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78 Cards in this Set

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I/O Psychology
Organizational
Historical Background
Scientific Management
Frederick Taylor applied scientific meth to job productivity (time & motion study) and nvolvs: a) scientifically analyzing jobs nto their component parts and then standardizing those parts; b) scientifically selecting, trng, nd placing wrkrs n jobs for whch thy r mently nd physcly suiteds c) fostrng coopertn btwn supvrs nd wrkrs to minimiz dvatn frm scient meth of wrkng; d) hvng mgrs nd wrkrs asum resp for thr own shar of thr wrk. Blef is emplye motv'd by econc slf-ntrst nd rgu tht $ is mst effctv motvtr. Advoc'd diffrntl piec-rte systm tht pays mre to peop hu xced std lvl of prfrmc.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Historical Background
Human Relations Movement
Plces grtr mphsis on wrkr needs, motvtns, nd r/s. Mprtnt fctr was rsrch cndctd by Elton Mayo nd colleags at Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Co. btwn 1927 nd 1932: orig ntnt ws to investg effcts of phys cond. (illumination, humidity, fatige) on job prfrmc. Rslts demo'd mprtnc of psych nd soc fctrs. "Relay room" xprmnts found prdctvty incrsd regrdls of wht chngs wre mde n lvl of illumintn. Imprvd prdctvty du to svrl fcts ncludng novlty of xprmntl situatn, wrkr's ntrst n xprmnt, nd spcl attn wrkrs rec'd as rsrch subjs. Mprvmnt in job prfrmnc rsltng frm prtcptn in rsrch stdy rfrd to HAWTHORNE EFFECT. Also INFORMAL WORK GROUP NORMS sgnfcntly mpct wrkr prdctvty. Prdctn abv nd blw nfrml norm rsltd n soc. presur to conform: wrkrs hu prdcd too mch calld "rate buster" wrkrs hu prdcd too lttl calld "chislers."
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Historical Background
Theory X versus Theory Y
Diff btwn sci. mgmnt nd humn rel apprchs rflctd n McGregor's (1960) distnctn btwn Theory X nd Theory Y mgrs. Mgr's vu of thr rol dpnds on mgr's asmptn abt mplye's chrctrstcs: Theory X mgrs blev mplyes dslk wrk nd avoid it whnvr poss. nd must b drcted nd cntrlld. Theory Y mgrs vu wrk as bng "as natrl as play" nd asum tht mplyes capbl of slf-cntrl nd slf-drctn. McGregor rgud lvl of mtvtn manfstd by wrkrs drctlt rel to mgr's blef, nd propses tht Theory Y prspctv mre lkly to lead to effctv org.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Motivation
Refers to phys nd ment nrgy tht prsn xrts to achev gol. Mtvtn a causl fctr n job prfrmnc. Mtvtn's r/s to prfrmnc is cmplx nd cn b xprsd by fllwng frmula: PERFORMANCE=f(ABILITY+MOTIVATION+ENVIRONMENT). Frmula mplis mtvtn alone ds nt lead to hi prfrmnc but tht sccssfl prfrmnc a fnctn of hi mtvtn, hi ablty, nd adequt envrmntl spprt.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Motivation
Need-Hierarchy Theory
Maslow rjctd dtrminsm of psychoanlytc nd bhvrstic apprchs nd thr mphsis on pathology. Need Hierarchy theory bsd lrgly on clincl observ. Maslow advoct'd study of hlthy "nrml" indv. Prfrnc rflctd nvestgtn of slf-actulztn, wch fcusd on contemp nd histr figrs hu Maslow ID'd as bng xcptnly prdctv nd scssfl.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Motivation
Need-Hierarchy Theory
Need Hierarchy proposes mtvtn the rslt of 5 bsic ntnctul needs: physiologcl, safety, belongingness, esteeem, nd slf-actualization. 5 needs r arrng'd n hieracrchy so tht ea need acts as mtvtr (i.e., "prepotent") only whn lwr-ordr needs hv bn satsfid. With xcptn of slf-actulztn (wch is nvr cmpltly satiated), a need no lngr srvs as mtvtr once it hs bn satsfid.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Motivation
Need-Hierarchy Theory- Research
Mixed rslts. Lttl spprt 4 asmptns tht there r 5 dstnct needs, tht needs r alwys actvt'd n ordr descr by Maslow, tht only 1 need cn b actvt'd at a tme, nd tht a need bcms lss mprtnt once it is satsf'd. Sum evdnc tht unflfll'd needs (esp physolgcl) do tk prcdnc ovr othr needs. Mprtnc of needs seems 2 b rel 2 job lvl. Mgrs, e.g., rate esteem nd slf-actulztn needs as most mprtnt, whle non-mgrs rate lwr-lvl needs as mre critcl.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Motivation
ERG Theory
Alderfer (1972) devl'd ERG Theory as altrntv 2 Maslow's apprch nd rducd 5 needs to 3: existence, relatedness, nd growth ("ERG"). Proposes tht peop cn b mtvtd by mre thn 1 need at a tme, tht actvtn of needs ds nt alwys progrss frm lwr- to hghr-lvl needs, nd tht peop may rgrss to a lwr lvl whn needs r frustrt'd. ERG theory genrlly rcv'd mre mpricl spprt thn need-hierarchy thry.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Motivation
Need for Achievement
McClelland (1965) usd TAT to ID needs tht undrly job mtvtn. Rslts of his rsrch suggs'd tht bsic needs r cultrlly dtrmn'd nd tht 3 needs oftn act as mtvtrs n wrk settngs: need 4 achvmnt, need 4 pwr, need 4 affiliatn. Of 3 nds, nd 4 achvmnt (nACH) hs bn nvstgt'd most. Cnsistnt fndng tht mplye w/high nACH uslly chuz tsks of modrte dffclty nd rsk, apprntly b/c sccss on thes tsks dpnds mre on ffrt thn on uncntrllbl fctrs. Thes mplyees prfr freq, cncrte fdbk, nd, altho thr mtvtn ds nt dpnd on $, thy vu monetry rwrds as a secur sorc of fdbk nd recgntn. Hi need achvrs tnd to b preoccup'd w/a tsk until it is finshd; nd b/c thy prfr 2 assum prsnl resp. rthr th delegt wrk, thy r lkly 2 mk gud slspeop nd entrepnrs bt nt gud mgrs. Studies hv found tht nACH hily relt'd 2 entreprenr'l sccss, w/crss-clturl nvstgtns ndictng tht a tndncy twrd hi nACH w/in a cltur prdsposes it to econmc grwth.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Motivation
Two-Factor Theory
Hertzberg's TWO-FACTOR Theory: Satifaction and Motivation. Dscrbs stsfctn nd dsstsfctn as indep. attituds. Usng a critcl-ncidnts technq that nvolvd hvng engrs nd acctnts think of specfc. wrk exprs tht cntr 2 thr stsfctn nd dsstsfctn, Hertzberg (1966) ID'd two bsic needs:
Lower lvl needs: hv lttl effct on job stsfctn nd mtvtn but prduc dsstsfctn whn thy r unfulflld. Fctrs tht stsfy lwr lvl needs r called hygiene (job context) nd nclud pay, benefts, co-wrkr r/s, supvrsn, job scurty, nd phys wrk envr. Higher lvl needs incrs job stsfctn nd mtvtn whn thy r fulflld but do nt caus dsstsfctn whn unfulflld. Fctrs tht stsfy hghr-lvl needs r rfrrd 2 as mtvtr (job content) fctrs nd nclud opprtys 4 resp., advncmnt, rcogntn, nd achvmnt.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Motivation
