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157 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
reasons for job analysis
-dev and validating selection instruments
-id measures of job performance
-assist in dev of training prog
job-oriented vs. worker-oriented info
-job oriented focus on TASK requirements of job
-worker-oriented focus on CHARACTERISTICS required for successful job performance
methods of job analysis
interview, questionnaires, direct observation, work diaries
PAQ: Position Analysis Questionnaire
-most frequently used questionnaire in job analysis
-job rated in terms of importance of six facets of job behavior
why performance evaluation is undertaken
-determine if entitled to raise or bonus
-provide feedback about perf
-help in decision making related to job status
The measures used to evaluate employee job perf are sometimes called what?
criterion measures
-are objective or subjective
limitations of objective measures of job performance
-do not measure motivation or cooperation
-limited by situational factors
-not useful with complex jobs
adv and disadv of subjective measures of job performance
-useful for complex, less concrete aspects of job perf
-rely on judgment of rater, could be unreliable, biased etc.
research on peer ratings of job performance show what?
-that they are valid predictors of job perf, particularly in predicting supervisor ratings, promotions, and training success
paired compairisons vs rank-ordered system
-each employee compred w/ every other employee on each job behavior vs.
-rater ranks employees from best to worst
forced distribution system
rater categorizes employees into a predetermined distribution (e.g. top 10%, next 25%, bottom 10% etc.)
advantage of Personnel Comparison Systems
reduce the effects of certain rater biases
critical incidents
-descriptions of specific job behaviors assoc w/ very good/poor performance
-likert-type rating scales
behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
rating employees on several dimensions of job performance. Each created with critical incidents tied to likert-type scale.
how is BARS constructed?
-multiple contributors, workers & supervisors
advantage of BARS
-produces info useful for feedback
-format and development may improve rating accuracy
disadv of BARS
-time-consuming to construct
-specific to particular job
Behavioral-Observation Scales (BOS) vs. BARS
rater indicated how often employee performs each critical incident vs. how well overall
rater biases limit what?
the accuracy of subjective ratings of job performance
halo effect
tendency to judge all aspects of beh based on one characteristic (all pos, all neg ratings)
central tendency, leniency, strictness biases
-tendency assign average ratings, positive ratings, or negative ratings to all ratees
contrast effect
tendency to give ratings while comparing to other ratees
best way to reduce bias?
-adequately train raters, esp. focusing on accuracy not errors
frame of reference training
designed to help raters recognize multidimensional nature of job perf and ensure they have same conceptualizations of job perf
selection of personnel involves what?
determining if applicants have the KSAPs for job: knowledge, skills, ability, personal characteristics required by job
commonly used selection techniques, or predictors of job performance
1. cognitive ability tests
2. job knowledge tests
3. work samples
4. interviews, bio inventories
5. assessmen centers
6. personality & interest tests
cognitive ability tests
-most valid predictor of job performance (.41 ave, .53 on perf ratings, .75 on work sample)
work (job) samples
-measure a sample of work beh in standardized, job-like conditions
-more valid for motor skills than verbal skills
-acceptable to applicants and less likely to unfairly discriminate minorities
realistic job preview
-purpose to prevent unrealistic expectations to reduce turnover
-includes work samples, written description of job, interviews, group discussions w/current emp.
-at best moderately accurate in predicting job performance, .14-.23
interview reliability and validity limited by what factors?
-unfavorable info carries more weight than favorable
-decisions occur too early in interview
-judgments based on superficial chara
interview usefulness increased when?
-structured and based on thorough job analysis
-panel interviews
-past oreinted interviews, focus on past work beh and exp vs. how respond to sit in future
advantage of biodata?
-useful for predicting turnover, including members of different racial groups
disadv of biographical info forms
-specific to job and org for which devised
-lack "face validity" although correlated w/job perf
assessment centers
used for selection, promotion, and training of admin and managerial level employees
in-basket test
-example of simulation exercise (work sample)
-see how participant would respond to kind of tasks he/she would actually encounter on job
criterion contamination
-when rater's knowledge of a person's perf on a selection instr (ie. assmt ctr) affects how the rater evaluates the person's perf on the job (inflates validity)
personality tests
-better predictors of contextual perf vs. task perf
-conscientiousness accurate predictor of job perf across settings
-tests measure specific traits more accurate predictors than global
adverse impact
-a selection procedure that produces diff rate of selection for diff groups
80% (4/5ths) rule
-determines adverse impact
-if selection rate for a minority group is less than 80% of selection rate for majority group = adverse impact
when is adverse impact permitted?
