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148 Cards in this Set

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An assumed process within an organism that arouses it and directs and sustains actions
Motivation
Individual is doing task b/c they like the tast; they enjoy it
Intrinsic motivation
Things you get for participating; praise, money, trophies
Extrinsic motivation
If you give extrinsic motivators to someone who is instrinsically motivated =
Lower instrinsic motivation b/c extrinsic awards change why they are doing the task
Humans are motivated to maintain perceived equtiable relationship b/w ourselves and others; fair/ just =
Equity theroy
outputs (money, praise)
----------------------
Inputs (time, effort)
equity theroy
Relationship of equity theory:
fair; both works getting same thing
Equitable
Equitable relationships make us feel emotionally ______
satisfied
Relationship of equity theroy:
When the person gets too much
Overpayment
Overpayment relationship makes us feel emotionally _____, bx _____ and psychologically ______
Emotionally = guilt
Psy = "I must be better"
Bx = will work harder
WHen we are underpayed, or underpayment inequity, makes us emotionally_____, bx _____ and psychologically _____
Emotionally = Angry
Psy = "He's playing favorites"
Bx = work less / will steal things
Intensity from underpayment or anger is _____ than satisfaction or guilt
greater
"we deal with phycological not logical" meaning that
It doesn't matter if it is actually equal or not, it is through the mind of the preceiver
Forms of work place violence:
More symbolic; rumors
Expressions
Forms of work place violence:
Blocks someone's ability to do what they are suppost to do; "erasing schedule appointment"
Obstruction
Forms of work place violence:
Do something physcial; very rare
Overt aggression
Work place violence tends to be more ____ than ____
Covert (hidden) than overt (in the open)
Extent to which someone's effort will result in preformance "If I try, will I have something to show for it?" effort ----> performance
Expectancy
Performance -----> reward; will I get what is promised to me? Like a better grade?
Instrumentality
Is the reward something you desire? Reward ----> desire
valence
If any of the VxIxE is zero, then motivations will be...
zero
Technique to enhance motivation:
Goal is the task, not the reward
Desired goal
There will be attractivness to the goal and motivation until you preceive it is impossible, then will drop to nothing
Energization
The two things that are tied in the energization model are _____ and _____
attractivness and motivation
Desired goal requirements: Have to have _____ goals; i.e. "Do your best goals never work"
Specific
Desired goal requirements: Must have specific and _____ goals
Difficult
Desired goal requirements: Must have difficult but _____ goals
Obtainable
WHen you weigh yourself if you are trying to lose weight
Goal feedback
Techniques to enhance motivation:
How are you going to accomplish this goal; how many miles.... how many hrs...
Job design
Job design:
Increase motivation by giving the individual several tasks to do, but same type of job; i.e. sweeping ---> then asked to mop and vacuum
Job enlargement (horizontal)
Job design:
Add jobs but on a vertical axis; some are higher, some are same, some are lower; sweep---> clean toliet ---> work study hrs... ; works very well
Job enrichment (vertical)
Process in which one group memeber influences the other group memebers in regard to the attainment of group goals
Leadership
When a task is assigned to a person that the ind does not want to do; can have the title, but does not like the process
Unsaught leadership
Ability to chance or influence individual thinking and bx
Leadership power
Leadership power:
Abiilty to influence/ change bx; possess access to desired rewards; i.e. in charge of scheduling, not just access to things, must be desired
Reward
Leadership power:
Punishment; control access to potential punishers; in charge of assigning crappy tasks
Coercive
Leadership power:
Power of liking or loyality; you go along with their wishes b/c you like them and you agree with them
Referent power
Leadership power:
Power based on reconigzed authority; title, place in organization, structure "team leader"
Legitimate power
Leadership power:
Knowledge about a skill; b/c they know what they are talkign about; skill, training, backround
Expert power
Model of interpersonal power:
Power base of reward and coercive can lead to driving effect/ mechanism of ______ and then _______
Contingency
Complience
Model of interpersonal power:
When reward and coersion are the power bases, the effect is complience based only on contingency; in other words, they are just going along with the power base to do the _____; don't have to really believe what you are doing
