• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/271

Click to flip

271 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The study of human social behavior--societies, social groups, and the relationships between people.
sociology
The ability to see that social forces affect individual lives and that individuals can alter the course of human history.
sociological imagination
Defined by C. Wright Mills as something we need if we are to understand ourselves in relation to society.
sociological imagination
The three sociological perspectives, or paradigms.
symbolic interactionism
functionalism
conflict theory
Philosophical or theoretical perspectives--each one is a point of view from which a sociologist studies society.
symbolic interactionism, functionalism, and conflict theory
The sociological perspective which focuses on symbols and face-to-face interaction.
symbolic interactionism
Focused on the process of social interaction and on the meanings that are constructed and reconstructed in that process.
symbolic interactionism
The sociological perspective which focuses on the relationship between different parts of society, where each part contributes to the overall stability of the whole.
functionalism
Based on the writings of Emile Durkheim and Herbert Spencer and is based on looking at things from the perspective that everything, whether apparently good or bad, serves some kind of function.
functionalism
Sees society as characterized by conflict and inequality; it focuses on how the elite control the poor, and the competition for scarce resources.
conflict theory perspective
Based on the work of Coser, Dahrendorf, and Mills.
conflict theory perspective
Primarily used in the natural sciences, but are also used by sociologists. They make use of statistical and other math-based techniques to form conclusions from their observations.
quantitative methods of research
Designed to achieve precision, in contrast to qualitative methods.
quantitative methods
Rely on personal observation and description to form conclusions on behavior.
qualitative methods of research
Not an exact science like quantitative methods which are based on statistics and math.
qualitative methods of research
The most commonly used method of observation by sociologists which involves asking the subjects of the study questions.
survey method
Involves either interviewing the subjects, or having them fill out a survey.
survey method
Unless the number of subjects being studied is small, not everyone is approached in a survey.
representative sample
A portion of the subject population which represents the whole. It involves randomly choosing subjects so that everyone has an equal chance of being selected.
representative sample
Uses differences which exist in a subject population, such as gender, as the basis for selecting, instead of doing a straight random selection.
stratified sampling
If a population is divided into blue-collar and white-collar workers, the researcher might choose to select a certain number of each based on what proportion of the total population they make up, instead of choosing a completely random mix.
stratified sampling
The study of populations and their characteristics.
demographics
Categorize people based on age, gender, education, occupation, income, family background, etc.
sociologists
Subjects of a study change their behavior if they know they are being studied.
Hawthorne effect
Subjects in a study at the Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Company who hadn't been subject to any changes improved their performance in the presence of researchers.
Hawthorne effect
Physically attractive people are perceived as having more positive characteristics, such as kindness, sociability, honesty, etc.
halo effect
Occurs when people become stereotyped based on earlier impressions and these impressions color future events. It can be positive or negative.
halo effect
Kept under normal conditions in an experiment.
control group
Subject to a particular condition in an experiment.
experimental group
Sociologists use this term instead of "cause".
independent variable
Sociologists use this term instead of "effect".
dependent variable
Produces an effect on another variable.
independent variable--in a study of crime, hunger could be a independent variable (hunger causes crime)
The variable affected.
dependent variable--in a study of poverty, hunger may be a dependent variable (poverty causes hunger)
Adopted a functional approach to his study of religion, stating that it served the function of acting as a source of solidarity and identification for the individuals within a society.
Emile Durkheim
Sees each aspect of society as interdependent and serving some kind of function. This approach stresses practicality, purpose, and utility.
functionalist perspective
Subjects are observed from a distance--normally the subjects do not know they are being observed, and the researcher is not directly involved with them.
unobtrusive observation
The researcher joins the group of subjects or participates in the activity being observed.
participant observation
Researcher studies old records and documents in an attempt to discover something new, instead of going out and collecting his own data.
secondary analysis
Concerns such as "could the results of this research be used in harmful ways," "is the privacy of the subjects being invaded," or "should subjects know they are being studied?"
ethical problems
The process whereby people become social beings or learn to take part in new social situations.
socialization
The two types of socialization.
primary and secondary
The socialization which takes a child from birth to the point where he is a member of society as a social being.
primary socialization
The subsequent socialization which an already socialized person experiences.
secondary socialization
Children draw on their parents' experiences to learn about their possible future.
anticipatory socialization
Occurs in advance of playing an actual role. We rehearse for the future by learning something about role requirements and visualize ourselves in the role.
anticipatory socialization
Believed social interaction to be a series of human dramas in which people play roles much as actors do, attempting to control the reactions of others by presenting a certain image of one's self.
