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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the two broad categories of medical parasites?

what's the difference?
-protozoa - one-celled
-metazoa - many-celled
what are the three phyla of metazoa?
what are the two classes of platyhelminthes?
what are trematoda?
what is the class of aschelminthes?
what is the common name?
class nematoda

what are the four classes of arthropoda?
what are the two ways to identify parasites in lab?
what type of processing is done for intestinal parasites?
O and P
what does O and P stand for?
ova and parasites
what are two points that need consideration re: parasite specimens?

-number of specimens
how fresh of a spec will give motile trophozoites?
within 30 min.
what are the time limits that mandate how you handle a specimen?
-within under 3 hrs handle it as fresh.

-if over 3 hrs old, preserve it.
what are 4 requirements of a fecal specimen's collection?
-if barium was given, wait 5 days before collecting feces.
-no urine - acidity distorts the parasite.
-direct into dry, clean container.
what is the preferable number of specimens for parasite testing?
1 every other day
1 after a laxative

that's in a perfect world
how many specimen are required for entomoeba histolytica?
what's the first thing done on a fresh or preserved specimen for o and p?
4 things you look for when doing a macroscopic direct exam of a stool:
1. Color - blood?
2. Consistency - loose or well-formed = cyst or trophoz.
3. Interfering substances (Ba)
4. Adult Parasites
What two solutions are used in a microscopic direct test?
-lugol's iodine
at what powers do you do the micro direct test?
-first low - for big parasites
-then highdry - for small

-Always do both!!
what are 2 things that can be used for preservation?
-PVA (polyvinyl alcohol)

-10% Formalin
what are the advantages of PVA?
-can do permanent stains on it later
-good for liquidy stools
what is formalin good for?

what's bad about it?
-all stool forms except liquidy.
-can do a concentration proced

Disadv: can't do a trichome permanent stain.
why do a concentration method?
to increase chances of finding parasite - can be hard on the direct test.
what are two types of conc. methods?
-zinc sulfate flotation

-formalin ethyl acetate sedimentation
Regarding the zinc sulfate flotation procdure, what's the
-2 disadvantages?
Adv: fecal debris is seperate at the bottom of tube.
1. if the thing being sought is a large egg, it doesn't float.
2. Can only be done on fresh specimen.
What's the biggest disadvantage of the form. ethyl acetate sedimentation?
Dis: fecal debris is on slide.

Adv: can see ALL parasites and can use formalin-preserved specimens.
what are 4 characteristics of the class Nematoda?

-what is the common name?
1. Shape
2. Cuticle
3. Digestive Tract.
4. Reproductive System
-common name is Roundworm
What shape are roundworms?

what is their protective, thin covering called?
round, bilaterally symmetrical, tapered at one end.

what is the digest. tract like of roundworms?
well developed, with a
-buccal cavity
what is the reproductive system of nematodes like?
Sexes are seperate and do not multiply in man.

1 ovum gives 1 adult.
Females are bigger than males.
What are the four Phyla of the Protozoa?
What 2 subphyla are within Phylum Sarcomastigophora?
-Sarcodina (amoeba)
-Mastigophora (flagellates)
What is in Phylum Ciliphora?
Balantidium coli
What 2 subphyla are within Phylum Apicomplexa?
What is in Subphylum Microspora?
Not a whole lot worth mentioning