wishes
Model of interpersonal power:
WHen the power base is referent, the driving effect/ mechanism is ______ and responce is _____
Attraction
Identificaiton
Model of interpersonal power:
If Attraction and identificaiton is taken away, the task may also ____
go away
Model of interpersonal power:
Legitimate and expert power leads to the driving effect or mechanism of _____ and then ________
Credibiltiy
Internalization
Model of interpersonal power:
With credibilty and internalization, they really believe that what they are doing is _____
true/ right
Good leaders are born not made
Trait approach = not ture
Designed to explian how intellegancy is affected for leadership effectiveness
Cognitive resources theory
Cognitive resources theory will happen as long as: leader will tell them what to do
Directive
Cognitive resources theory will happen as long as: needs to be a _____ _____ environment b/c of limited cognitive capacity; stress takes up space
Low stress environment
Good leaders aren't born, they are made
Behavioral approach
Behavioral approach:
These type of leaders do not listen to the people; no vote
Autocratic
Behavioral approach: THese type of leaders listen to others and considers their votes
Democratic
Behavioral approach: Advantage to democratic is that it ____ job satisfaction, ____ commitment to decision; get happier people
Dis = ____ down pocess; can lead to ____ about competance of the leader
Increases, increases
slows, doubts
Behavioral approach: Autocratic advantage = increase ___ and ____
Dis = ____ employee satisfaction; don't get to hear opinions of others
Process and productivity
Reduces
Behavioral approach:
When the leader allows the people to do the task alone
Permissive
Behavioral approach: When the leader checks up on everyone
Directive
Behavioral approach:
Permissive adv = sence of _____ and allows leader to _____
Disadv = Workers will start to ______
Acomplisment; to other things
Goof off
Behavioral approach:
Adv for directive = ____; gets things done ____
Disadv = after a while, the group will believe that the leader things they are _____
faster, right
incompetant
Individual concerned with happyness, well being "concerderation dimention"
Person oriented
"indicating stucture"; concerned with job/ productivity/ rule/ regulation/ process minded
Task oriented
____ person and ____ task = best leaders
increase, increase
____ person and ___ task = worst leaders
high, low
How we can match individuals and the situations that they are in
Contingency theroy
Leaders who like the LPC; "I like them all"
High LPC leaders
Leaders who don't like the person or the LPC, or more than one
Low LPC leaders
Situational Control Variables:
HOw much the ind. likes the leader
Group atmosphere
Situational Control Variables:
Is the task routine or nonroutine?
Task structure
Situational Control Variables:
How much power does the leader have?
Positional power
According to the contigency theroy:
High control situations with good atmosphere with either high/strong; high/weak or low/strong task structure and leader power =
Task-oriented leader, Low LPC
According to the contigency theroy:
Good/low/weak, Poor/high/strong
Poor/high/weak
Poor/low/strong = Moderate control or =
Relationship-oriented leader high LPC
According to the contigency theroy:
Low control or Poor/low/weak =
Task-oriented leader, Low LPC
According to the contigency theroy:
In field study:
The good/high/strong and the poor/low/weak both showed vality in
Favortism and least favorable
Helping leaders make the most efficent decisions
Normative theory
Two things that must go into a decision begin effecive:
1.
2.
1. Being right
2. Efficent is needed
Leader makes decision alone with info he already has; i.e. orders same amount of condoms as last year + 25% increase
AI or autocratic one
Leader goes to get info from someone else; just facts; hten makes decision alone; i.e. Ask secretary how many were ordered last year and order alone
Autrocratic II; AII
Leader consults with one person at a time; makes decision alone; i.e. Ask each girl how many condoms they use and will need, then orders alone
Consultive I; CI
Leader talks to everyone, but as a group, then makes decision alone; i.e. Has a group discussion on how many will be needed; then makes decision alone
Consultive II, CII
When leader delegates a decision to someone else then backs up decision of that person; i.e. Tell Sparkle to go order condoms
Deligative I; DI
Diad; leader and one other person makes the decision; i.e. Sparkle and boss get together and make decision
Group I; GI
Leader plus two or more people makes decision together; i.e. Group gets together and makes the decision
Group II, GII
Leaders responce to subordinates bx
Attributional theory of leadership
Attributional theory of leadership is a function of two things:
1.
2.
