extreme Programming
Not useful for large scale systems development.

Customer centric
Just-in-time design
Paired programming
Security Threats sources:
Errors and Accicents
Malicious humans
Natural events and disasters
Types of security problems
Unathorized data disclosure
Incorrect data modification
Faulty service
Denial of service
Loss of infrastructure
Unathorized data disclosure - Pretexting:
pretending to be someone else in order to gain access to data
Unathorized data disclosure - Phishing:
pretexting via email
Unathorized data disclosure - Spoofing:
pretending to be something else, spoofing an ip, or email.
Unathorized data disclosure - Sniffing:
interception of computer communications
Incorrect data modification
Human errors or hacking
Faulty Service - Usurpation
systems errors, or unauthorized programs invade a computer system and replace legitimate programs
Denial of service - Flooding
sending millions of request at once to shut a server down
Technical - Data - Human

Encryption, Firewalls, Passwords, Education, Training, Backup and recovery, Authorization
symmetric encryption:
Both parties use the same key to encrypt and decrypt messages to each other
asymmetric encryption:
parties use two keys, on that is public, and one that is private
Encryption - SSL/TLS
secure socket layer or transport layer security
Encryption - Digital signitures
ensures that plaintext messages are received without alterations
Encryption - Digital certificate
verifies public keys upon receipt of a message
Perimeter firewall
sits outside the organizations network and internet traffic first encounters this firewal
internal firewall
inside the organizational network
packet-filtering firewall
examines each packet and determines whether to let the packet pass
Firewall - Access control list
encodes teh rules stating which packets are to be allowed and which are prohibited
Viruses, worms, trojan horses, spyware, adware.
Hardening a site:
To take extraordinary measures to reduce a systems vulnerability
Hot sites:
remote processing centers for disaster-recovery services.
Cold sites:
provide office space for disaster operations.
Porters 5 competitive forces model that determine profitablilty
Bargaining power of suppliers
Bargaining power of customers
New entrants to the market
Rivalry among firms
Threats of substitutions
the buying and selling of goods and services public and private computer networks.
merchant companies
Those that take title to the goods they sell
Nonmerchant companies
Arrange for purchase and sale of goods without ever owning or taking title to goods
Merchant Companies Commerce Catagories:
B2C-business to consumer
B2B-business to business
B2G-business to government
Non-Merchant Companies Commerce Catagories:
Web Storefront
B2C, store where customers enter and manage their orders (amazon)
the elimination of the middleman or middle layers in the supply chain
Price Elasticity
the amount of demand rises or falls with changes in price
Supply Chain
network of organizations and facilities that trasforms raw materials into products delivered to customers
Drivers of Supply Chain performance:
Supply Chain Profitability
the difference between the sum of the revenue generated by the supply chain and the sum of the costs that all of the organizations in the suply chain incur
Supply Chain profitability - max profit
Won't happen if each orgainization in the chain maximizes its own profits, instead they should operate at less than maximum
The variability in the size and timing of orders increase at each stage up the suply chain from customer to supplier, due to the multistage nature of the chain, causing larger than needed inventories; reducing profitability of the chain.
Supplier relationship management (SRM)
a business process for managing all contracs between organization and its suppliers
SRM suppport functions:
Souce: find vendors
Purchase: request, approve, buy
Settle: recieve goods
CRM-SRM Integration
purchases SRM examines inventory, and automatically creates the order via connection to supplier's CRM
Electronic Data Exchange (EDI)
a standard of formats for common business documents

EDI X12 Standards (US)
international documentation standard
medical documentation standard
Extensible Markup Language (XML)
endless number of tags, has become a significant standard for computer processing
Remote, or distributed, Computing
a program on one computer accessing programs on a second computer
10^9, 10^12, 10^15, 10^18
Business Intelligence Tools
(BI) Tools
Reporting tools, Data Mining Tools
BI-Reporting tools
programs that read data from a variety of sources, process that data, produce formatted reprots, and deliver those reports to the users ; for assessment
BI-Data Mining Tools
process data using statistical techniques, many of which are sophisticated and mathematically complex; predictive
Push report
created to a set schedule and sent with no user activity
Pull reprot
user request produces report
Components of a reporting system:
CRM database, Inventory database, email alerts, paper reports, reporting system metadata
Report Types
Static, Dynamic
Static Report
prepared once from the underlying data, and they do not change
Dynamic reprots:
reporting system reads the most current data and generates the report using that fresh data
Query report
prepared in response to data entered by the user
Report media
paper, pdf, electronic, digital dashboard (electronic customizable display like "msn homepage"), alerts
RFM Analysis
how Recently a customer has ordered, how Frequently, and how Much spends
Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)
provides the ability to sum, count, average, and perform other simple arithmetic operation on groups of data.

A dynamic report.
OLAP - measure
the data item of interest
OLAP - dimension
a characteristic of a measure (customer location, sales region)
OLAP advantages
can drill down, or further divide data.

OLAP servers perform functions then store results.
Data Mining
the application of statistical techniques to find patterns and relationships among data and to classify and predict
unsupervised data mining
analysts do not create a model or hypothesis before running the analysis
unsupervised data mining - Cluster analysis
find groups of similar customers from order and demographics
Supervised Data mining
model is developed prior to analysis and apply statistical techniques to data to estimate parameters of the model.

Neutral network
another popular supervised data mining technique used to predict values
market basket analysis
data mining for sales patters
Market basket analysis - support
tells the probability that two items will be purchased together

*Standard CRM analysis
Decision Tree
hierarchical arrangements of criteria that predict a classification or value

*unsupervised data min. tech.
Data Warehouse - Data Marts
facilities that prepare, store, and manage data for data mining and other analyses
Data warehouse
takes data from the data manufacturers (operational systems and purchased data) cleans and proceses the data, and locates the data on the "shelves" of the warehouse.
Data mart
a data collection, much smaller than the data warehouse, that addresses a particular component or function of a business
Knowledge Management Systems
the sharing of knowledge that is already known to exist, either in libraries of documents, or heads of employees
Knowledge Management (KM)
the process of creating value from
intellectual capital and sharing that knowledge with employees, managers,
suppliers, customers, and others who need that capital.
Content Management systems
track organizational documents, web pages, graphics, and etc.
Knowledge Sharing forms:
-Portals, group discussion, -email collaboration systems
-expert systems
portal allows for posting of knowledge for others to use
Discussion Groups
Allows questions to be posed, others to aid in helping, FAQ's can be made.
Collaboration systems:
web broadcasts, bulletin boards, pod cast, net meetings
Expert systems
coded rules from experts on a specific topic
IS Dept. responsibilities:
develop, operate, maintain applications, protect information, manage outsourcing, plan IT around goals
IT - Planning
CTO, sorts through new ideas and products to identify those that are most relevant to an organization.
IT Operations
manages the computing infrastructure, including individual computers, computer centers, networks, and communications media.
IT Development
manages the process of creating new information systems as well as maintaining existing information systems.
IT - Outsourcing
exists in organizations that have negotiated outsourcing agreements with other companies to provide equipment, applications, or other services.
IT Data Administration
protects data and information assets by establishing data standards and data management practices and policies
Chief Information Officer, oversees IS
Chief technology officer, oversees new application use, and new products.
legacy information system
a system that has outdated technologies and techniques but is still used
Data Administration
describes a function that pertains to all of an org. data assets
Database administrative
describes a function that pertains to a particular database
Data Standards
are definitions, or metadata, for data items shared across the organization

Describe name, usage, relationships, restrictions, format, owner info.
Data dictionary
a file or database that contains data definitions

*needs lots of maintenence to keep it up to date*