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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Plato's Republic
- created a taxonomy of citizens (guardians, workers)
- ways to select & train members
The Chinese
- selection system to 1905
- multiple hurdle system (one must have at least some minimal level of competence in each dimension or he/she will be derailed)
Time and Motion Studies
- with bricklayering study of how to reduce # of motions in performing a task in order to increase productivity
- Frank & Lillian Gilberth
Scientific Management
- complete mental revolution: 1. workingman engaged in any particular establishment 2. and management side
- when both turn to increase the surplus
- Frederick Taylor
changes to improve labour productivity with precise procedures developed after a careful study of an individual at work
Hugo Munsterberg
- father of industrial psychology
- "matching job & worker, and quality work & high productivity
- validation= abilities to perform criterion
Walter Dill Scott
- applied psychological principles to advertising
- personnel selection & advertising
World War I
- prior lived in rural areas---- give tests for certain jobs
- job analysis & intelligence test
Between Wars
- industrial psychology in private industry to solve problems
- James Cattell- psychology as a field of study
Hawthorne Studies
- between Western Electric and Harvard University
- people are observed in a study and their behavior/performance temporaily would change
- to determine the relation between illumination and efficiency of workers
- some of them did what was expected
- an increase in output rate
World War II
- office of strategic services (forerunner of CIA)
- developed assessment centers (tests, interviews, role plays)
- importance of personality
Civil Rights Movement
- 1964 no discrimination
- interest in fairness of employment results
I/O Psychology
- application of psychological principles, theory, and research to organizations
Industrial Psychology
- finding/fitting the right person
- people are different, and info. on this used to predict work performance
- HR
- personnel psychology
Organizational Psychology
- emotional and motivational side of work
- people's reactions to work, and action plans that develop as a result
I/O Psychologists
- scientists= principles of individual, group, etc. behavior
- staff= scientific knowledge and apply it to the solution
- teachers= train and research
- science and practice
Criterion
- unique about applied psychologists
Research Strategies... qualitative vs. quantitative
- qualitative= understanding of human behavior and reasons that govern it
- quantitative= quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships
Experimental Design
- intervention is deliberate to observe its effects
- some variables cannot be manipulated
Cross-sectional Design
- studies the size and direction of a relationship among variables
- third variable problem= correlation between two variables may not indicate a direct causal path between them but may relate to a third variable a to b, b to a
- people with environments
Longitudinal Design
- collects data on multiple occassions
Case Study Design
- detailed and intensive analysis of a single case
Comparative Design
- contrasts two or more cases using similar methods
Quasi-Experimental Design
- experiments in which units are not assigned to conditions randomly
-"natural experiments"
Observations
- watches participants to understand their behavior
Interviews
- convo. between two or more to obtain info. from the interviewee
Focus Groups
- q's are asked in an interactive group setting where participants are free to talk with each other group members
Surveys
- collect quantitative info. from many participants
Publications in Academia
- peer-reviewed journals for publishing in psychology
-A,B,C
Culture
- shared elements that provide the standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating, communicating, and acting among those who share a language, a historic period, and geogrpahic location
Etic
-universals-- description of behavior in terms of familiarity of the observer
Emic
-culture-specific--description of behavior in terms of meaningful to the actor
cross-cultural i/o psychologists
- to differentiate the universal and culture-specific elements of psyhological pheomena
Hofstede
- there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behavior of organizations
-on 40 countries
- culturally conditioned= to see the world in the way we have learned to see it
Individualism-collectivism
- the degree the society reinforces individual/collective achievement and interpersonal relationships
-individualsim -- people take care of themselves
-collectivism--in-groups and out-groups expect in-group to look out for them
Power Distance
-degree of equality/inequality between people in their countries society
Masculinity-Femininity
- the degree society reinforces the traditional masculine work role model of male achievement, control and power
- acquisition of money and things, not caring for others
Uncertainty Avoidance
- level of tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity within the society
tightness-looseness
- degree to which norms are clearly defined and reliably imposed within cultures
- tight= greater need for structure, less tolerance for ambiguity and greater concern for sanctioning
- weak= individuals have a wider range of acceptable behavior
Idiocentric
- self as separate from others
- concerned with achievement
- give priority to personal goals over collective goals
Allocentric
- view the self as inseparable from others in an in-group
- concerned with interpersonal harmony
- subordinate their personal goals to collective goals
Individual/trait-oriented Psychologists
- focus on person-based theories of behavior
-argue that individual traits govern behavior
- Freud
Situationalist Psychologists
- focus on environmental determines behavior
-Watson
Interactionist Psychologists
- focus on the interaction between person and environment
-both person and situation are inseparable
-Lewin
Mischel
- situations cause behavior
- individual behavior can differ drastically form one situation to another in class vs. partying
- trait theories cannot completely predict differences
Bower
- Mischel wrong because on lab data, and does not reflect the real world
- random assignment of participants violates basic reality of real-world human behavior
Schneider
-labs are wrong and mask individual differences
- in real life people are not randomly assigned
- people and human settings are inseparable
"people make the place"
ASA
A-attraction, people are attracted to organizations they fit
S-selection, organizations select people who fit
A-attrition, people who do not fit the organization will leave
-yields similar kinds of behavior from similar kinds of people
-the organization determines the behavior
Homogenity Hypothesis
- very similar people acting in very similar ways creates homogenity
-inability to change
-recruitment is key
Personality
- and individuals relatively stable characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior
Big 5
O- openness to experience
C- conscientiousness
E- extraversion
A- agreeableness
N- neuroticism
Openness to experience
- people look for new experience and aware of thoughts
-intelligent, curious
- + to job performance in expatriates
Conscientiousness
- dependable and trustworthy and achievement
- + related to job performance across many jobs
Extraversion
- how outgoing, talkative
- surgent assertive
- + related to job performance in sales
Agreeableness
- you are likable
- cooperative, friendly
Neuroticism
- emotional stability, chronic negative emotions
Myers-Brigss Type Indicator
-based on Carl Jung's theory of personality
-extroversion/introversion
-sensing/intuiting
-thinking/feeling
-judging/perceiving
Core Self-Evalutions CSE
- fundamental appraisal of one's worthiness, effectiveness, and capability as a person
1. locus of control-- your belief in your ability to control your environment
2. self-esteem
3.generalized self-efficacy- your estimate of your capabilities of performing at a global level across many contexts
-neuroticism
Intelligence
- very general mental capacity that involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly, and learn from experience
- "g"
KSAO's
K- knowledge
S- skils
A- abilities
O- other characteristics
Construct
- theoretical, abstract idea
- must be measurable to be useful
- inventories used to measure constructs
Validity
- standard for evaluating psychological inventories that refers to the accuracy or appropriateness of drawing inferences from scores