Erving Goffman
Social life is like a drama or stage play.
Goffman's dramaturgy theory
Believed the self develops through three stages: the preparatory stage, the play stage and the game stage.
George Herbert Mead
Children imitate others.
preparatory stage
Children pretend to take the roles of specific people.
play stage
Children become aware of the expectations of others.
game stage
For Mead, the process of acting involves the interaction of two basic aspects of the self.
the I and the Me
All human acts begin in this form and give acts energy--the creative aspect of the self.
the I
This aspect of the self focuses on conformity with the expectations of society.
the Me
Preventing crime by instilling fear in the general population through the punishment of offenders.
general deterrence
The individual offender is discouraged from further crimes through punishment.
individual deterrence
Crime that generally involves acts that are non-violent.
white collar
Forgery, fraud, embezzlement and counterfeiting. These criminals are often respectable people with no previous criminal record.
white collar
This is developed in a person through socialization.
personality
Allows people to acquire and develop a personality. There have been documented examples of people who grew up with animals in the forest, and did not have a human personality due to the absence human interaction.
socialization
The process of "becoming human," or being able to participate in society.
socialization
The driving forces behind socialization--the individuals, groups, and institutions which help socialization to take place.
socialization agents
A practice or relationship which is of importance in the life of a community or society.
institution that includes marriage and the family
An established organization dedicated to education, public service, or culture.
institution
The process of discarding behavioral practices and adopting new ones.
resocialization
A place of forced resocialization, where the people confined are cut off from the rest of society.
total institution
Places such as prison, mental hospitals, and even the military.
total institutions
Developed the idea of psychoanalysis, and believed biological drives were the primary source of human activity.
Sigmund Freud
He believed that people are ruled by unconscious desires, and through socialization, learn to repress and channel these desires in socially acceptable ways.
Sigmund Freud
According to this Sigmund Freud principle, the id is the reservoir of primitive desires and drives--unaffected by the real world.
pleasure principle
The set of biological needs and is governed by the "pleasure principle."
the id
According to Sigmund Freud, the ego is guided by this priniciple and manages the id's impulses to conform to society's standards.
reality principle
The "executive" of the person--it manages the person's functioning.
the ego
Depends on service industries and high technology.
postindustrial society
The relative importance of manufacturing lessens and that of services, information, and research grows--most jobs are knowledge-based or service professions.
postindustrial society
Represents internalized parents--a conscience, according to Sigmund Freud.
superego
The last of the three psychic apparatuses to develop.
superego
The three psychic apparatuses
id
ego
superego
Believed that the self-concept is reevaluated every time we enter a new social situation. He called this process of self-formation the looking-glass self.
Charles Horton Cooley
This process has three stages--the end result being that our conception of ourself is based on the judgements of others--other people become our mirror.
looking-glass self
Developed a theory of cognitive development, which he broke down into four stages to describe the changes which occur over time in children's reasoning and understanding.
Jean Piaget
Theory of cognitive development stages.
sensorimotor
preoperational
concrete operations
formal operations
The first stage--infants do not understand cause-and-effect, they only perceive things through the immediate experience of sucking, touching, looking, etc.
Generally associated with the ages 0 to 2 years old.
sensorimotor stage
Defined by Emile Durkheim, which sees it as necessary to establish group boundaries--it marks the extremities of acceptable behavior.
functionalist view of deviance
Known for his functionalist view of deviance, seeing it not necessarily as harmful to society, but stated that a limited amount of crime is necessary and beneficial. His anomie theory proposed that the cause of deviance is a state of normlessness resulting from rapid social change.
Emile Durkheim
The preoperational stage is where a child begins to use language and symbols, and can differentiate fantasy from reality.
Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development
Theory of cognitive development stage associated with the ages 2 to 7 years.
preoperational stage
Children maturely understand cause-and-effect, but they cannot conceive of ideas beyond the concrete situation or event.
concrete operational stage
This is the third stage because the child's thinking is still concrete--he/she is not yet capable of abstract thought.
concrete operational stage
Occurs during a person's lifetime, and refers to a change in an individual's social standing. It is also called career mobility.
intragenerational mobility
A change in social standing across generations--an example is the son of high-school dropout blue collar workers graduating from business school.
intergenerational mobility
The last stage where children are capable of highly abstract thought to include logic, deductive reasoning, and classification.
formal operational stage
He defined eight stages of psychosocial development that involved a task or crisis.