when selection criterion is a "bona fide occupational qualification" (BFOQ), a valid reason for hiring disproportionate numbers
differential validity
when a selection procedure is a valid predictor of job perf for one group and less valid for another
when one group consistently scores lower than another group on a selection test, yet both perf equally well on the job
incremental validity
-the usefulness of a selection test in terms of how accurately it selects a good worker
-incremental validity = positive hit rate - base rate
another way of determining incremental validity
Taylor-Russell tables
-test's validity coefficient (large)
-base rate (moderate)
-selection rate (low)
(max incremental validity)
utility analysis
-assesses cost effectiveness of selection procedure
combining predictors
-preferred because provide more info
-should have high correlation with the criterion but low correlation with other predictors
-when predictors (selection tests) are highly correlated. Not useful and redundant info
multiple regression
-determines score on criterion based on scores of 2+ predictors
-compensatory techniques (can make up for poor scores on other tests)
multiple cutoff
-applicants must score above a minimum on each predictor to be hired
-useful when minimal level of competence on multiple domains necc
multiple hurdle
-like multiple cutoff but each test given in order and if minimum not met on one test the selection process ends
-save time and money
steps in training program development
1. needs analysis
2. program design
3. program evaluation
needs analysis
-what training is necc?
-includes org analysis, task/job analysis, person analysis
program design
-most effective when teaches skills close to those nec for job, greater transfer of training
-OJT, classroom training, programmed instr
vestibule training
-training in a mock work environ
-prevents slow-downs of OJT, offers repeated practice & special coaching
programmed instruction
-not effective for teaching complex skills, but useful for teaching content knowledge, rote memorization
-adv: allows trainees to progress at own pace
program evaluations
three dimensions
1. formative evals - identify nec changes while in progress
2. summative evals - assess effectiveness of program after complete
3. cost-effectiveness eval
Bloom's steps in program eval
1. specify program's objectives
2. define relevant parameters
3. specify techniques/proced to achieve goals
4. collect relevant data
aptitude vs. achievement tests
aptitude are potential for learning whereas achievement is how much a person has already learned
ability test
-refers to both achievement and aptitude tests (not absolute distinctions)
-"capacity to perform a task"
Hollands' Personality and Environment Typology
-all beh are function of personality and social environ, incl career choice
fit between personality type and occupational environ
Holland's Realistic type
active, manipulation of machinery or tools, hands-on work
Holland's Investigative type
analytical, curious, methodical, precise
Holland's Artistic Realistic type
expressive, nonconforming, original, introspective
Holland's Social type
working w/others, avoids systematic activities like tools/machinery
Holland's Enterprising type
manipulating others to attain org goals or economic gain
Holland's Conventional type
manipulation of data, filing records, reproducing materials
Roe's Fields and Levels Theory
links children's experiences w/parents to later occupational choice and level they achieve w/i that occupation
-parent orientations: overprotective, avoidant, acceptant
-occupational fields (8) and levels (6)
Super's Career and Life Development Theory
-career dev predictable sequence of stages and tasks must be mastered in ceach in order to progress to next stage
-key concepts: self-concept and career maturity
self-concept and career
-person's abilities, interests, values, personality traits etc.