Two-Factor Theory
Mplctn of Hertzberg's thry 4 orgs is tht prvdng mplyes w/ adequt hygine fctrs wil nt incrs motvtn bt wil only keep thm frm bcmng dsstsf'd. Prvdng wrkrs w/adequt mtvtr fctrs wil nsur tht thy r both mtvt'd nd stsf'd. Thry nt fully spprtd by rsrch. Whl mtvtrs do appear 2 b mre potnt thn hygine fctrs n prducng mtvtn nd stsfctn, evdnc tht both fctrs affect stsfctn nd dsstsfctn. Herzberg's thry ctriczd as bng "method-bound" snc spprtv rslts oftn obtn'd only whn prtculr rsrch mthdlgy usd.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Motivation Two-Factor Theory
Job Enrichment
Anthr mprtnt contr of Herzberg. A way of incrsng wrkr mtvtn. A meth of job redesgn tht nvolvs cmbng svrl jobs nto lrgr job so tht mplye prfrms meningful unit of wrk nd givn grtr resp, fredom, autnmy, nd cntrl. Sum of earlst applctns of job enrchmnt wer to typst nd janitrl postns. Rsrch hs producd mx'd rslts but stdes sugg tht its strngst mpct is on jpb stsfctn. Evdnc tht effcts of job enrchmnt vary frm indv 2 indv: Enrchmnt usully welcmd by yngr nd wel educ mplyes nd mplyes hi in nACH, but it cn actully elicit anxty nd frstrtn n mplyes w/low nACH.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Motivation Two-Factor Theory
Job Enrichment v. Enlragement
Not 2 b cnfusd w/ job enrchmnt whch nvolvs incrsng job's vrtcl job loding by gvng mplyee mre hghr-lvl tsks, whl job enlargement ntails incrsng job's hrzntl loding by incrsng # nd varity of tsks. Altho job nlrgmnt cn rduc bordom, job nrchmnt not only rducs bordom but also hs pos mpct on stsfctn nd mtvtn.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Motivation Two-Factor Theory
Job Characteristics Model
Descrbs job n trms of 5 core dimensns tht have impct on 3 "crtical psychological states:" a) Three of core dimensns, skill variety, task identity, and task significance, contribute to workers' experienced meaningfulness of the job; b) Autonomy, the fourth core dimension, produces feelings of personal responsibility and accoutability; Perfromance Feedback, the fifth dimension, provides wrkrs w/knowledge abt their performance.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Motivation Two-Factor Theory
Job Characteristics Model
The 3 critical psychological states affect mtvtn, qlty of wrk prfrmnc, stafctn, absntsm, nd trnovr. Whn util the joc charactrstc mdl, the dimnsns of a job r ID'd w/ the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS), wch ylds a "mtvtng potntl scor" nd provds the info needed to mk job redsgn dcsns. Rsrch found tht the mdl seems to apply best to peop hi n "growth need strength" (peop hu hv a hi need for growth nd devlpmnt) nd tht all 5 core dmnsns contr to mtvtn but tht prfrmnc fdbck is the singl-most mprtnt fctr.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Motivation
Goal-Setting Theory
Locke (1968): mplyes mtvtd 2 achv gols thy hv conscusly accptd nd r cmmitt'd to. Whl thry ds not vu prtcptn n gol-sttng as cucial, it ds sugg tht it is neccsry whnvr mplyes r not lkly to accpt assgnd gols. Gol-Sttng thry also predcts tht mdrtly diff gols (ones tht hv 50% chnc of bng accmplsh'd) nd specfc gols wil prduc hghr lvls of prfrmnc thn ez, gnrl, or ambiguos gols nd tht prvdng mplyes w/fdbck abt thr prfrmnc also cucial 4 nsurng max prdctvty. Rsrch gnrlly founf tht predctns of gol-sttng thry r not mdrt'd n cnsistnt way by ag, gndr, or cltur. Howvr, thy may b affctd by crtn othr fctrs. E.G., slf-set gols r assoct'd w/grtr gol cmmitmnt 4 peop w/hi nACH, whl assgnd gols prduc grtr cmmitmnt 4 peop w/low nACH. Also evidnc tht whn wrkrs r allwd 2 prticpt n sttng thr gols, gols r mre diff thn ones supvr wud hv set alone.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Motivation
Equity Theory
Adams (1963) mphszs impct of soc cmparsn on mtvtn nd propses tht mplyes cmpre rtio of thr nputs (skils, expr, educ, etc) to outcms (fincl nd non-fincl rwrds) to nputs/outcm rtio of othrs hu r prfrmng simlar jobs. Wn mplyes prcv rtio 2 b abt = , thy r cmfrtbl nd stsfyd w/situatn nd attmpt to maintn status quo. Whn mplye blev thr outpt/outcm rtio differ frm thos of cmparbl othrs - i.e., whn thy prcv thy r undr- or ovrpd - expr a state of nequity nd try to mk situatn mre equitbl by altrng thr npts nd/or outcms, ratnlzng nequity, chngng cmparisn prson, or lvng situatn. Rsrch found tht undrpymnt hs grtr advrs mpct thn ovrpymnt on mplyee behvrs.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Motivation
Expectancy (VIE) Theory
Mplyee wil wrk hrd if: 1) blevs tht hi ffrt wil lead 2 scssfl tsk prfrmnc (high expectancy); 2) blevs tht scssfl prfrmnc wil lead 2 rwrds (high instumentality); nd 3) vus rwrd as dsirabl (positive valence). Mplye's mtvtn is multiplicative fnctn of xpctncy, nstrumntlty, nd valnc. Altho xpctncy thry hs bn found usfl 4 predctng job stsfctn, occuptnl choice, nd job ffrt, its predctns r sumtmes limt'd b/c wrkrs hv nsuffcnt nfo or bhv n irratnl ways.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Motivation
Social Cognitve Theory (SCT)
Bandura (1986, 87) most recnt vrsn of socl lrng thry nd mphszs slf-rgultn of bhvrs nd propses tht slf-rgultn nvolvs 4 processes: Goal Setting- indv stblshs prsnl gols tht reprsnt a dsir'd bhvrl state. Ntur of ths gols nfluncd by indv's past exprsnd slf-ffcacy blefs. Self-Observation - aftr sttng gols, indv mnitors gol-related bhvrs. Self-Evaluation - indv uses nfo obtn'd durng slf-obsrvtn 2 cmpare curr behvrs 2 bhvr gols. Self-Reaction - Slf eval rslys n affctv ng cgntv reactns. Neg slf-reactn ocurs whn currnt bhvrs fall shrt of bhvr gols. this neg dscrpncy causes dsstsfctn nd mtvts indv to incrs ffrt, altr prfrmnc stratges, mdfy gols, or abandn actvty. Indv's choice of an actn bsed on svrl fctrs ncludng slf-ffcacy blefs nd attrbutns for the dscrpncy. Pos. slf reactn ocurs whn curr nhvrs r cnsistnt w/bhvrl gols nd leads 2 stsfctn, incrsd slf-ffcacy, nd settng of hghr stndrds nd gols n futr.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Definitions & Determinants of Job Satisfaction
