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12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the likelihood that a tumor would have been "hot" or would have taken up radioactive iodine?
What is the likelihood that this tumor would have been "hot" or would have taken up radioactive iodine?
Is someone with a thyroid adenoma at risk for thyroid carcinoma?
No. The risk of malignant transformation is almost negligible.
At what age do fibroadenomas usually occur?
They occur at any age within the reproductive period of life, but they are somewhat more common before age 30.
Why do fibroadenomas cause problems in pre-menopausal women?
The epithelium of the fibroadenoma is responsive to hormones. Slight increases in size may occur during the late phases of each menstrual cycle, and pregnancy may stimulate growth and lactation. Postmenopausally, regression or calcification may result. There is also a slightly increased risk for development of breast carcinoma.
What is the most common type of tumor in the oral cavity?
Squamous cell carcinomas make up at least 95% of cancers of the oral cavity (including the tongue).
What risk factors are associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma?
Tobacco and alcohol.
Is squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus more common in men or in women?
What age group usually presents with colon cancer and what factors may predispose to early onset?
The peak incidence for colorectal carcinoma is age 60 to 70 years; fewer than 20% of cases occur under 50 years of age. When colorectal carcinoma is found in a young person, pre-existing ulcerative colitis or one of the polyposis syndromes must be suspected.
What are the most common sites of metastasis for primary adenocarcinomas of the colon?
The favored sites of metastatic spread are the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and bones, followed by many other sites, including the serosal membrane of the peritoneal cavity, brain, and others.
Are the fibroblasts that make up the desmoplasia seen in infiltrating duct carcinomas neoplastic?
No, the dense fibrous connective tissue is a reaction to the neoplastic epithelial cells.
What role may tumor specific antigens play in development of malignant melanoma?
Approximately 40% of human melanomas express a tumor specific antigen referred to as melanoma antigen-1 (MAGE-1). However, as has been seen in some animal tumors, the gene is silent in normal adult cells.
What is "carcinoid syndrome" and how common is it?
Manifestations are thought to arise from excess elaboration of serotonin. The clinical syndrome can include cutaneous flushes and apparent cyanosis; intestinal hypermotility (diarrhea, cramps, nausea, vomiting); asthmatic bronchoconstrictive attacks; hepatomegaly (due to metastases); systemic fibrosis (cardiac, aortic, retroperinoteal. pelvic).