-most ppl chose career consistent with self concept
career maturity
extent a person has mastered tasks related to his/her developmental stage
What are stages of Super's theory
1. growth (0-15), developing self-concept
2. exploration (15-24), career choice narrowed not finalized
3. establishment (25-44), establish permanence in occupational field
4. maintenance (45-64), continuation of estab pattern
5. decline (65+), decline in work and retirement, non-vocational satisfaction therefore must modify self-concept
Life Career Rainbow
-depicts 9 major roles an individual adops during different stages of career dev
Archway of Career Determinants
-depicts personal and environ factors that combine to determine a person's career path
Tiedeman & O'Hare's Decision Making Model
-based on Erikson's psychosocial theory of ego identity
-career-rel correlates to Erikson's 8 psychosocial crisis resolutions
Miller-Tiedeman and Tiedeman's concepts of personal vs. common reality
-personal authoritative reality: what ind feels is right for self
-common reality: what "they" say should do, i.e. need good educ for good job
scientific management
-Taylor, founder
-assumptions: job design could improve perf, motivation of workers affects perf, and workers are motivated by economic incentives, need constant supervision
Weber's bureaucracy
-Weber found bureaucratic structure (formal rules/regs, hierarchial) maximizes org effectiveness
-today considered rigid, inefficient, nd lowers job sat
human relations approach
assumes worker perf affected primarily by social factors, including attitudes toward supervisors, coworkers, and informal group normas
Hawhorne effect
improvement in worker's performance resulting from increased attention, not experimental variables themselves
systems approach
-org is open system, input within and out, changes affect all parts of system
-situational or contingency approach
-diverse needs, organizations vary, no one managerial strategy work for all ppl, all org, at all times
Theory Z
-Ouchi's combination of best aspects of Japan/American work philosophies
-consensual decision-making, slow promotion, holistic knowledge of org, supports ind responsibility, long-term, and moderately specialized career path
TQM characteristics
-"flattening" of hierarchy
-cooperation and fairness in emp tx
-cross-training of workers
-"bigger picture" knowledge of work product
-autonomy and empowerment of workers
-task significance: contact w/customers
-feedback from work process not just management
leader styles, who and name types
-Lewin, Lipitt and White
1. Autocratic-leader decides, delegates
2. Democratic-workers involved in decision-making
3. Laissez-Faire-workers decide w/little guidance or help
productivity highest with which type of leader?
autocratic, esp. when work is routine
satisfaction highest with which type of leader?
-also affects creativity, pos rel with leader, and continued work in absense of leader
leader styles categorized into what two basic dimensions?
1. consideration-person-oriented, focus on HR aspects of supervision
2. initiating structure-task-oriented, focus on goals, following rules, clarifying roles
-dimensions are independent (ex. can be high on one and low on another)
personality traits and effective leaders
-no single trait or set of traits distinguish leaders/non-leaders
-moderated by several factors including char of emp, task, and nature of work environ
Leadership Theory X vs. Theory Y
-McGregor: leaders beliefs about work and workers
-Theory X: consistent w/scientific mgmt, work inherently distasteful, works lack ambition/direction, motivation = lower level needs
-Theory Y: work is natural, workers self-directed, resp, ambitious, require freedom/autonomy.
Which more likely to lead to an effective org, theory X or Y?
Theory Y
Fiedler's contingency (LPC) theory
-leaders effectiveness determined by combination of leader style and char of situation.
-best leader style depends on "favorableness" of sit for the leader to influence subordinates
-Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale
Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale
-high LPC leaders describe least preferred co-worker in positive terms, more relationship-oriented, most effective in sit w/moderate influence/control
-low LPC leades are more task and achievement-oriented, most effective in sit with very high/very low control/influence
most important implication of Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership?
-no single leadership style is most effective in all situations
path-goal theory of leadership
-workers sat and mot maximized when perceive leader is helpng them achieve their desired goals
-leader helps identify goals, remove obstacles to goals, rewards for goals
House's four leadership styles
1. instrumental (directive) leaders - specific guidelines/rules/proced
2. supportive leaders-focus on rel
3. participative leaders-include workers in decision making
4. achievement oriented leaders-set challenging goals, encourage higher levels of perf
-best type depends on char of workers and work environment (like contingency model)
situational leadership model
-Hersey and Blanchard
-describe leadership in terms of task and relationship orientation
-optimal style dep on emp JOB MATURITY (ability/willingness to accept resp)
4 leadership styles based on situational leadership model
1. telling style (high task, low rel) if emp is low on ability & will for resp
2. selling style (high task, high rel) if emp low ability, high will for resp
3. participating style (low task, high rel) if emp high ability, low will for resp
4. delegating style (low task, low rel) if emp abil/will both high
transformational vs. transactional leadership
transformational: change focused, create vision, motivate through higher-order needs & values
transactional: focus on stability over change, foster mot through reward/pun, normal, work-rel activities
Vroom & Yetton's normative model of leadership
-normative/contingency model
-five leadership styles in terms of including emp in decision-making
-"decision tree" that indicates optimal leader style based on situation
Vroom and Yetton's five leadership styles
1. AI (autocratic): no consult w/emp, make dec on own
2. AII: obtain info from emp, make final dec on own
3. CI (consultative): discuss prob w/emp individually, make final decision on own
4. CII: discuss prob w/emp as group, make final decision on own
5. GII: discuss prob w/emp as group, group decision
phases of organizational development (OD)
1. entry 2. contracting, 3. diagnosis, 4. feedback, 5. planning, 6. intervention, 7.evaluation
-aimed at enhancing ind dev and improving org effectiveness
-includes QWL, org surveys, process consultation
quality circles (QC)
-popular QWL intervention
-small groups of emp meet regularly to discuss how work can be improved
-pos effects often temporary
QWL: Quality of Work Life interventions
premise: org effectiveness will increase as emp sat, mot, and comm increase.
