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92 Cards in this Set

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Job analysis refers to the process of:
Determining the specific skills and behaviors that are required for doing a given job effectively
Describe Herzberg's 2-factor theory of job satisfaction:
His theory divides factors influencing job satisfaction into two types: hygeine (pay, safety) and motivators (meaningful work). Hygeine is more related to dissatisfaction when not present, and motivators more related to satisfaction when present.
McClelland & Atkinson note that people who are high in need for achievement (nAch) prefer tasks that are:
Of moderate difficulty with performance feedback
The quality and quantity of work produced by a group tends to be lowest with which style of leadership?
Laissez-faire
Interest inventories are least useful for predicting:
Job performance (better with job choice, satisfaction and persistence)
Research on the applicability of Maslow's hiearchy theory to the workplace suggests:
the theory doesn't apply very well to the workplace
Behavioral Anchored Rating Scales include_______ as items
Critical incidents (a specific work behavior that has been shown to lead to good, adequate, or poor job performance)
An advantage of biodata as a selection tool is that it is particulalry useful for:
Job turnover (biodata is information concerning personal background and life experiences)
Vestibule training involves:
Providing training in a physical replication or simulation of the actual work environment (mock assembly line)
Fiedler's Contigency Theory or LPC proposes:
that a leader's effectiveness is determined by his style and the characteristics of the situation
Name Holland's personality types:
Realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, conventional (RIASEC)
Super's theory of career development is based on the assumption that:
Career development can be described in terms of a predictable sequence of stages
Adverse impact uses what percentage:
80%
Chin and Benne divide planned change in orginizations into which three types:
Empirical-rational (people act rationally), normative-reeducative (social norms underlie patterns of behavior), power-coercive (rewards, punishments)
Orginizational surveys are most often used to:
Evaluate employee attitudes and opinions about job satisfaction, conditions and problems at work.
Research on the effects of a comprssed workweek show:
Increased satisfaction and decreased absenteeism, but little effect on productivity.
What are the advantages and drawbacks of the Biographical Information Blanks used in screening job applicants?
Highly predictive of job success, but lacks face validity, since some questions do not appear to the applicant to be linked to job performance.
According to Super's theory, job satisfaction ismost related to:
The development of one's self-concept through his work role
The Life Career Rainbow refers to:
the nine major roles that individuals adopt throughout their career development (e.g. student, spouse, parent, worker)
According to Goal-Setting Theory, goals are best attained when the goals are:
Specific and moderatly difficult (e.g. learning 10 vocabulary words a day)
Research has generally found that job enrichment:
Job enrichment (redesigning a job to enable workers to have more challenge, responsibility, advancement) leads to increased job satisfaction, less absenteeism & turnover, and at times increased job performance - particularly among younger, well educated employees who have a high need for achievement
Name the Big 5 personality traits:
Agreeableness, conscientiouness, emotional stability, extraversion, openenss
If the predictor of a test is raised:
It will increase the probability of true positives
Name the forms of job commitment:
Affective - the employee's psych attitudes toward the company
Normative - perceived obligation to stay withthe company
Continuance - refers to the cost of leaving the company
Research on team and orginizatio-wide incentives (such as gainsharing) has shown that:
they have positive effects on productivity, especially when linked to performance
In regards to it's psychometric properties, peer evaluation have been found to be:
As reliable and valid as supervisor evaluations (but disliked by employees)
Statistically, selection bias is determined by comparing:
the regression lines slopes of different groups
A transactional leader emphasizes:
conforming to rules and regulations
Locke & Lathan's goal-setting theory focuses primarily on:
Intentions and effort - the theory proposes that when people accept goals, they intend to achieve them and therefore are willing to put forth the effort to achieve them
Research on "person-orginization fit" has shown:
positive effects on individal satisfaction, comitment, & productivity, but little long-term benefis at the orginizational level
Name the 4 steps in Blooms program evaluation:
1) specifying the goals & objectives
2) defining the parameters
3) specifying the techniques & procedures
4) collecting the relevant data
In determining the incremental validity (the increase in predictive accuracy by using the test as compare to not) of a selection test, the minimum amount of information one has to know is:
base rate (% of correct hiring decisions made when test is not used), selection ratio (ratio of job openings to applicants), & validity of the test
Forced-Choice Checklists:
presents rater with series of statements what are similar in terms of social desirability, and ability to distinguish between suddessful and unsucessful job performance (reduces some rater biases)
Contrast Effect:
tendecy to give ratings on the basis of comparison to other ratees
Personnel Selection:
Cognitive Ability: most valid
Job Knowledge: validity increases w/job complexity
Work Samples: good for motor skills
Interview: mixed validity
BioData: high validity
Assesment Centers: high validity, but concerns of criterion contamination
Which of the Big Five is a good predicter of job performance and training success?
