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23 Cards in this Set

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Types of Rater Biases in Subjective ratings
1)Halo Effect (Positive or Negative)
2)Leniency/Strictness Bias
3)Central Tendency Bias
Halo Effect
when a rater's evaluation of an employee on one dimension of a job performance affects his evaluation of that employee on other unrelated dimensions OR when the rater's general impression of an employee influences how the rater rates the employee

Positive or Negative; impacts each employee differently (whereas central tendency or leniency/strictness impacts all employees in the same direction)
Central Tendency Bias
consisten use of only the middle range of the rating scale
Leniency/Strictness Bias
avoidance of the middle range of the scale; rates all employees as either high (leniency) or low (strictness)
Subjective performance measures by supervisor, peer, and self
1) self-ratings are the most lenient but less succeptible to the halo effect

2)supervisor=most reliable

3)pee ratings are particularly good for predicting training success and future promotions

4)peer and supervisior usually agree more with e/o than with self
THREE ways to reduce RATER BIAS
1)use a relative rating scale (e.g., paired comparisons)
2)design a rating scale so that it incorporates "critical incidents" (e.g., Critical Incident Technique; Behaviorally-Anchored Rating Scale, BARS)
3)BEST WAY--provide raters with adequate training emphasizing good observation skills, not on avoiding rating bias (e.g., Frame of Reference Training)
Job Analysis
systematic method for collecting the info needed to id
1)the nature of the job
2)the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs)
3)the measures with which job performance can be evaluated
Job Evaluation
conducted SPECIFICALLY to determine the RELATIVE WORTH of jobs in order to SET SALARIES and WAGES
Differential Validity
different levels of validity for different subgroups
Unfairness
Predictor scores consistently underestimate the criterion performance of any subgroup
Incremental Validity
the increase in decision making accuracy an employer will achieve by using the predictor to make selection decisions
Contributors to a measure's incremental validity
VALIDITY COEFFICIENT
SELECTION RATIO and BASE RATE

Low Selection ratio is perferred (many applicants, few jobs)

Moderate base rates (perecent of employees who are performing successfully without use of the predictor)

If low selection ratio, and moderate base rate, a predictor with a low validity coefficient can improve decision making accuracy
Taylor-Russel tables
combines validity coefficients, selection ratios, and base rates to estimate the percent of new hires who will be successful
Adverse Impact
when an employment procedure results in a substantially different selection, placement, or promotion rate for members of a subgroup
80% (four-fifths) Rule
used to determine if a procedure is having an adverse impact. Using this rule, the hiring rate of the majority group is multiplied by 80% to determine the minimum hiring rate for the minority group (90% of whites selected, 90x.80=72...72% of black applicants should be selected)
Combining Predictors
1)multiple regression
2)multiple cut-off
3)Multiple (successive) hurdles
Multiple Regression
Predictor scores are WEIGHTED and SUMMED to yield an estimated criterion score, with each predictor's weight being determined by its correlation with the crietrior and with other predictors.

COMPENSATORY b/c exceptional performance on one predictor can offset poor performance on another predictor
Multiple Cut-off
NONCOMPENSATORY

a MINIMUM score on each predictor must be obtaine before the job applicant will be considered for selection

may be used in conjunction with multiple regression
Multiple (successive) hurdles
predictors are administered one at a time in a predetermined order, with each predictor being administered only if the previous one has been successfully passed or completed

Advantage=saves time and $ b/c all the predictors are not administered to all applicants
Methods of training
1) on-the-job (e.g., internships, apprenticeships, mentoring, job rotation(learning several jobs, often used with managers), cross-training (training workers to perform different tasks)

2)off-the job (e.g., lectures, computer assisted instruction, behavioral modeling, vestibule training (makes use of a physical replication or simulation of the work environment)

Potential disadvantages of off-the-job training=low trainee motivation, restricted transfer of training and higher costs due to time off
(Kirkpatrick) Four Levels of Criteria that can be used to assess the effectiveness of training programs in organizations
1)REACTION criteria-eval participant's rxns to the program; not nec linked to job performance

2)LEARNING criteria-eval how much participants actually learning

3)BEHAVIORAL criteria-assess participants' change in performance when they return to the job

4)RESULTS criteria-address the value of training program in terms of the organizational goals
People to associate with Career Dev't and Career Choice
1)Super (Self-Concept, Career Maturity, Career Development Inventory, Life-Career Rainbow)

2)Holland (RIASEC, Differentiation)

3)Roe (influenced by Maslow, links occupational choice to personality and basic needs)

4)Tiedeman and O'Hara (Ego Identity Development--described in terms of Erikson's psychosocial stages)

5)Krumboltz (social learning theory; Career Belief Inventory)

6) Brousseau and Driver (career concept)
Yerkes-Dodson Law
Predicts that the highest levels of learning and performance are associated with moderate levles of arousal, especially when moderate arounsal is coupled with moderate task difficulty

Excessive or inadequate arousal can lead to stress, fatigue, and greater variability in job performance