-involves job restructuing so more interesting, challenging, and more invol in decision making
effectiveness of organizational surveys
-increases job sat and employee reports of job cond
-help solve prob and give emp sense of influence in org
process consultation
efforts to help team members understand and later processes that are undermining interactions
-targets include communication, decision making, conflict res, ind roles in groups
empirical-rational change strategy
-get all relevant info about situation and act in accord w/self-interest
normative-reeducative change strategy
focus on changing attitudes, values, rel in order to bring about change
-assume social norms underlie patterns of beh
power-coercive change strategy
involve using rewards, punishments or legitimate auth to coerce emp to comply with change
best way to address employee resistance to change?
-allow emp to participate in decisions about change
centralized communication network
-all comm pass thru one person, one position (wheel and chain)
-more efficient w/simple tasks
-sat for person who controls info
decentralized communication network
-info flows freely between ind
-best when tasks are complex and cooperation necc for task
-result more ind sat
individual decision-making models
rational-economic decision-making
-goal find optimal sol
-search all possible sol, weigh alt, make decision w/greatest benefit to org
-often not practical due to time and info constraints
administrative decision-making
-eval sol as available and select first that is acceptable
Driver, Brousseau, & Hunsaker five basic decision-making styles
-decisive, flexible, hierarchic, integrative, systemic
decisive decision-making style
-satisficing, uni-focus
-business, political leaders
-inflexible, short sighted
flexible decision-making style
-satisficing, multi-focus
-best in quick changing environ
hierarchic decision-making style
-maximizing and uni-focus
-lots info, best sol, detailed plan
-effective in good dec, but often rigid and over-controlling
integrative decision-making style
-maximizing, multifocus
-pursue several courses simult
-value creativity, best in groups
systemic decision-making style
-more complex
-combine hierarchic and integrative styles
-maximizing, but both uni/multi focused
loss aversion
-tendency to be more influenced by potential losses than gains when making decisions
-central concept in Kahneman and Tversky's Prospect theory
Kahneman and Tversky's Prospect Theory
-ppl not adverse to risk, but rather adverse to loss, ex. gamblers take higher risks following loss in attempts to avoid realizing actual loss
gender and leadership style
-most research suggests no diff
-tendency for women to be more concerned w/rel and task accomplishment
-women more participatory leadership style vs. men's autocratic or directive
comparable worth
men and women should get equal pay for performing jobs that have equivalent worth
-use job evaluations to determine value of job in wages
work performance
work perf is a function of ability and motivation, research suggests ability more important than motivation in explaining differences in job perf
Maslow's need hierarchy
1. physiological needs (food/H20) 2. safety needs, 3. social needs, 4. esteem needs, 5. self-actualization needs
-not much empirical support, except that need imp is related to job level
Alderfer's ERG theory
similar to Maslow's hierarchy
3 needs: existence, relatedness, growth,
not hierarchical
McClelland's Need for Achievement
-used responses to TAT cards
-primary motivator is need for achievement (nACH), related to enrepreneurial success
-need for power (nPOW), effective managers high
-need for affiliation (nAFF)
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
Hygiene factors - fulfill lower order needs, absense = dissatisfaction but presence does not effect satisfaction.