Conscientiousness
Differential validity:
occurs when a selection procedure is a valid predictor of job performance for one group, but not for another
Score adjustment methods:
Seperate cut-offs
Within group norming: converting to standard scores
Banding: treating scores within a range as equivalent
Unity analysis:
Used to assess the cost-effectiveness of a selection procedure (usually dollar gain in job performance)
Multiple predictors:
Multiple regression: compensatory technique
Multiple Cutoff:score above cutoff on each measure
Multiple Hurdle: predictors are in sequence
Holland's Personality typology:
Realistic: manipulate machinery, tools
Investigative: Analytical, curious, precise
Artistic: Expressive, non-conforming, introspective
Social:
Enterprising: manipulating others
Conventional: manipulating data, filing,
Super's developmental stages:
Growth 0-15
Exploration 15-24
Establishment 25-44
Maintenance 44-64
Decline 65+
A selection procedure's incremental validity is greatest when:
The base rate is moderate (around .50), the selection rate is low, & the validity coefficient is large
Super's Archway of Career Determinants:
depicts the personal and environemntal factors that combine to determine a person's career path (intrests, sel-concept, peer groups)
Weber's research on orginizational structure:
Bureaucratic structure, with formal rules & regulations maximizes effectiveness (refuted by later research)
Human relations approach:
assumes workers performance is affected primarily by social factors (e.g. attitudes towards supervisors)
Hawthorne effect:
increase in performance resulting from increased attention (in factoreis and in research)
Ouci's Theory Z:
Incorporate elements of American & Japanese models of management: consensual decision-making, slow promotion, holistic knowledge of company, individual responsibility
Total Quality Management:
Components include: cooperation, teamwork, cross-training of worker, task variety, feedback from the work process
Lewin's Leadership Styles:
Autocratic - make decisions alone (high productivity)
Democratic - involve others (satisfied workers)
Laissez-Faire - allow others to make decision (
Consideration vs. Intiating Structure:
Basic, independent, dimensions of leaders:
Consideration - person-oriented, focus on human relation
Intiating - task-oriented, focus on goal-setting
Theory X vs. Theory Y Leaders:
Proposed by McGregor - Theoryx: scientific management, motivation is determined by lower-level needs
Theory Y: human relations, focus that workers need freedom and autonomy (acc. to McGregor, Theory Y leads to a more effective orginization)
Fiedler's Contigency Theory:
High LPC leaders: do better in moderately favorable situations
Low LPC leaders: do better in low or high favorable situations
House's Path-Goal Theory of Leadership:
productivity is maximized when leaders are perceived as helping workers achieve goals
Instrumental: clear rules, procedures
Supportive: establish relationships
Participative: inclde all in decision-makin
Achievement-oriented: set challenging goals
Transformational vs. transactional Leadership:
Transformational: change focused, motivate workers by appealing to higher-level needs
Transactional: stability-focused, emphasize rules, rewards and punishments
Normative Model of Leadership (Vroom & Yetton)
AI: all decisions on own
AII:obtain info from other & then make decisions
CI: discuss problems with ind. workers, and then decide on own
CII:Discuss problems with group, then decide
GII:discuss problems with group & reach group decision
Process consultion:
helping team membersunderstand and alter process that are undermining their interactions (communication, conflict resolution)
Comunication Networks:
Centralized: passes thru one person (wheel, chain - works for simple, mundane tasks)
Decentralized: info flows freely between individuals (circle- best for complex task requiring cooperation - also linked to increased satisfaction)
Individual Decision-Making
Rational-Economic model: search all possible solutions until find the optimal one, requires lot of info, time & ability to process it all
Administrative model: evaluates solutions as they become available, & choosing the 1st one that is minimally acceptable
Alderfer's ERG Theory
E = Existence
R = Relatedness
G = Growth
McClelland's Need for Achievement
nACh:desire autonomy, moderatley challenging tasks, and sek recognition
nPOW:(power) motivated by control over others, prestige (good manageers)
nAFF: (affiliation) motivated by good interpersonal relationships, avoid conflict
Job enrichment
Designed to increase motivation (from Herzberg's model) gives workers more challenge, responsibility, and opportunities for advancement