Erik Erikson
Culture where people attach meaning to and use objects.
material culture
Includes things such as books, furniture, clothes, and even burial sites--basically anything that is material, or physically exists, which people attach meaning to and use.
material culture
The beliefs, behaviors, objects, and other characteristics common to the members of a particular group or society.
culture
Agreed-upon expectations and rules by which people orient their behavior, and often vary from culture to culture.
norms
Conventions or customs; they are standards of behavior which members of a society or group expect each other to conform to.
folkways
Norms of moral and ethical significance, and violation of these would offend most people of a culture and result in strong criticism or even punishment.
mores
Norms which are absolutely forbidden by the culture--an example is incest.
taboos
A person judges other cultures against the standards of his own culture.
ethnocentrism
Sociologists try not to let ethnocentrism affect their study of other cultures--they try to stay objective.
cultural relativism
A unique culture or cultural organization within a large culture--an example is the Amish people.
subculture
A unique culture or cultural organization within a larger culture with values and ways of life which do not conform to the larger culture's norms--such as the Ku Klux Klan.
counterculture
Occurs when an immigrant group effectively becomes part of the main culture by gradually adopting the values and culture of the majority of the population.
assimilation
Occurs when ethnic minority groups remain distinctive, they adapt and conform to a limited number of majority values and behaviors.
integration
The physical absorption of one group by another through intermarriage--the opposite of separation.
amalgamation
Occurs when different groups in a society maintain parts of their distinctive cultures while coexisting peacefully with the majority group.
cultural pluralism
Something as broad as human association or more narrowly, a group of people living in a certain geographical area who share a common culture.
society
The idea that as time passes, society becomes more complex.
sociocultural evolution
Depend on hunting animals and gathering vegetation for food, and are nomadic--constantly moving around as the local sources of food are used up.
hunting societies
Grow their own food, but their level of technology is very primitive--hand tools are used to farm.
horticultural societies
Dedicated animals as their primary source of food.
pastoral societies
A shared cultural heritage that defines a group of people and involves cultural ties--shared cultural practices, perspectives and distinctions.
ethnicity
American females involved in sports has increased dramatically since the 1970's.
In 1971, only 1 in 27 high school girls played sports but by 1996 that changed to 1 in 3.
Depend on farming, but use techniques such as irrigation and draft animals to produce a large surplus.
agricultural societies
Utilize fuel-driven machines used to produce goods.
industrial society
Based on information, knowledge, and selling of services instead of being driven by factory production of goods.
postindustrial society
Believed that all societies are marked by class conflict, where the poor are exploited by the rich and powerful.
Karl Marx
Defined two classes--the proletariat, who were the laborers, and the bourgeoisie, who were the ones who exploited the laborers and owned the means of production.
Karl Marx
Believed that society limits our insatiable desires and gives our lives meaning. Stated that humans were different from other animals, because we are not satisfied once our biological needs are met, and we need a sense of meaning or purpose.
Emile Durkheim
French sociologist who was the first person to systematically apply scientific methods to sociology.
Emile Durkheim
Emile Durkheim is famous for is his definition of four types of suicide
altruistic
anomic
egoistic
fatalistic
Came up with a method which he called verstehen, which allows sociologists to mentally put themselves into the "other person's shoes" and obtain an "interpretative understanding" of individual behavior.
Max Weber
Means "empathetic understanding."
verstehen
A person's position in society or a group--includes things such as being a computer science major, a wife, a Hispanic-American, etc.
status
Status either through birth or some other reason beyond his control but not because he tried to achieve it.
ascribed status
Status that a person has because of something he did, or through his efforts.
achieved status
The most important status a person holds, and is the status that the person is most identified with.
master status
All of the statuses a person occupies.
status set
Theories that attempt to determine patterns in the development of cities--multiple nuclei theory, concentric zone theory, and the sector theory.
urbanization theories
Different and conflicting expectations exist for a particular status.
role strain
Some of a person's statuses conflict with each other.
role conflict
Said that change could result in anomie either in the whole society or some parts of it.