Motivator factors - fulfill higher-order needs, presence = satisfaction and motivation but absense does not cause dissatisfaction
job enrichment
-application of Herzberg's theory
-redesigning job to provide more motivation factors (challenge, resp, decision-mkg)
research on job enrichment
-inceased job sat and decreased absenteeism
-increase quality vs. quantity of work perf
-more pos effects on younger, well-educ, and high nACH workers
Job Characteristics Model
1. skill variety
2. task identity
3. task significance
4. autonomy
5. feedback
research on Job Characteristics Model
-imp in mot, sat, absenteeism & turnover
-work quality less affected
-well workers high in growth need strength
Locke's goal setting theory
-goals have 2 purposes: mot and direct beh
-critical: conscious acceptance/commitment to goals
-attainment max when goals specific and mod difficult, and feedback toward ach provided
-worker participation in goal setting helpful not crucial in accepting goals
ex. Management by Objective (MBO)
studies on goal-setting results
1. combining w/feedback not incentives has pos effect
2. high se accept difficult goals
3. emp work harder if participate in goal setting
4. combo group & ind goals more effective than group goals alone
5. no gender differneces in goal-setting
equity theory
-ppl assess inputs (contributions) and outccomes (rewards), compare ratio to other workers
-emp motivated to have equity w/other worker ratios
-perceived underpayment greater impact in work perf than overpayment
outcome justice vs. procedural justice
-outcome justice: fairness of outcomes (raises), focus of equity theory
-procedural justice: fairness of procedures to det outcomes (biases, =tx of emp etc.)
expectancy theory
-motivation is function of:
1. belief effort = successful perf (expectancy)
2. successful perf = outcomes (instrumentality)
3. desirability of outcomes (valence)
incentive theory
-reinforcement/operant cond theory
-focus in incentives which mot productivity in emp
-external, material rewards most flexible
job satisfaction & personal char
-positively correlated with age, level in org
-non-whites more likely to express dissat
-sat/dissat stable over time (dispositional not work related)
job satisfaction & job char
-rel bt pay and job sat is complex
-positively correlated, but may include other factors like autonomy
-perception of pay fairness more imp than actual amt (fairness=related to perf and comparable worth)
-skill utilization strongest predictor of job success
consequences of job satisfaction
-moderately and negatively related to absenteeism and turnover
-highest w/turnover at -40, moderated by skill level (poor perf)
rel between job sat and performance
-positive but weak (.14)
-moderated by pay (pay connected than pos corr, if not than neg corr)
rel betwee job sat and physical/mental health
-related to both
-work sat better predictor of longevity than physical health or tobacco
-job dissat number negative physical & mental health correlates
organizational commitment
-extent emp identifies w/org and willing to help achieve org goals
-greatest w/opp for growth and resp
-mod to strong neg corr w/absenteeism and turnover
-may increase resistance to change
engineering psychology
concerned with "fit" between workers and work proced, environ, equipment
person-machine systems
-both work tog to accomplish job
-Humans: flexible, inductive reasoning
-Machines: reliable, consistent. deductive reasoning
compressed work week (CWW)
-productivity typ NOT affected (but varies by job)
-absenteeism declines, job sat increases, esp younger/lower-level emp
-women less favorable bc spend day off doing chores vs. leisure
-emp determine own daily schedule as long as work required hours and during core hours
-increases sat, job/environ attitudes, and decreases absenteeism & tardiness
-not clear effects on productivity
shift work
-less productive on night shift, more errors and accidents
-rotating shift worse and assoc with lower productivity, higher accidents, and physical/mental health prob
-younger workers adapt better
-64% report jobs invol stress
-major source: no control over work or work environment
-Type A more prone to work stress
job burnout
-response to chronic stress
-phy/emot exhaustion, redused personal accomplishment, think impersonal terms
-higher among women, single/div emp, low opp 4 promotion, people-oriented professions
work-family conflict
-women experience more conflict/stress than men
-work-rel expectations & conflict better predictor of work-family conflict for men than women (family exp/conf more predictive)
safety and accidents in workplace
-human error account for 50-80%
-neg corr with age
-not clear, specific set of personality traits assoc with accident prone
-training most effective way to improve safety, if focus both on safe beh and attitudes
effectiveness of safety programs
-positive themes more effective vs. scare tactics
-posters more effective if specific
-mgmt commitment is key to success
-incentives helpful, combined w/specific info and mgmt commitment
-perceived control of noise is critical
-some ppl more noise sensitive
-improved perf on monotonous tasks
-music slight pos affect on prod of repetitive, simple, mundane tasks (not consis for complex tasks - pos or neg)