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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
applied psychology
The study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance and the application of psychological findings.
arithmetic mean
An average that is calculated by adding up a set of quantities and dividing the sum by the total number of quantities in the set.
basic psychology
The study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge for its own sake rather than for its practical application.
A psychological approach that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior.
biological perspective
A psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.
case study
A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated.
coefficient of correlation
A measure of correlation that ranges in value from -1.00 to +1.00.
cognitive perspective
A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior.
control condition
In an experiment, a comparison condition in which subjects are not exposed to the same treatment as in the experimental condition.
A measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.
correlational study
A descriptive study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomena.
critical thinking
The ability and willingness to assess claims and to make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons.
critical thinking
The ability and willingness to assess claims and to make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons.
cross-sectional study
A study in which subjects of different ages are compared at a given time.
dependent variable
A variable that an experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable.
descriptive methods
Methods that yield descriptions of behavior but not necessarily causal explanations.
descriptive statistics
Statistics that organize and summarize research data
double-blind study
An experiment in which neither the subjects nor the individuals running the study know which subjects are in the control group(s) and which in the experimental group(s) until after the results are tallied.
Relying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement.
A controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another.
experimenter effects
Unintended changes in subjects' behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter.
An early psychological approach that stressed the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness.
humanistic psychology
A psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential rather than the scientific understanding and assessment of behavior.
A statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena; scientific hypotheses specify relationships among events or variables and are supported or disconfirmed by empirical investigation.
independent variable
A variable that an experimenter manipulates.
inferential statistics
Statistical tests that allow researchers to assess how likely it is that their results occurred merely by chance.
longitudinal study
A study in which subjects are followed and periodically reassessed over a period of time.
A procedure for combining and analyzing data from many studies; it determines how much of the variance in scores across all studies can be explained by a particular variable.
negative correlation
An association between increases in one variable and decreases in another
In test construction, established standards of performance.
observational study
A study in which the researcher carefully and systematically observes and records behavior without interfering with the behavior; it may involve either naturalistic or laboratory settings.
operational definition
A precise definition of a term in a hypothesis, which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon being defined.
An inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control in an experiment or given by a medical practitioner to a patient.
positive correlation
An association between increases in one variable and increases in another.
principle of falsifiability
The principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation; that is, the theory must predict not only what will happen, but also what will not happen.
The medical specialty concerned with mental disorders, maladjustment, and abnormal behavior.
A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts.
psychodynamic perspective
Psychological approaches that emphasize unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy.
psychological tests
Procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values
The scientific study of, or discipline concerned with, behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external environment; the term is often represented by the Greek letter psi (usually pronounced "sy").
random assignment
A procedure for assigning people to experimental and control groups in which each individual has the same probability as any other of being assigned to a given group.
A measure of spread of scores, calculated by subtracting the lowest score from the highest score.
In test construction, the consistency, from one time and place to another, of scores derived from a test
representative sample
A sample that matches the population in question on important characteristics such as age and sex.
A group of subjects selected from a population for study in order to estimate characteristics of the population.
single-blind study
An experiment in which subjects do not know whether they are in an experimental or a control group.
social constructionism
The view that there are no universal truths about human nature, because people construct reality differently depending on their culture, the historical moment, and the power arrangements within their society.
social-learning theory
Also called cognitive social-learning theory, the theory that behavior is learned and maintained through observation and imitation of others, positive consequences, and cognitive processes such as plans and expectations
sociocultural perspective
A psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior.
standard deviation
A commonly used measure of the variability that indicates the average difference between the scores in a distribution and their mean
In test construction, to develop uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test.
statistically significant
A term used to refer to a result that is extremely unlikely to have occurred by chance.
An early psychological approach that stressed analysis of immediate experience into basic elements
Questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences, attitudes, or opinions
An organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships.
trained introspection
A form of self-observation in which individuals examine and report the contents of their own consciousness
The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure
Characteristics of behavior or experience that can be measured or described by a numeric scale; variables are manipulated and assessed in scientific studies.
A measure of the dispersion of scores around the mean
volunteer bias
A shortcoming of findings derived from a sample of volunteers instead of a
representative sample