Emile Durkheim
Refers to a condition of relative normlessness--social regulations break down, the controlling influence of society on individual propensities is no longer as effective and individuals are left to their own devices.
anomie
An association of self-selected equals, based on friendship, a sense of belonging, and acceptance.
peer group
The members intimately and warmly interact over a long period of time.
Charles Horton Cooley's primary group
The members do not interact much in this group--the interaction may be anonymous, or for a short duration, and with few emotional ties.
Charles Horton Cooley's secondary group
Per hour worked, the percentage women now earn of what men earn.
75%
Refers to small communities consisting largely of primary group relationships.
Ferdinand Tonnies' gemeinschaft group
Refers to groups where membership is based on contractual relationships--the members have a particular goal they want to achieve.
Ferdinand Tonnies' gesellschaft group
Racism which has been codified into society's institutions of custom, practice, and law.
institutionalized racism
An artificial barrier in the work world which makes promotion beyond a certain level for certain groups difficult.
glass ceiling
Group consisting of two people.
dyad
Group which consists of three people--not as cohesive and personal as a dyad.
triad
Technique developed by J. L. Moreno for figuring out the direction of interaction in a small group.
sociometry
Group which a person belongs to.
in-group
Social group we use to provide the standards for how we evaluate ourselves.
reference group
Person goes along with group goals, doing things they normally would not do, to be accepted.
group conformity
Members of a group think similarly and conform to each other's views, often at the expense of ignoring reality--decisions being made from a narrow point of view.
groupthink
Achievement motivated; they are task-oriented leaders who are interested in achieving the goals--make good managers because they are efficient.
instrumental leaders
Affiliation motivated--they want to maintain warm, friendly relationships, and make sure that the subordinates are satisfied.
expressive leaders
A secondary group with a goal-directed agenda. It is characterized by formality, ranked positions, and complex division of labor.
formal organization
Organizations made up by the informal relations, alliances, or cliques among the workers.
informal organization
Calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate.
population natural growth rate
Believed that population growth had a tendency to exceed food production.
Thomas Malthus
The number one cause of death in the U.S.
heart disease
The leading cause of death in low-income, less developed countries.
infectious diseases
An organization whose goal is to perform complex tasks as efficiently as possible--it is guided by rules and written procedures, and is usually rigid and inflexible.
bureaucracy
The classic model of modern bureaucracy was proposed by a German sociologist. He believed promotion of bureaucrats should be gradual and based on merit rather than political connections.
Max Weber
States that in a bureaucratic organization, "work expands to fill the time available for its completion."
Parkinson's Law
The condition where population growth outpaces industrial growth.
overurbanization
States that employees in a bureaucracy are promoted to their level of incompetence.
Peter Principle
Robert Michels' law which said that in every organization, a small number of people actually make the decisions.
Iron Law of Oligarchy
Any behavior which violates social norms, and can either be criminal or non-criminal--such as alcoholism, public nudity, stealing, and cross-dressing .
deviance
A "mark of social disgrace," where the person's deviance is recognized by others.
stigma
Refers to the ways of getting people to conform to norms--such as persuasion, teaching, and force.
social control
The confusion that arises when social norms conflict or don't even exist.
anomie
Proposed the differential association theory to explain how people learn deviance.
Edwin Sutherland
The group into which a person is born.
family of orientation
The group formed in adulthood by people when they have children.
family of procreation
Family that consists only of a mother, father, and their children.
nuclear family
Parents and children live with other close relatives--common in Asian societies where one house may consist of three generations of related families living together.
extended family
The American sociologist theorized that changing family patterns were not a simple effect of one cause such as industrialization.
William J. Goode
William J. Goode's book, World Revolution and Family Patterns noted a trend in industrialized societies toward nuclear family households or smaller family units.
western conjugal family system
A family where the majority of the authority is vested in the father.
patriarchy
A family where the majority of the authority is vested in the mother.
matriarchy
Indicate where newlyweds will live.
matrilocality
neolocality
patrilocality
Newlyweds live with the wife's family.
matrilocality
Newlyweds live with the husband's family while
patrilocality
Newlyweds live separate from their extended families.
neolocality
Marriage occurs outside of specific groups--marrying with someone outside of his family.
exogamy
One marries within a certain group--marrying someone of the same race.
endogamy
Marriage that involves more than one spouse.
polygamy
A form of polygamy where a man has several wives at once.
polygyny
A form of polygamy where a woman has several husbands at once.
