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88 Cards in this Set

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What is the difference between a democracy and an autocracy?
Democracies need approval, while autocracies can repress opposition
What does the society level consider?
Nongovernmental characteristics of the society as a whole
What can be learned from the interactions of states that cannot be explained by the characteristic of each state individually
Dyadic
For the world systems view, what must you consider?
All states, not just one or two
What is hegemony?
The predominant influence of one state
What is a critique of the levels of analysis?
Ignores change over time
What are transnational relations?
The interactions that bypass the governments of states and impact directly on their domestic environments
Do liberals see the world in transnational or international terms?
Transnational
Determining what is possible involves what two considerations?
The phenomenon must already exist, and the decision-making body must be able to use the phenomenon
What does realism emphasize?
Self-interest, power, and the competitiveness of states in an anarchy
What does liberalism emphasize?
Institutions and linkages between states for facilitating cooperation, coordination, and nonviolent conflict resolution
What do individuals want in realism?
Power and security
What do individuals want in liberalism?
Freedom and wealth
What does an offensive realist think the US should do?
Keep power, confront/contain potential challengers
What may be a downfall of the offensive realist view?
May promote balancing
What does an defensive realist think the US should do?
Don’t provoke challengers, and other states may bandwagon
What does a liberal think the US should do?
Act multilaterally, justly, and fairly, since it’s not all about power
Examples of IGOs
UN, NATO, British Commonwealth, World Bank
General purpose, universal membership IGOs
League of Nations, UN
General purpose, restricted membership IGOs
OAS, OAU, British Commonwealth, G8
Limited purpose, universal membership IGOs
IMF, World Bank, WHO, ILO
Limited purpose, restricted membership IGOs
EU, NATO, Mercosur, ASEAN
EU as an IGO
Started as limited purpose, restricted membership, but is becoming general purpose, restricted membership
Supranational authorities
IGO, member states have granted them the authority to act independently and to make decisions that are binding on members even if some members disagree with those decisions
Transnational actor
MNC
Examples of NGOs
Doctors Without Borders, International Red Cross, International Studies Association, Hamas, al Qaeda
2 main parts of a state
Inhabited territory, sovereign govenrment
Internal sovereignty
Supreme authority over all other entities within one’s territory- Only one authority on a territory
External sovereignty
No state may interfere in the domestic affairs of another state
Why do states flourish (3 reasons)
Efficient tax collection, war fighting, trade/innovation/economic progress
What is a threat to the state because of MNCs?
States do not have as much bargaining power
What is a threat to the state because of NGOs?
Transnational terrorism
What is a threat to the state involving nations?
Fractured nationalism
Examples of nations
Italians, Kurds, Palestinians
What is a consequence of the skin deep view of nationalism?
Elites can manipulate people easily
Where did elites manipulate people easily?
Yugoslavia
Unification
Nation divided into two states can unify to form one state
Partition
A nation can separate to form its own state
Alignment
Informal coalition
What is "we are friends" indicative of?
An alignment
What is an example of aligned countries?
Israel and US
Alliance
States that behave as a coalition, formalized by a written treaty, for purposes of military security
When do you make an entente?
When rivalry prevents making a formal treaty
What is "nod and wink" indicative of?
Entente
What is an example of an entente?
France and Britain pre-WWI
Defense pact
A type of military alliance where each state promises to come to the defense of any member in the event of an attack
What is "we are family" indicative of?
A defense pact
What is an example of a defense pact?
NATO
Nonaggression pact
States promise not to attack each other or give aid to an attacker
What is "I will try not to hurt you" indicative of?
A nonaggression pact
Nonalignment
Either remain neutral or stay away
What is an example of a nonaligned country?
Switzerland
The nonalignment movement during the Cold War included which 3 countries?
India, Yugoslavia, Egypt
What is a current example of balancing?
France and Germany vs. US
What is a current example of bandwagoning?
Great Britain to US
Passing-the-buck
States refuse to deal with a mounting threat thinking someone else will
Polarity fits in which theory of IR?
Realism
What kind of polarity did the Cold War have?
Bipolarity
Hegemony
One state makes rules by which relations among states are governed
Chaos theory
Small changes at first can make large changes in the end
Hegemonic stability
International stability is brought about by a single state’s ability to establish and enforce the international rules of the game
Where do a state's abilities come from in hegemonic stability?
Economic might
What is the central technique of foreign policy implementation?
Diplomacy
What IGOs aid diplomacy?
UN, NATO, OPEC, Arab League
How is diplomacy important to liberals?
It is soft power
What does noninterference do?
Prohibits diplomats from becoming involved in the domestic political processes of their hosts
What are the 5 functions of diplomacy?
Conflict management, coordination, cross-cultural exchange, negotiation of treaties, program management
What are the two parts of power?
Capabilities and influence
How do realists see the two parts of power?
Capabilities = influence
What kind of view does Morgenthau hold?
Realist
What do liberals think about power?
Power is not only exercised in situations of conflict or potential conflict
When is soft power important?
Farther from conflict
What do realists believe about separating high and low politics?
You can do it
What do liberals believe about separating high and low politics?
You can't do it
Who holds the unitary actor assumption?
Realists
Unitary actor assumption
Realists treat all states as unitary actors, in which high politics are not based on low politics
Operational codes
Schemata
Cognitive complexity
A characteristic of individuals with the ability to see various sides to issues, not viewing them in simple terms of black and white
Risky shift
Individuals respond to real and hypothetical situations more conservatively than when they are in a group
Instrumental rationality
Choose means that serve your ends
Perfect rationality
All information is available and processed, make best decision possible
Imperfect rationality
People do the best they can, act rationally within information processing limits
Rational actor model
Clarify goals, decide which are most important
Satisficing
Selecting the first course of action that satisfies a minimal set of requirements, yielding an acceptable outcome
What is satisficing a rebuttal of?
The rational actor model
Bounded rationality
Limited information processing capacity
What are the 3 aspects of bounded rationality?
Poor calculation, incomplete search, trading risk
Prospect theory
Decision makers are willing to take greater risks to protect what they have, and fewer risks to acquire what they want