Job Satsfctn rfrs 2 mplye's cogntv, affctv, nd evalutv reactns 2 job. Ovr pst svrl decdes, survys hv cnsistnly found tht, whn wrkrs r askd abt thr ovral lvl of job stsfctn, 80-90% say thy r reltvly stsfyd. Stude on dtrmints of job stsfctn hv lokd at svrl wrkr nd job chrctristcs.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Definitions & Determinants of Job Satisfaction - Disposition
Evdnc tht job stsfctn is ndurng dspostn. Staw & Ross (1985) found tht stsfctn lvls of ovr 5000 men remaind reltvly stbl ovr 5yr priod dspte chngs n occuptns nd mplyrs. N addtn, studes of idntcl nd frtrnl twns razd aprt sgg a gentc contr to job stsfctn.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Definitions & Determinants of Job Satisfaction - Age
Most studes hv fnd pos lnear r/s btwn age nd job stsfctn. Hwevr sum rsrch sugg tht 4 sum grps of wrkrs, may b a nonlnear r/s. E.G., amng non-suprvsry mplyes, evdnc tht job stsfctn peaks n erly wrk yrs, dcrs durng mddl ag, nd thn incrs agn n ltr yrs.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Definitions & Determinants of Job Satisfaction - Occupational Level
Stsfctn incrs as occuptnl lvl incrs. Wht-cllr wrkrs r mre stsfyd thn Blu-cllr wrks, nd mgrs r mre stsfyd thn non-mgrs.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Definitions & Determinants of Job Satisfaction - Race
At all occuptnl lvls, mbrs of mnrty grps r twc as lkly as mbrs of mjrty grp 2 xprss dsstsfctn w/thr jobs
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Definitions & Determinants of Job Satisfaction - Gender
Whl sm studes hv fnd wmen 2 b mre dsstsfyd thn men, othrs hv fnd th oppsit 2 b tru or tht men nd wmn hv simlr lvls of stsfctn. Sum evdnc tht, whn wmn, expr lwr stsfctn, it's b/c thy feel xploitd by thr jobs, r mployd n lwr-lvl jobs, nd/or r bng pd lss thn men, evn tho thy r prfrmng cmparble wrk.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Definitions & Determinants of Job Satisfaction - Life Satsfaction
Peop hu r mre stsfyd w/life n gnrl also tnd 2 b mre stsfyd w/thr wrk.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Job Factors
Ntur of job an mprtnt dtrmint of job stsfctn. N stdy of autowrkr, Kornhauser (1965) found use of one's skls nd abltys 2 b most mprtnt cntrbtr 2 bth job stsfctn nd mntl hlth, nd this fndng hs sinc bn cnfrmd by svrl nvstgtrs. O'Brien (1982) found skl utlztn 2 b bttr prdctr of jb stsfctn thn othr jb fctrs 4 wrkrs n a vrity of occptns ncludng profssnl, admnstrtv, clrcl, nd sales. Rslts of mpct of pay on stsfctn hv bn ncnsistnt: sum sugg pay a key dtrmnt of jb stsfctn 4 bth blu- nd wht cllr wrkrs, whl othrs ndicat tht pay lss mprtnt thn ntrstng wrk, jb scurty, ntrprsnl r/s, nd othr fctrs. Also evdnc tht mplye's prcptn tht thy r bng trtd frly nd equtbly tht is most hghly prdctv of stsfctn.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Effects of Job Satisfaction
Jb stsfctn nd dsstsfctn lnkd 2 # of cnsquncs: Performance - r/s btwn jb stsfctn nd pfrmnc tradtnly dscrb'd as postv but weak. Vroom (1964 found n avrg corrltn of .14 btwn stsfctn nd prfrmnc, nd subsqunt meta-analyses rprt smlr coeffcnts. N rcnt meta-analyses Judge (2001) obtnd avrg corrltn coeffcnt of .30 aftr ststclly cntrllng effcts of smplng nd meas. error. Turnover, Absenteeism, and Tardiness - jb dsstsfctn lnkd 2 hi rts of trnovr, absntesm, nd trdnss. Strngst r/s btwn stsfctn nd trnvr, w/avrg corrltn bng abt -.40. Hwvr, the hghr unmplymnt rts, the weaker r/s btwn dsstsfctn nd trnvr. Phys and Mntl Hlth - for phys hlth, jb dsstsfctn lnkd 2 fatgue, hedchs, nd loss of appetite as wel as illnss such as ulcers, rthrits, hi bld prssur, etoh nd drg use, strks, nd hrt attcks. Wrk stsfctn bttr prdctr of lngvty thn phys hlth or tbcco use. Mntl hlth correl of jb dsstsfctn nclud anxty, wrry, tnsn, mpared soc r/s, nd irrtblty.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Organizational Commitment
Rfrs 2 stngth of mplye's ID w/org. Xprts distng btwn 2 typs of org. cmmtmnt: AFFECTIVE COMM rfrs 2 wrkr's dsre 2 stay w/compny (lylty) nd cncrn 4 cmpn's welfr. CONTINUANCE COMM rfrs 2 wrkr's ntentn 2 stay w/cmpny b/c cnnt affrd 2 lv. Jb chrctrstcs tht ncres org commtmnt nclud hi dgre of autnmy nd resp, ntrstng wrk, nd jb scurty. Commtmnt seems 2 hv minml effcts on prdctvty. Hi dgre of affctv cmmtmnt rltd 2 hghr lvls of mtvtn nd stsfctn, lwr rts of absntsm, nd trnvr, nd grtr wllngnss 2 mk scrfcs 4 cmpny.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Leadership in Organizations
Leader Characteristics
Behavioral Dimensions: rsrch ID'd 2 bsic nd indep dimnsns of ldrshp bhvr: CONSIDERATION rfrs 2 amt of wrmth, cncrn, rapport, nd spprt dsplacd by ldr. Ldrs hi n cnsdrtn r prsn orentd. INITIATING STRUCTURE rfrs 2 xtnt 2 wch ldr dfins, drects, nd strcturs own rol nd the rols of subordnts. Ldrs hi n intatng strctur r tsk orentd. Altho consdratn assoc w/grtr subordnt stsfctn, r/s btwn cnsdratn, intatng strctur, nd job atituds nd prfrmnc r cmplx: sum studes sugg tht intatng strctur mre mprtnt 4 prdctvty nd stsfctn whn tsks r ambguos; othrs ndct tht effctv ldrshp reqs hi lvls of cnsdrtn nd intatng strctur.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Leadership in Organizations
Leader Characteristics
Personality Traits: Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) cnclud tht sccssfl ldrs xhbit fllwng chrctrstcs: driv, hnsty, ntgrty, ldrshp mtvtn, slf-cnfdnc, hi lvls of cog ablty, knwldg of businss, flxblty, nd creatvty.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Leadership in Organizations
Leader Characteristics
Gender: meta-anal of mprcl rsrch found tht men nd wmn do nt diff n trms of consdrtn or intatng strctur. Hwvr, wmn ldrs r mre lkly 2 mk use of democrtc (particptv) dcsn-mkng styl.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Leadership in Organizations
Theories and Models
Contingency Theory - propses ldrshp effctvnss rslt of nteractn btwn ldr's styl nd favrblnss of situatn: Ldr's Styl cnsidrd 2 b fixed nd assesd w/Fiedler's Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale: hi LPC ldr (1 hu evals a lpc n fvrbl ways) is r/s-oriented nd cncrnd w/maintng spprtv nd trustng r/s w/subordnts. Low LPC ldr (1 hu evals lpc unfvrbly) is tsk-oriented nd most nterstd n gol achvmnt.