polyandry
How work is divided among people in a social group or organization.
division of labor
People are directly involved with extraction and cultivation of natural resources--hunting, gathering, farming, and mining.
primary sector of the economy
Calculated by dividing the number of births in a year by the number of women aged 15 to 44.
fertility rate
Known as the number of people in the total population who are not in the total work force.
economic dependency ratio
Largest component of the dependency ratio.
those under 16
Fastest growing component of the dependency ratio.
those over 65
Raw materials are turned into manufactured goods--mills and factories.
secondary sector of the economy
Services, rather than physical goods--health, education, and entertainment.
tertiary sector of the economy
Form of distribution in which goods or services are exchanged directly for other things which are considered to be of equivalent value--before money became a medium of trade.
barter system
Believed that class conflict marks all societies, the classes being defined by who owns the means of production.
Karl Marx
Own the means of production
bourgeoisie
In conflict with the bourgeoisie and do not own the means of production.
proletariat
Value of goods and services are based on supply and demand and uses money as a medium for trade.
free-market system of distribution
From long-held customs, people follow not because of the leader's qualifications but because that's what people have always done--a king.
traditional authority
Based on rational grounds and usually a body of laws which have been legally enacted or contractually established.
rational legal authority
Based on the ability to influence others through exemplary or extraordinary character attributes--politicians.
Max Weber's charismatic authority
Region made up of several large cities and their surrounding areas in sufficient proximity to be considered a single urban complex.
megalopolis
Created when the suburbs surrounding several metropolises grow and merge together, forming one continuous urban complex.
megalopolis
Max Weber believed that authority is ultimately granted by those being governed--the people must believe in the ruler.
leader's legitimacy
People being led believe that the leader has a legitimate right to command.
legitimacy
Max Weber differentiated between three different ways of getting legitimacy.
traditional
rational-legal
charismatic authority
People being governed have little or no say in government's operations--the rulers are dictators who do not tolerate opposition to their authority.
authoritarian government
The three main types of government.
authoritarian
totalitarian
democratic
Moving from one social level to another, instead of moving within the same social level--upward or downward.
vertical mobility
Change in status within the same social level--switching from one janitorial job to another.
horizontal mobility
Rulers exercise absolute and centralized control over all aspects of life--takes the level of authority one step further from an authoritarian government.
totalitarian government
People have a right to participate in government, and ultimately hold the authority over how they are governed.
democratic government
Stated that a small group of military leaders, politicians, and business leaders cooperate and form a "ruling class" in America.
C. Wright Mills' book The Power Elite
Power is dispersed throughout many competing interest groups.
pluralist model
Believed that a pluralist model of power exists in the United States and no one can dominate society's decision-making process.
David Riesman
Refers to religious symbols, objects, and rituals.
sacred
Nonreligious in subject matter, form, or use.
profane
Stated that religion functions to bind society's members by having them affirm their common beliefs and values on a regular basis.
Emile Durkheim's book The Elementary Forms of Religious Life
Studied six of the world's largest religions and wrote the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.
Max Weber
He believed that Protestantism's "Work Ethic" played a big part in the development of capitalism in the West, whereas Eastern religions such as Hinduism were barriers to capitalism.
Max Weber
Economic system characterized by limited involvement of the government in the economy, individual ownership of the factors of production, and individuals pursuing their own self interest with few constraints.
pure capitalism
Government plays a major part in allocating resources--US welfare system.
welfare capitalism
Small number of organizations or individuals control a product or service--automobile manufacturing industry.
oligopoly
The simplest form of religious organization and normally centers around a charismatic leader. Members of such an organization reject the norms and values of the larger society.
cult
The three main forms of religious organization.
cult
sect
church
Religious organization which typically forms in protest to a larger denomination--with little formal structure and few or no leaders.
sect
Formally established leadership, an institutionalized way of dealing with money, and many members are automatically born into the organization--rather than voluntarily joining it.
church
Synonymous with a denomination and is a large and established religious body with a formal, bureaucratic structure.
church
Biggest group of people in poverty.
Whites
Highest poverty rate (percentage of a group which is in poverty) in America.
African Americans and Native Americans
US children living in poverty.
20%
Sociologists attribute this high rate of child poverty to a sharp increase in births outside of wedlock.
unmarried women account for 1/3 of all US births
The rate of children in poverty has always been higher than that of the total population.