Research notes it is most effective for younger, well-educated, & nACh
Job Characteristics model
Factors that influence internal work motivation & satisfaction:
1)Skill Variety:more skills
2)Task Identity: jobs that encompass whole picture
3)Task Significance:jobs that have importance to others
4)Autonomy:independence, decision-making
5)Feedback: feedback provides more meaning
Research: increases motivation, satisfaction, & lowers turnover but no effect work quality
Equity Theory
Workers compare their input to their output, if the ratio is less than they perceive others to be, they are motivated to create equity (put forth more or less effort)
Alderfer's ERG Theory
E = Existence
R = Relatedness
G = Growth
McClelland's Need for Achievement
nACh:desire autonomy, moderatley challenging tasks, and sek recognition
nPOW:(power) motivated by control over others, prestige (good manageers)
nAFF: (affiliation) motivated by good interpersonal relationships, avoid conflict
Job enrichment
Designed to increase motivation (from Herzberg's model) gives workers more challenge, responsibility, and opportunities for advancement
Research notes it is most effective for younger, well-educated, & nACh
Job Characteristics model
Factors that influence internal work motivation & satisfaction:
1)Skill Variety:more skills
2)Task Identity: jobs that encompass whole picture
3)Task Significance:jobs that have importance to others
4)Autonomy:independence, decision-making
5)Feedback: feedback provides more meaning
Research: increases motivation, satisfaction, & lowers turnover but no effect work quality
Equity Theory
Workers compare their input to their output, if the ratio is less than they perceive others to be, they are motivated to create equity (put forth more or less effort)
Biographical inventories are most effective when the items are:
Empirically derived (each item has demonstarted correlation with some aspect of job success)
Low job satisfaction is most strongly correlated with:
High turnover (-.40)
Process consultion focuses on improving:
Communication & interactions between group members of an orginization
Quality Circle:
Increases worker participation in goal-setting & decision-making, research shows it has short-term beneficial effects
Assessment centers
Multi-dimenisional assessment techniques, using work simulation, written tests, & interviews. Used most for managerial staff
Research ongender in goal setting theory note
the theory is equally applicable to both
A quality oriented culture emphasizes group or individual achievment?
In contrast to traditional culture, it emphsizes GROUP achievment
Satisfaction with the group leader is most related to:
The leaders level of consideration
Empirical support for the notion that Quality Circles actually improve quality of work life is lacking due to:
the non-binding nature of theworker suggestions on their supervisors
Machines are better than humans at:
taks that involve cosistency, relaibility, recognizing stimuli as beonging to a certain class (humans better at recognizing pattersns that vary)
Tiedman & O'Hare's Decision Making Career Model is correlated with _______ developmental stages:
Erikson's psychosocial stages
Regarding gender and leadership, research has shown:
Women tend to use a participatory style more, men more an autocratic style
Vocational Maturity
Term coined by Super to refer to the degree to which a person's progress in his sequence of work stages to be appropriat given the person's age
While early research showed differential validity to be a major problem, now we know it really was due to
small sample sizes
Best predictor of job test is likely
Aptitude test (biodata is also very good)
In basket technique is used typically with:
Managers (part of assessment centers)
Acc. to Drivr, Career concept refers to an individuals:
Career decisions (frequency of job change, type of job change, & direction of change)
Baltes found that flexitime had its greatest impact on_______
abseentism
"Leaderless group discussion" at assessment centers is used for:
Identifying or developing a managers leadership skills
Hershey & Blanchard leadership styles:
Telling style = high task, low relationship
Selling = high task, high relationship
Participatory = low task, high relationship
Delegating = low task, low relationship
According to the Cleary model, a test is unfair when:
The slope of the regression line is different for different groups
Criterion contamination results in a spuriously high
Validity coefficient
The Big 5 personality characteristics were derived from what approach?
A lexical one, from Galton