Situational Favorableness rfrs 2 amt of nflunc a ldr has. It is dtrmnd by a) natur of ldrs r/s w/subordnts; b) ntur of tsk (mre hghly strcturd the tsk, the grtr ldr's nflunc); nd c) ldr's positn of pwr (grtr the numbr of rwrds the ldr cn use, the mre nflunc ldr has).
The r/s btwn ldrs styl nd the fvorblnss of situatn is curvilinear: low LPC r most effctv whn situatn provds thm w/eithr vry littl or grt deal of nflunc, whl hi LPC ldrs r most effctv n situatns tht allw modrte lvls of nflunc.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Leadership in Organizations
Theories and Models
Path-Goal Theory: House (1971) proposes tht an effctv ldr is 1 hu cn hlp carv path 4 subordnts tht allows thm 2 fulfll prsnl gols thru achvmnt of grup nd org gols. Ldr's primry functns r a) clarfyng gols nd path tht wil lead 2 thr achvmnt nd b) provdng rwrds 2 subordnts thru spprt nd attn 2 thr needs. Ldr cn adpt eithr dirctv, spprtv, prtcptv, or achvmnt-orientd ldrshp styl 2 prfrm thes fnctns, w/approprt styl depndng on crtn chrctrstcs of mploye (e.g., ablty lvls, locus of cntrl) nd wrk envr (e.g., tsk strctur, authrty systm). E.G., whn wrkrs hghly exprc'd nd tsk vry diffclt, achvmnt-oriented styl is optml.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Leadership in Organizations
Leader Characteristics
Situational Leadership: Hersey and Blanchard (1974) model distng btwn 4 ldrshp styls tht r ea chrctrzd by diff comb of tsk- nd r/s-orientn: TELLING - high tsk, low r/s styl. SELLING - Hi tsk, hi r/s styl. PARTICIPATING - low tsk, hi r/s styl. DELEGATING - low tsk, low r/s styl. To maxmz mploye's stsfctn nd prfrmnc, selctn of ldrshp styl s/b basd on subordnt's JOB MATURITY, wch dtrmnd by comb of ablty nd wilngnss 2 accpt resp: a telling ldr most effctv 4 mployes low in ablty nd wilngnss; a selling ldr 4 mployes w/low ablty nd hi wilngnss; a participatng ldr 4 mployes w/hi ablty nd low wilngness; delegating ldr 4 mployes hi n both ablty nd wilngnss.
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Leadership in Organizations
Leader Characteristics
Vroom-Yetton-Jago Normative (Decision-Making) Model: focuses on ldr's dcsn-mkg styl nd distng btwn 5 bsic dcsn stratgs: AI (Autocratc) - ldr mks dcns alone. AII (Autocratic)- ldr seeks nput frm mployes but thn mks final dcsn alone. CI (Consultative)- ldr xplns prob 2 mployes on 1:1 bsis but thn ldr's dcsn may or may nt rflct nput frm mployes. CII (Consultative)- ldr xplns prob 2 mplyes as grup by ldr's dcsn may or may nt rflct nput frm mployes. G (Group)- ldr xplns prob 2 mployes as a grup, nd thn the grup mks finl dcsn. The dcsn-mkg mdl the ldr chuzs s/b approp 2 situatn. To hlp ldrs ID optml stratg, modl provds "dcsn tree" tht poses 8 questns rel 2 ntur of situatn (e.g., is a hi-qlty dcsn req'd?; how mprtnt is mplye cmmtmnt 2 dcsn?; is prob well strcturd?).
Organizational
Job Satisfaction and Leadership in Organizations
Leader Characteristics
Transformational Leaders - chrctrzd by ablty to recgnz need 4 chng, to creat visn tht gides tht chng, nd 2 accmpl chng effctvly. Transfrmtnl ldrs seek 2 mpwr mplyes, raz thr cnsciounss thru appeals to mralty nd justc, nd nspir mplyes by prvdng visn nd sens of misson. Transfrmtnl ldrs use FRAMING, wch nvolvs dfing org's gols nd actvtes n ways tht mk gols mre meangfl. Trnsfrmtnl ldrs contrstd 2 transactnl ldrs, hu focus mre on stblty thn chng, mphsz bhvrs rel 2 nrml wrk-rltd actvtes, nd rely on rwrds nd punshmnts nd appeals to slf-nterst 2 motvt subordnts.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Work Teams and Groups
Group Norms
Norms r std ruls of cndct tht maintn unfrmty of bhvr amng grp mbrs. Svrl condtns contr 2 mbrs' cnformty to Grp Nrms: Task Demands- cnfrmty 2 grp nrms grtr n ambguous situatns, hghly cmplx situatns, nd situatns nvolvng prob tht hs no solutn. Cnfrmty also hi whn grp mbrs mst wrk 2gthr 2 achv cmmn gol. Group Characteristics- cnfrmty ncreses as cnsnsus of grp mbrs ncreses. Presnc of sngl dissentr cn signfcntly lwr cnfrmty. Hi dgre of cnfrmty also lkly whn nrms r nforcd thru clse supvr nd whn grp mbrs r prcvd as beng hghly credbl nd trstwrthy. Participation in Defining Norms- Mbrs also cnfrm mre 2 grp nrms whn thy hv hlpd dfin thos nrms. By prtcptng n thr devlpmnt of nrms, mbrs undrstnd nrms bttr, feel mre ego-nvolvd w/them, nd r mre lkly 2 prcv nrms as equtbl. Ordnrly, prsn hu violats grp nrms fcd w/dsapprvl or rjctn, altho prsn hu gaind prestig, status, nd rspct by functng cmpetntly n grp, may b allwd 2 occasnly violat nrms b/c prsn has accumltd IDIOSYNCRASY CREDITS.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Work Teams and Groups
Group Cohesiveness
Rfrs 2 grp's solidrty. Fctrs tht nflunc cohsvnss nclud: Group Size- optml grp sz dpnds on ntur of tsk, but n gnrl, grps r most cohsv (and mst effctv) whn thy nclud 5-10 mbrs. Homgeneity- grps huz mbrs r simlr n trms of econmic status, ntersts, valus, attuds, abltys, nd prsnlty chrctrstcs r mre lkly 2 b cohsv. Goals- cohsvnss maxmzd whn mbrs prtcpt n gol- nd nrm-settng nd whn mbrs must dpnd on 1 anthr 2 achv cmmn gol. Cohsvnss also ncresd whn mbrs belev tht prtcptn n grp wil hlp thm achv thr own prsnl gols nd whn grp hs prev. hx of sccssfl gol achvmnt.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Work Teams and Groups
Group Cohesiveness
Hi cohsvnss lnkd 2 mre freq communictn amg grp mbrs, rducd tnsn nd anxty, grtr prtcptn, rducd cnflct, lwr rts of trnvr, nd hghr lvls of stsfctn, cmmtmnt, ntrprsnl attrctn, nd cnfrmty. As far as Prdctvty, effcts of cohsvnss r cmplx: hi cohsvnss assoc w/grtr cnsistncy n prdctvty, but whthr ths rslts n hi or low prfrmnc dpnds on ntur of th nrms. Whn cohsvnss is low, grp nrms hv lss mpct so tht, rgrdlss of nrms, grp prdctvty usully n modrt rang.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Work Teams and Groups
Types of Group Tasks
Additive- indv cntrbutns of grpmbrs r added 2ghtr 2 form grp prdct. Compensatory- nputs of grp mbrs r avrgd 2gthr 2 creat sngl prdct. Disjunctive- grp mbrs must selct solutn or dcsn offrd by 1 of grp mbrs (ideally, tht of bst mbr). Conjunctive- grp's ovral prfrmnc limtd by tht of worst-prfrmng mbr. In trms of prdctvty, grp prfrmnc suprior 2 indv prfrmnc 4 additv nd cmpnstry tsks; equl 2 prfrmnc of bst mbr on dsjnctv tsks; nd eql 2 prfrmnc of wrst mbr on cnjnctv tsks.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Work Teams and Groups
Stages in Group Development
Forming- mbrs bcme acqntd nd attmpt 2 est "ground ruls." Storming- chrctrzd by cnflct as grp mbrs rsist cntl of grp ldr(s). Norming- bgns whn grp mbrs accpt grp, est ground ruls nd indv rols withn grp, devlp cls r/s w/ea othr, nd bgn 2 wrk 2gthr 2 achv grp gols. Performing- mbrs hv accptd ea othr's strgnths nd weknsses, r clear abt own rols, nd r fcusd on "gttng jb dn." Adjourning- grp disbnds b/c gols hv bn met or b/c grp mbrs hv lft.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Work Teams and Groups
Effects of Groups on Indv.