1 in 5 American children have been below the poverty level for the past two decades.
Since the mid-1970s, poverty among the elderly has fallen and remained below the national poverty level since 1982.
Prior to the mid-1970s, persons aged 65 and older were much more likely to be poor than other Americans.
As a result of lower birth rates and higher life expectancy, the elderly comprise the fastest growing age group in the US.
It is estimated that by 2030, persons in the US over the age of 65 will make up 22% of the population.
People over age 80 are the most common victims of elder abuse.
Most cases of elder abuse go unreported because the victims are completely dependent upon their abusers for financial and material support.
The religions of the West and Middle East emphasize one god--Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
monotheism
Religions of the Far East and Southeast Asia emphasize many gods--Buddhism, Hinduism, Shintoism, and Confucianism.
polytheistic
Unequal distribution of power, property, and prestige--the "three P's".
social stratification
People end up in ranked statuses whether they are born into this status or achieve it on their own.
social hierarchy
Person is born into, whereas an achieved social position comes from personal ability or effort.
ascribed social position
Person's ability to move through the different levels of the social hierarchy.
social mobility
Person is born or married into his social position and social mobility is difficult or impossible--India.
caste system
Mobility is easier and occurs more often--America.
class system
Categorizes people into races. Race is often used as a course of social stratification, and is based on physical differences which society has deemed to be socially significant.
society not biology
Group identified on the basis of their common language, national heritage, or cultural practices.
ethnicity
Argued that stratification is inevitable so that the most capable will fill the most demanding positions.
Davis & Moore's functionalist view of stratification
Believed that social stratification was a result of the class structure--the exploitation of the "have nots" by those who have, or the power of the bourgeoisie over the proletariat.
Karl Marx
First to develop the concept of "sociology."
Auguste Comte
Auguste Comte's Law of Three Stages which are three stages societies progress.
metaphysical
positivist or scientific
theological
His theory stated that society would progress--eventually the discontent laborers would overthrow their employers to form a classless society of economic equals.
Karl Marx's theory
Social condition in which the working class possess a distorted perception of the reality of class and its consequences.
Karl Marx's false consciousness
World economic system must be understood as a single unit, not a collection of independent countries.
Wallerstein’s world systems theory
Wallerstein’s world systems theory divided the world into three unequal economic categories.
core
periphery
semi periphery
Poor countries that are exploited for their cheap labor and raw materials--primarily agricultural found throughout Africa, Latin America and Asia.
peripheral countries
Somewhat industrialized and exploit peripheral countries-- are themselves exploited by core countries.
semi peripheral countries
Dominant capitalist, most advanced industrialized countries and they exploit peripheral/semi peripheral countries.
core countries
Focused on the origins of man-made culture, and his view on social stratification was that due to class, status situation, and parties being a source of conflict and change, there was no foreseeable end to stratification.
Max Weber
Max Weber belief that differences in a person's opportunities for income, how other people assess that person's status, and the forming of parties to acquire social power.
unavoidable sources of social stratification
Allows little social mobility--people are born or married into a certain position.
caste system of social stratification
Model of city growth where cities grow in a series of rings, each characterized by a different group of people and activity.
concentric zone growth theory
Group behavior which can be either short-lived spontaneous public expressions of feeling, or long-term public expressions aimed towards achieving specific goals--mass hysteria, panics, crazes, fads, fashions, and rumors.
collective behavior
Stated that being in a crowd frees the individual members of feeling responsibility or social restraint.
Gustave Lebon's contagion theory
Members of a crowd feel anonymous, and free of social restraint and responsibility, and therefore do whatever the group is doing.
unconventional collective behavior
States that a number of like-minded individuals coming together forms a collective action--the individual motives resulted in the collective action, not some separate "collective mind of the crowd."
Convergence Theory
Proposes that the crowd becomes something like a wild animal, just going with the flow of the crowd and not thinking for themselves.
Contagion Theory
Focuses on the negative and conflicted nature of society.
conflict perspective
States that new norms are created by a few individuals, and the whole crowd soon adopts the new norms.
Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian's emergent-norm theory
Collective activities which are set on causing or preventing changes in society--civil rights movement or temperance movement.
social movement
Focuses on the ability of members of a social movement to obtain resources, mobilize people to advance their cause, and places a great deal of emphasis on the acquisition of financial resources from individuals, organizations, elites and governments.
resource mobilization theory