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52 Cards in this Set

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Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology
an area of scientific study and professional practice that addresses psychological concepts and principles in the work world
Fields of I/O Psychology
- Selection and Placement
- Training and Development
- Performance Appraisal
- Organization Development
- Quality of Work Life
- Ergonomics
Hawthorne Studies
research studies that refocused the interests of I/O psychologists to how work behavior manifests itself in an organizational context
Hawthorne Effect
a positive change in behavior that occurs at the onset of an intervention, followed by a gradual decline, often to the original level of the behavior prior to the internvention
Army General Classification Test
a test developed during WWII by I/O psychologists for the selection and placement of military personnel
Research
a formal process by which knowledge is produced and understood
Generalizability
the extent to which conclusions drawn from one research study spread or apply to a larger population
Theory
a statement that proposes to explain relationships among phenomena of interest
Inductive method
a research process in which conclusions are drawn about a general class of objects or people based on knowledge of a specific member of the class under investigation
Deductive method
a research process in which conclusions are drawn about a specific member of a class of objects or people based on knowledge of the general class under investigation
The Empirical Research Cycle
1 - statement of the problem
2 - design of research study
3 - measurement of variables
4 - analysis of data
5 - conclusions from research
Questionnaire
a type of research method in which subjects respond to written questions posed by the investigator
Observation
a type of research method in which the investigator observes subjects for the purpose of understanding their behavior and culture
Meta-analysis
a quantitative secondary research method for summarizing and integrating the findings from original empirical research studies
Variable
an object of study whose measurement can take on two or more values
Variability
the dispersion of numerical values evidenced in the measurement of an object or concept
Standard Deviation
a statistic that shows the dispersion of scores around the mean in a distribution of scores
Criteria
standards used to help make evaluative judgments about objects, people, or events
Job analysis
a formal procedure by which the content of a job is defined in terms of tasks performed and human qualifications needed to perform the job
task
the lowest level of analysis in the study of work; a basic component of work
position
a set of tasks performed by a single employee
job
a set of similar positions in an organization
KSAO's
an abbreviation for knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
a method of job analysis that assesses the content of jobs on the basis of approximately 200 items in the questionnaire
job evaluation
a procedure for assessing the relative value of jobs in an organization for the purpose of establishing levels of compensation
external equity
concept that is the basis for using wage and salary surveys in establishing compensation for jobs
internal equity
concept that is the basis for using job evaluation in establishing compensation rates for jobs
compensable factors
dimensions of work used to assess the relative value of a job for determining compensation rates
objective performance criteria
a set of factors used to assess job performances that are (relatively) objective or factual in character
subjective performance criteria
a set of factors used to assess job performance that are the product of someone's subjective rating of these factors
reliability
a standard for evaluating tests that refers to the consistency, stability, or equivalence of test scores
validity
a standard for evaluating tests that refers to the accuracy or appropriateness of drawing inferences from test scores
construct validity
the degree to which a test is an accurate and faithful measure of the construct it purports to measure
integrity test
a type of paper and pencil test that purports to assess a test-takers honesty, character, or integrity
situational judgment test
a type of test that describes a problem situation to the test-taker to rate various possible solutions in terms of their feasibility or applicability
unstructured interview
a format for the job interview in which the questions are different across all candidates
structured interview
a formal for the job interview in which the questions are consistent across all candidates
situational interview
a type of job interview in which candidates are presented with a problem situation and asked how they would respond to it
assessment center
a method of assessing job candidates via a series of structured, group-oriented exercises that are evaluated by raters
situational exercises
a method of assessment in which examinees are presented with a problem situation and asked how they would respond to it
biographical information
a method of assessing individuals, in which information pertaining to past activities, interests, and behaviors in their lives is recorded
emotional intelligence
a construct that reflects a persons capacity to manage emotional responses in social situations
protected groups
a designation for the members of society who are granted legal recognition by virtue of a demographic characteristic, such as race, gender, national origin, color, religion, age and disability
affirmative action
a social policy that advocates members of protected groups will be actively recruited and considered for selection in employment
recruitment
the process by which individuals are solicited to apply for jobs
personnel selection
the process of determining those applicants who are selected for hire vs. those who are rejected
placement
the process of assigning individuals to jobs based on one test score
classification
the process of assigning individuals to jobs based on two or more test scores
training
the process through which the knowledge, skills, and abilities of employees are enhanced
organizational analysis
a phase of training needs analysis directed at determining whether training is a viable solution to organizational problems, and if so, where in the organization training should be directed
task analysis
phase of training needs analysis directed at identifying which tasks in a job should be targeted for improved performance
person analysis
a phase of training needs analysis directed at identifying which individuals within an organization should receive training