Social Loafing potntl neg outcm of grp prtcptn nd most lkly 2 ocur whn grp tsk is additv. It ocurs whn indv xrts lss ffrt as a grp mbr thn he wud hv xrtd if wrkng alon. Most lkly 2 ocur whn mbrs know thr ffrt (or lck of ffrt) wil nt b rcgnzd or belev tht outcms do nt dpnd on thr ffrt. Chnc of soc lofng ncreses as grp sz ncreses. Soc lofng cn b reducd by mkng sur tht indv contrbtns 2 grp r identfbl nd by rwrdng ea indv on bsis of thr contrbtn. Social facilitation ocurs whn mere presnc of othrs ncreses tsk prfrmnc nd mre lkly 2 ocur whn tsk is smpl or wel-lrnd. Social inhibition ocurs whn presnc of othrs dcrses prfrmnc nd mre lkly whn tsk is cmplx or nu (unlrnd).
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Work Teams and Groups
Group Motivation & Prodctvty
Goal-Settng thry also appls 2 mtvtn nd prdctvty. Specfc, dffclt grp gols r mre effctv thn ambguos "do your bst" gols. Rsrch cmparng mpct of indv vrsus grp gols on grp prdctvty hs nt nb ntrly cnsistnt. N gnrl, stdes hv fnd tht 4 teams wrkng on ntrdpndnt tsks, Group Goals r mre effctv thn indv gols nd a combntn of th 2 may b no mre effctv thn grp gols alon. Anthr fctr tht nfluncs mtvtn of team mbrs is rwrds. Group Rewards r catgrzd as eithr cooprtv or cmpetitv. Cooprtv grp rwrds r distrbutd eqully 2 all grp mbrs, whl competitv grp rwrds r distrbutd 2 grp mbrs bsed on indv prfrmnc. Most effctv dpnds on dgre of tsk intrdpndnc: whn intrdpndnc is hi, coop rwrd systm most effctv but whn intrdpndnc is low, a competve systm leads 2 grtr mtvtn nd prdctvty. Whl grp hetrognty leads 2 grtr cohsvnss nd bttr prfrmnc on smpl tsks, grp hetrognty oftn assoc w/grtr creatvty nd bttr dcsn-mkng.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Work Teams and Groups
Communication Networks
Pattrn of commnctn btwn grp mbrs or btwn postns or depts n org. Commnctn ntwrks r catgrzd as Centralized or Decntralized: Cntrlzd ntwrks (such as the wheel, the Y, nd the chain), all comminctn must pass thru a cntrl prsn or positn. N Decntrlzd ntwrks (e.g., the circle n all channel), info flws mre freely bwtn mbrs w/o gong 2 a cntrl prsn. Altho cntrlzd ntwrks r mre efficnt 4 smpl tsks, dcntrlzd ntwrks r bttr 4 cmplx tsks b/c thy provid grtr flxblty nd xchng of ideas. Whl cntrl prsn is lkly 2 b stsfyd n cntrlzd ntwrk, ovral stsfctn tnds 2 b hghr whn the ntwrk is dcntrlzd.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Decision-Making in Orgs
Indv. Decision-Making
Two models of Indv Decision-Making: Rational-economic- proposes that dcsn-mkrs maxmz benfts by systmtcly srchng 4 nd cnsdrng al pssbl altrntvs b4 selctng optml 1. Model asums tht a dcsn-mkr hs cmplet info abt all pssbl altrntvs nd abl 2 procss info in accurat, unbiased way. Bounded rationality (administrative)- proposes tht limtd capbltys, time, nd rsourcs nd othr cnstrnts forc dcsn-mkrs 2 b lss thn totlly ratnl. Conqntly, dcsn-mkrs oftn satisfice rthr thn optmz: thy cnsdr solutns as thy bcme avail nd thn selct frst solutn tht meets minmum crtria of accptblty.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Decision-Making in Orgs
Potential Liabilities of Group Decision-Making
N sum cases, grp dcsns r bttr thn dcsns mad by indvs. E.G., grp dcsns tnd 2 b suprior whn grps r cmposd of indvs w/hetrogenous skils nd whn tsk is cmplx. Hwvr, 1 fctr tht advrsly affcrs grp dcsns is GROUPTHINK, descrbd by Janis as a suspnsn of crticl thnkng tht cn ocur n hghly cohsv grps, esp whn ldr is hghly dirctv nd grp is wrkng undr cndtns of hi strss. Grps ngagng in grpthnk r chrctrzd by a) an illusn of invulnrblty nd unanmity; b) cllctv ratnliztn; c) unquestnd moralty; d) xcssve neg sterotypng; e) strng prssur 2 cnform; f) slf-appntd "mindguards;" nd g) slf-cnsorshp of dissntng vus. Grp ldr cn reduc lklyhood of grpthnk by ncourgng skeptcsm nd dissnt amg grp mbrs, appointg somone 2 play dvl's advct, bringng n outsid opinuns, reducng tme prssurs 2 rech a solutn, nd not statng own opinun prior 2 a grp disc.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Decision-Making in Orgs
Potential Liabilities of Group Decision-Making
Grp dcsn-mkng cn also b affctd by Group Polarization, wch is th tndncy 4 grps 2 mk dcsns tht r mre xtrem n dirctn of th vus initlly hld by grp mbrs thn dcsns tht wud hv bn genratd by indv mbrs alon. Drp plrztn hs bn attrbutd 2 svrl fctrs ncludng th effcts of soc cmparsn, mtual reinfrcmnt, nd diffusn of respnsblty. (a shft n dirctn of rskinss is also knwn as th Risky Shift Phenomenon).