What
Why
Example of _____
What: took a leave of absence
Why: she got sick
Attribution: external
Attributional theory of leadership
B/w what and why in the Attributional theory of leadership is
Informational cues of Kelley's covaration theory
Low effort, low commitment and lack of ability are all examples of
Internal causes
Improper equipment, unfair deadlines and illness of production team memebers are all examples of
External causes
B/w the Why and the Responce is
Percieved source of responsibility
Repremaid, Transfer and demotion are all responces to
Internal bx
Redesign job, person concern and training are all responces to
External bx
Multidimental theory:
Things they are required to do in the situation; i.e. she fulfills guys needs
Required bx
Multidimental theory:
Things that workers are actually doing; She actaully does
Actual bx
Multidimental theory:
What the subordinates what the leader to do; expects needs to be fulfilled
Preferred bx
Multidimental theory:
Required bx + actual bx + preferred bx =
Increase performance and job satisfaction
Multidimental theory
What we are suppost to do and what subordinate whats us to do; requirement chances as situation chances and what we want from a leader also changes; she works for a brothel
Situational characteristics
Multidimental theory:
What leader actually does; she is outgoing and fulfills requests
Leader characteristics
Multidimental theory:
What subordinates require from leader; where psych/nursing students will differ; She is a bunny; sex is a requirement
Member characteristics
Multidimental theory:
Situation, leader and member characteristics are ______ to the leader bx
Antecedents
Job characteristic model:
This explains the core job dimension of doing differnt things; i.e. differnt positions/ tricks
Skill variety
Job characteristic model:
THis explains the core job dimension of when you can see the finished product; i.e. seeing guy have needs fulfilled
Task identity
Job characteristic model:
This explains the impacting of lives of other poeple; does it all matter; i.e. Guy is happy, he received what he payed for
Task significance
Job characteristic model:
Skill varity, task identity and task significance leads to
Meaningfulness
Job characteristic model:
i.e. She, alone, is responsible for the outcome
Autonomy
Job characteristic model:
Autonomy leads to
Responsiblity
Job characteristic model:
Need to know if they are doing something right; if it is the right thing to do; i.e. "good job"
Feedback
Job characteristic model:
Feedback can lead to
Knowledge
Job characteristic model:
One of the most important factors to consider; how much can this person be motivated; sometimes, the full-potential just isn't enough to get the job done
Strength of employee's growth needs
Developing of a group:
Members of a group 1st get together; begin to establish norms and rules of group; norms (social rules for bx) and roles (positions)
Forming
Developing of a group:
Occurs when people don't like norms and rules
Storming
Developing of a group:
Settled on the norms; "ok" on the norms
norming
Developing of a group:
Performing at peak efficency
Performing
Developing of a group:
Not all groups do this; can do this if you reach the goal
Adjourning
Internal relationships b/w members of the group and guidelines to group bx
Structure of group
Not everyone has the same role
Role and role differneces
Role and role differneces:
Keep group on task; focused on the outcome
Task-oriented
Role and role differneces:
Relationship oriented; indv tries to keep things fun/ light/ pacifist
Person-oriented
Role and role differneces:
Only concerned about themselves
Self-oriented
Social rules
Norms
Norm that is written down somewhere
Explicit
Norm that is not written down, but understood
Implicit
Development of a norm:
We've always done it that way
Precedent over time
Development of a norm:
Told they had to do it this way
Explicit statment
Development of a norm:
i.e. class from before and now sit in the same chair
Carry over to another situation
Development of a norm:
Something that has happened
Critical event in the life of the organization
Conforming to norms:
Also known as private acceptance; we belive it is the right thing; our thinking has been changed
Informational influence
Conforming to norms:
Also known as public compliance; not wanting to stick out; do believe in it publically, but don't privately
Normative
Conforming to norms:
How close-nit/ bonded/ connected are members of the ingroup
Cohesiveness
Cohesiveness develops from:
a.
b.
c.
a. time spend together
b. Threat from another group
c. Through severe initiation
Conseqences of cohesion; members feel:
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. Commited
2. More attracted to the goal
3. Less absentism
4. productivity
When a leader has the support of the workers, cohesion is ____; but if leader doesn't have support, cohesion is ____ b/c they will be less productive
Good
Bad
Work teams as groups:
Some issues team is to resolve
Problem solving team
Work teams as groups:
innovation
Creative team
Work teams as groups:
Trying to execute a plan/ i.e. better plan for rush
tactical team
Triplett came up with this theory that states that we perform faster in groups
Social faciliation theroy
Zajonc social faciliation thoery:
1. Audences are ____ when we do things in front of other people
2. Arousal leads to your ____ responce
3. If you are better at something will _____, if worse will _______
Arousal
Dominate
better/worse
Why are audiences arousing?:
Concerned with how we are being evaluated; how we are judged
Evaluation apprehension
Why are audiences arousing?:
Just haveing them there is enough
Mere presence
Why are audiences arousing?:
Have limited cognitive capicity; focus on the task will get better b/c arousal from audiences causes us to do so
Distraction
Why are audiences arousing?:
All about how much the audience in teh mind of the performer; the greater they think about it, the greater the arousal
Psychological presence
Individuals do not work as hard in the group setting as they do alone
Socail loafing
Reasons for social loafing:
We have diffusion of responsibility; as size increases, each member's responsibility decreases
Social impact theory
Reasons for social loafing:
Individual effort can't be identified; "no one will know"
Lack of evaluation potential
Reasons for social loafing:
COnnection b/w VxIxE are not clear; i.e. If Dr. Wann doesn't like these people in my group, he won't give us a good grade
Collective effort model (CEM)
Reducing social loafing:
SHow what you did
Make contributions identifiable
Reducing social loafing:
Make the task more important; i.e. extra credit
Increase commitment to successful performance
Reducing social loafing: make task more important
Increase perceived value of task
Reducing social loafing:
Try not to have overlap of contibutions
Make each person's contribution unique
Reducing social loafing:
More the group feels cohesive, more effort
Increase group cohesion