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Decision-Making in Orgs
Methods of Improving Group Decision-Making
Svrl tchnqs hv bn devlpd 2 mprov qlty of grp dcsns. Osborn (1957) rgud tht grp dcsn-mkng cn b nhncd w/Brainstorming, wch nvolvs a) ncouragng grp mbrs 2 vrbalz all ideas tht come 2 mnd rgrdlss of hw absurd thy may seem nd b) requrng mbrs 2 rfran frm evalutng ea othr's idea untl aftr brnstrmng sessn ovr. Rsrch on brnstrmng hs not bn spprtv: peopl brnstrmng alon prduc mre nd bttr ideas n th sme amt of tme thn sme # of peop brnstrmng as a grp. Effctvnss of grp brnstrmng improvd whn grp mbrs r heterognus n trms of skls, know nd feel cmfrtbl w/ea othr, nd hv bn adequtl trnd n brnstrmng.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Decision-Making in Orgs
Conflict in Organizations
Cnflct n orgs cn ntrfere w/commnctn nd prfrmnc nd hv othr neg cnsquncs. Hwvr, also assoc w/svrl benfts; nd currnt thnkng abt cnflct is tht functnl cnflct cn lead 2 imprvd prdctvty by ncresng wrkr mtvtn, creatvty, nd prob-slvng nd fostrng postv chng. Frml mthds of cnflct rslutn nclud bargaining, mediation, nd arbitration.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Decision-Making in Orgs
Conflict in Organizations - Bargaining
Bargning (negotiatn) prbly most cmmn mthd 4 rslvng cnflct n orgs. Whn usng tchnq, opposng sids n disput xchng offrs, countroffrs, nd cncssns ethr dirctly or thru rprsntvs. Prtcpnts ovral vu of bargning procss: bragning lss lkly 2 b effctv whn any of partys rgrd it as "win-lose" situatn n wch gains by 1 prty r countrd by losses 4 anthr. Bargning lkly 2 hv sccssfl outcm whn all prtys vu it as "win-win" situatn wch benfts 4 bth sids cn b maxmzd.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Decision-Making in Orgs
Conflict in Organizations - Mediation
Nutral 3rd prty uses varius tactics 2 fciltat vluntry aggrmnt btwn dsputnts. altho mediatr cn offr specfc accmmdtns, he/she hs no frml pwr nd cnnot mpoz sttlmnt on prtys. Nsted, mediatr's rol is 2 clrfy issus undrlyng cnflct nd opn lins of cmmnctn. Mediatn procss nvolvs 3 bsic phzs: setng stg (clrfyng grnd ruls nd cllctng info); prob-slvng (postng issus nd genrtng altrntvs); nd achvng wrkbl aggrmnt (prssurng prtys 2 rech an aggrmnt).
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Decision-Making in Orgs
Conflict in Organizations - Arbitration
Arbitor hs mre authrty thn mdiatr. Svrl typs of arbtrtn. N bindng, 2 sids agre n advnc 2 acpt sttlmnt rcommnd by arbitor, whl volntry arbtrtn, prtys agre only 2 arbtrtn prcss. N cnvntnl arbtrtn, arbtor free 2 chuz any sttlmnt solutn, but n final arbtrtn, arbitor must selct 1 of the final offr md by dsputnts.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Organizational Development
OD refrs 2: set of bhvrl scienc-bsed theories, valus, stratgys, nd tchnqs aimed at pland chng of orgnznl wrk setng 4 purpos nhncng indv dev nd mprovng orgnztnl prfrmnc, thru altrtn of orgnztnl mbrs' on-th-job bhvrs. Varius OD intrvntns share fllwng chrctrstcs: 1) adptn of macro (org-wide)prspctv; 2) ncorprtn of sustms apprch nd humnstc philsophy; 3) cmmitmnt nd spprt of top mgmnt; 4) fcus on indvs nd soc r/s; 5) use of chng-agnt (catalyst) hu gides chng procss; nd 6) a vu of OD as ongng nd lng-trm procss. OD ntrvntns dsgnd 2 mprov prdctvty Also nclud respnsvty 2 custmrs, mprovng cmpny's competv positn, nd nhncng mploye moral. Rsrch nvestgtng mpct of OD sugg tht it duz hv benfcl effcts, altho findngs r far frm cnsistnt. Aftr rvuing 49 studys cnclusn is benfts of OD r strngr 4 orgnztnl functng (profit) thn 4 indv functng (job stsfctn).
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Models of Planned Change
Lewin's Force Field Analysis
Forc fld anal of plannd chng - orgs cntinullyrespnd 2 forcs tht ethr prmote or rsist chng. Forcs tht prmote chng r calld "drvng frcs" nd nclud prssur 4 chng frm mgmnt nd nu competitn. Frcs tht rsist chng r "rstraning frcs" nd nclud mploye hostlty nd apthy nd mlfuctning equip. Whn drvng nd restrng frcs r balncd, org maintns status quo. Hwvr, whn drvng frcs bcom strngr thn restrng frcs, chng lkly 2 ocur. Lewin descrbs orgznl chng procss n trms of 3 stgs: Unfreezing ocurs whn need 4 chng is rcgnzd nd steps r tkn 2 mk mbrs of org rcptv 2 chng; b) Chngng nvolvs movng org n nu dirctn nd ncluds hlpng mployes acqir nu bhvrs, valus, nd atituds; c) Refrezng ntails spprtng chngs tht hv bn mde 2 hlp stblz orgs nu state of eqlbrium.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Models of Planned Change
Nadler's Systems Model
propses tht effctv orgnztnl chng requirs addrssng 4 fctrs: a) nfrml orgnztnl elemnts (cmmnictn pttrns, ldrshp); frml orgnztnl elemnts (frml strcturs nd procsses); c)indv chrctrstcs of mployes nd mngrl tsks. Chng n any 1 fctr caus chng in othr fctrs.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Specific OD Interventions
Quality of Work Life Programs
QWL prgrms r dsgnd 2 humanz wrk nd wrk envrmnt. Mprtnt aspct of QWL is its mphsis on mploye mprwrmnt, or "procss of nblng wrkrs 2 set own gols, mk dcsns, nd solv probs withn thr sphere of rspnsblty nd authrty" QWL ntrvntns hv tradtnlly focsd on lwr-lvl mployes nd thy mphsz wrkr prtcptn nd nvolvmnt at all stgs of dcsn-mkng. Qlty crcls (QC) intially populr n Japan. QC cnsists of small vluntry grp of mplyes hu wrk 2gthr on prtculr job nd meet rgulrly 2 disc job-rltd probs nd solutns. Rprsntvs of QC then prsnt thr solutns to mgmnt. QC hv postv mpct on mploye atituds but tht thr effcts on job prfrmnc r equvocal.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Specific OD Interventions
Self-Management Work Teams
SMWTs r autnomus wrk grps huz mbrs r mde up of mployes hu wrk 2gthr as unit. Hwvr, thr functn not ust 2 mk suggtns 2 mgmnt but 2 mk hirng, bdgt nd othr dcsns tht wer prevsly mde bt mgrs. Ldrshp n SMWTs usully rotat frm 1 team mbr 2 anthr, nd ldr acts as facltatr. 2 maxmz qulty of dcsns mde by smwts, mbrs may b trnd n "teamthink" (oppsit of grpthnk) wch desgnd 2 ncurag divrgnt vus, discsn of doubts, nd rcgntn of the ethicl cnsqncs of dcsns.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Specific OD Interventions
Prcosess Consultation
rfrs 2 actvtes dsgnd 2 asst mbrs of org hlp thmslvs by mprvng thr ablty 2 prcve, undrstnd, nd altr procss tht r undrmning thr intractns w/one anthr. A prcss cnsltnt obsrvs mployes durng mtgs nd othr usual actvtes nd thn shar obtnd info w/mplyes 2 hlp thm idntfy ways 2 mprov futur ntractns. Fcus n procss cnsltatn is on bhvrs rthr thn atituds, nd trgt bhvrs r thos rltd 2 cmmnictn, ldrshp, dcsn-mkng, cnflct rslutn, nd mbrs' rols in grps.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Specific OD Interventions
Survey Feedback
fcuses on mployes atituds nd prcptns nd volv 3 bsic stps: Data Cllctn: OD cnsltnt ntrvus mplyes frm all lvls of org 2 ID maj issus of cncrn nd thn develps nd distrbuts a srvy 2 lrg smpl of mplyes. Data obtnd frm srvy r thn sumrzd. Fdbk mtgs - rslts of srvys r discd n sml grps tht r usully led by grp mbr rthr thn cnsltnt. Grp Mtgs bgn at uppr lvl of org nd spred dwnwrd. Purpse of mtgs is to pinpt specfc probs. Actn Pln - spcfc actn plns 4 ovrcmng idntfid prob nd mkng mprovmnts r devlpd. 2 maxmz effctvnss of srvy fdbk, mployes must b assrd tht thr respns r kept confdntl, nd mngmt is wilng 2 act on srvy rslts.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Specific OD Interventions
Total Quality Management
TQM distngbl frm othr apprchs by its fcus on cstmr stsfctn, mployee nvolvmnt nd mpwrmnt, cntinuos mprovmnt ("kaizen") n qlty of goods nd srvcs, nd ongng measmnt of prfrmnc n ordr 2 ID probs. TQM mphszs temwrk nd dcsn-mkng at all lvlv of org. Othr mprtnt elemts of TQM nclud top-lvl cmmitmnt 2 qlty, orgnzng arnd processes rthr thn tsks, nd settng strngent wrk stds (zer defects). Intro of TQM nto org usully reqs chng n orgnztnl strctur tht hs paralel wrk tems nd fwr mgrs.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Other Issues in Organizational Change & Development - Change Agent
Indv responsbl 4 gidng chng ffrt. Intrnl Chng Agnt mbr of org, alredy famlr w/cmpny's cltur, nrms, nd pwr strctur, nd hs prsnl nterst n chng ffrt.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Other Issues in Organizational Change & Development - Change Agent
Intrnl agnt may b 2 close 2 situatn 2 vu it objctvly, may not hv spclzd sklis neded 4 orgztnl devlpmnt, nd mat lck neccsry pwr nd authrty. Xtrnl chng agnt (cnsltnt) oftn abl 2 c situatn mre objctvly nd 2 brng n nu prspctv, 2 b bttr rec'd by mbrs of org b/c of mprtialty, lkly 2 hv grtr nflunc nd ststus, nd mre wilng 2 tk rsks. Dsadvntg of xtrnl agnt is lck of familrty w/org.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Other Issues in Organizational Change & Development - Resistance to Change
Strats 4 ovrcmng resistnc 2 chng clssfid n2 3 bsic typs: Rational Impirical Strategy: bsed on assmptn tht peop r bsicly ratnl nd wil act n accrd w/thr slf-ntrst onc thy hv bn prvided w/ necssry info- wil not rsist chn onc thy rcgnz tht thy wil benft frm it. Prvidng info 2 facilt chng most effctv whn rsistnc du 2 lck of knwldg. Normative-Reeducative Strategy: bsed on prmse tht peer presur nd socioclturl nrms r potnt forcs of chng. E.g., grp discssns abt ways 2 accmplsh chng may b usfl 4 ovrcmng rsistnc 2 chng nd maxmzng prdctvty onc chng mplmentd. Power-Coercive Srtategy: nvolvs usng pwr nd legitmt authrty 2 coerc mplyes 2 cmply w/lans 4 chng. Coercn cn tk form of rwrds nd/or pnshmnt.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Other Issues in Organizational Change & Development - Data Collection
Questionnaire: usfl 4 Idntfyng atituds, valus, nd belefs, nd 4 obtang info frm lg # of indvs. Interview: cn b usd 2 obtn wid rng of info, nd th only technq tht allws 2-way cmmunctn. Direct Observation: most hlpfl 4 obtning data on ovrt bhvrs nd interctns. Secondary (archival) Sources: prvid info on orgnztnl prdctvty nd th prfrmnc of indv mplyes.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Other Issues in Organizational Change & Development - Identifying the Client
Who is the client? Wrng resp cn sabtg an OD ffrt, a cnsltnt mst dtrmn if clnt is the totl org, crtn divsns, depts, or grps, or th indv hu cntrctd th cnsltnt's svcs. Clnt oftn th cntct prsn within org, but, as cnsltnt's interactns w/peop n org ncrese, ntire org may evntully bcme the clnt.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Other Issues in Organizational Change & Development - Organizational Justice
Whn evalutng orgnztnl procss or polcy, mplyes r oftn nfluncd by thr prcptns of its fairnss. Notions of fairnss dstngsh btwn 3 typs of Org Justc: Procedural Justice: rfrs 2 fairnss of way n wch prcdur or polcy implmntd. Distributive Justice rfrs 2 fairnss of outcms of ornztnl prcdur or polcy. Interactional Justice rfrs 2 how ppeop feel abt qlty nd cntnt of prsn-to0prsn interactns. Rsrch found tht mplyes' prcptns of distrbutv, prcdur, nd intractnl justc corrl w/ # of outcms ncludng job stsfctn, trust n mgmnt, intntn 2 lv cmpny, nd wilngnss 2 ngage n ctiznshp bhvrs.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Organizational Culture
National Culture
Hofstede's distngshs btwn 5 dimnsns: Power distance rfrs 2 xtnt 2 wch peop accpt unequl dstributn of pwr. Uncertainty avoidance rfrs 2 wilngnss or ablty of peop 2 tolrat ambguty nd uncrntnty. Individualism it th xtnt 2 wch indvs or clsly-knt socl strctur (e.g., families) r th bsis of th socl systm. masculinity rfrs 2 valu plcd on assrtvnss, indpndnc, nd cmpetivnss. Long-term Orientation is xtnt 2 wch peop fcus on futur vrsus pst nd prsnt. Ornztnl cltur mbeded within nat'l cltur nd nfluncd by it. Nu technolgs r mre redily accptd by org n indvlstc countries thn by orgs n cllctvstc cntres.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Organizational Culture
Levels of Organizational Culture
1) observable artifacts nclud cmpny's drss cde, stories nd rituals, nd annul rprts. 2) espoused values nd belefs ncluds org's nrms, gols, nd ideolgys. 3) (deepest) level basic underlying assumptions r unconscus, tkn 4 grntd prcptns, belefs, thoghts, nd emotns. Functn of cultur is 2 prvid stblty nd meang nd reduc anxty amg orgnztnl mbrs tht wud othrwz b causd by thr uncrtnty abt currnt nd futr evnts. Undrlyng assmptns r cncvd as "cogntv dfnse mechsms tht r "4 the grp wht dfnse mschnsms r 4 the indv." Mprtnt mplctn of this prcptn is tht strng orgnztnl cltur cn mpede clturl nd othr typs of chng.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Organizational Culture
Person-Organizational Fit
(PO) rfrs 2 "xtnt 2 wch valus hld by spcfc indv mtch ths of org's cltur. Rsrch fnd tht gd PO ft assoctd w/# of benfts ncludng grtr job stsfctn, mtvtn, nd orgnztnl cmmitmnt nd lwr lvls of strss nd volntry trnovr. Gd POI ft achvd by thru selctn nd soclztn procss. E.G, mntrshp nd prtciptn n wrk-rltd socl evnts hd postv effcts on PO ft 4 rcnt hires.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Fatigue, Stress, and Burnout
Arousal & Fatigue
YERKES-DODSON LAW prdcts tht hghst lvls of lrng nd prfrmnc r assoc w/modrte lvls of arousl, esp whn modrte arousl coupld w/modrte tsk diffclty. Xcssve or nadqut arousl cn lead 2 strss, fatig, nd grtr variablty n job prfrmnc. Phys nd mntl fatig cn hv # of advrs consquncs ncludng incresd accdnt nd trnovr rates nd reducd job profcncy, esp on cmplx tsks nd tsks requrng cnstnt viglnce. Mthds 4 reducng fatig nd probs assocted w/it nclud selctng wrkrs hu r least lkly 2 b fatigd by reqrmnts of job, trng wrkrs n effcnt job prcdurs, nd provdng rest brks. Rest Breaks r most effctv whn thr scheds r mprclly dtrmnd. Brks s/b provded durng 4th & 8th hrs of wrk snc thes tnd 2 b tmes of grtst fatig. Frqunt shrt brks r mre effctv thn lngr frqnt ones.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Fatigue, Stress, and Burnout
Stress
Hi lvls of strss assoctd w/# of neg phys & psych cnsequncs. Phys probs nclud hi blud prssur, hi lvls of cholstrl, nd incresd rsk 4 hrt dises, uclrs, rthrtis, nd cncr. Psych correlts nclud angr, tnsn, anxty, irritblty, nd bordm as wel as sleep nd etng probs nd icresd smkng, drnkng, nd drg abus. Hi lvls of strss reduc job prdctvty and also incresd sabotg, absntsm, nd trnovr nd reducd job stsfctn.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Fatigue, Stress, and Burnout
Stress
Top exec not as prone 2 strss nd strss-rltd illnss. Jobs mst lkly 2 strss-rltd probs r thos tht gv wrkrs vry lttl cntrl ovr thr tsks or wrk cndtns. E.G., 1 stdy of sawmill wrkrs fnd tht wrks prfrmng "Machine-Paced" tsks wer at grtst rsk. Evnts rltd 2 marrig (deth of spous, dvrc, separtn) wer found 2 b most strssful 4 wrkrs. Also daily hassles r mprtnt sorc of strss nd tht strss inducd by daily hassls has strngr mpct on hlth thn strss du 2 traumtc evnts.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Fatigue, Stress, and Burnout
Job Burnout
causd by accummltd strss assoc w/ovrwrk. Prmry sx r feelng low prsnl accmplshmnt, cyncsm, nd emtnl, phys, nd mntl xhuastn. Erly sign of brnout is suddn incres n wrk ffrt nd hrs w/o incres n prdctvty. Rsk 4 brnout lnkd 2 # of wrkr nd wrk chrctrstcs. Wrks xperncng brnout tnd 2 b nflxbl abt wrk ruls nd prcdurs nd unabl 2 ID altrntv solutns 2 probs thy ncountr. Thy oftn feel tht thr ffrts r uslss, neffctv, or unapprciatd nd thr opprtntys 4 advncmnt r limtd. Brnout mre lkly whn job nvolvs freqnt cntct w/peop hu r n need of hlp nd whn th supvr is prcvd as bng low n cnsidrtn.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Fatigue, Stress, and Burnout
Work-Family Conflict
Ocurs whn rol dmnds of carrer nd famly r mcmpatbl b/c wrk ntrfers w/famly (e.g., lng hrs prvnt tme w/famly mbrs) nd/or famly actvtes nd respbltys ntrfer w/wrk (e.g., illnss of chld caus absntism). Cnflcts btwn wrk nd famly r assoctd w/# of negtv cnsquncs ncludng reducd job, marritl, nd lif stsfctn, job brnout, job trnovr, nd dcresd job prdctvty. 1 stdy fnd tht wrk-fmly cnflct is mre strssfl 4 womn nd tht men xprnc mre wrk-fmly cnflct du 2 wrk xpctns. Orgnztnl prgrms dsgnd 2 reduc wrk-fmly cnflct nclud flxbl wrkn hrs, dycare cntrs, nd parntl lv prgrms.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Work Schedules
Four-Day Workweek
cmprsses wrkwk n2 four 9- or 10 hr days. Sched assoctd w/ncresed stsfctn, esp amng yngr mplyes, lwr-lvl mplyes, mplyes hu hd low job stsfctn or low orgnztnl cmmitmnt b4 the chng, nd mplyes hu prcv schd chng as upgrdng thr jobs. Also lnkd 2 nhncd qlty of famly r/s nd rducd wrk-fmly cnflct. 4-dy wrkwk apprs 2 lwr absntsm, its effcts on jb prfrmnc r unclr. Prdctvty my mprv but usully rtrns to orgnl lvls. Majr dsadvntg is its ptntl 4 grtr fatig, wch cn hv neg mpct on bth prdctvty nd sfty.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Work Schedules
Flextime
givs mplyes choice of whn 2 bgn nd end wrk whl prvdng core tme (e.g. 10a - 2p) whn all mplyes must b prsnt. Flxtme ds nt hv cnsistnt mpct on prdctvty, bt it is assoctd w/ncresd stsfctn nd rducd absntsm, trdinss, nd trnvr. Prmry dsadvntgs r prblms it cn caus n cmmunctn, schdulng, nd wrkflw.
I/O Psychology
Organizational
Work Schedules
Shiftwork
Whl sum cmpnys prmntly assgn wrkshft 2 mplyes, othr rotate mplyes thru sfts. Fxd shfts gnrlly prfrrd to rotatng shfts snc latter tnds 2 dsrpt crcadin rhythms, wch ncres fatig nd slepinss nd causes cncntratn dffclts nd ncresd errors. evdnc tht frwrd rotatn (days, evngs, nites) assoctd w/bttr crcadn rhythm sychrnztn nd prdctvty thn backwrd rotatn (nites, evngs, days). Of 3 shfts, swng shft hs most neg mpct on socl pttrns. Grvyrd shft assoctd w/lrgst # of prblms (hghr accdnt rts, lwr prfrmnc qlty) b/c of slp dprvatn. 1 fctr tht rducs advrs effcts of grvyrd shft is frdm of choic: mplyes hu chuz 2 wrk nite shft rprt fwr phys nd psych prblms th thos assgnd 2 tht shft.