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16 Cards in this Set

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Which theoretical approach is concerned with how an organism uses its perceptual abilities to function in its environment?

Humanistic
Functionalist
Behaviorist
Existentialist
Structuralist
Functionalist

Functionalists focus on the value that behaviors and other psychological characteristics have for an organism's adaptation to its environment. Structuralists focus on what those behaviors and characteristics are, and on finding their basic components.
Which school of psychology argues that only behaviors that can be observed directly should be studied?

Humanism
Psychoanalysis
Structuralism
Functionalism
Behaviorism
Behaviorism

Behaviorists argue that it isn't necessary to know about internal mental processes to understand and predict behavior; humanists focus on studying characteristics of the self and their organization; psychoanalysts emphasize internal sources of tension and conflict; structuralists use introspection to study internal mental processes; and functionalists aren't directly concerned with the importance of internal vs. external factors in behavior, but nevertheless were interested in studying the mind.
Which approach to psychology focuses on thought processes?

Biological
Behavioral
Cognitive
Humanistic
Psychodynamic
Cognitive

The cognitive approach is about how people think; the biological approach is about how chemistry and physiology influence behavior; humanists and psychoanalysts are interested in what people think about, but not in how thinking happens.
Subjects know that their behavior is being observed in the typical settings for all of the following research methods EXCEPT

Case study
Naturalistic observation
Survey
Correlational
Experimental
Naturalistic observation

In each of the other research methods, subjects know that their behavior is being observed.
Which research method involves studying the behavior of individuals one at a time and in depth?

Case study
Naturalistic observation
Survey
Correlational
Experimental
Case Study

Naturalistic observation precludes asking questions, so only overt behavior can be studied. Surveys, correlational studies, and experiments necessarily involve many subjects.
In order to study the effects of music on memory, a researcher has one group of subjects listen to music while studying a list of words and another group study the same list without listening to music. In this experiment, the number or words each subject can remember would be

the independent variable
a placebo
manipulated by the experimenter
the dependent variable
a confounding variable
The Dependent Variable

Experiments test cause-and-effect relationships by manipulating an independent variable (the presumed cause; in this case the presence or absence of music) and measuring the effect on the dependent variable.
A set of principles that organizes and explains known facts, as well as predicting new ones, is called a(n)

hypothesis
experiment
theory
assumption
operational definition
Theory

Hypotheses (testable predictions) are often derived from the principles of a theory, but don't in themselves organize or explain; experiments test theories; theories may make assumptions, but those assumptions aren't themselves principles; and operational definitions simply define the method used to measure a variable.
Random samples are ones in which

subjects all share the same characteristics
the number of subjects is determined by chance
subjects don't differ on the dependent variable
everyone in the population had an equal chance of being included
subjects volunteered to participate
everyone in the population had an equal chance of being included

People selected at random are expected to differ, the important thing is that they differ only by chance. Volunteers select themselves, and so aren't randomly chosen. An experimenter can determine how many people to select at random.
The parasympathetic nervous system would have which of the following effects?

Raising blood sugar
Producing perspiration
Inhibiting digestion
Slowing heart rate
Dilating the pupils of the eye
Slowing heart rate

The parasympathetic nervous system tends to reduce signs of arousal associated with the "fight or flight" response produced by the sympathetic nervous system.
In which lobe of the brain is the visual cortex found?

Temporal
Occipital
Parietal
Frontal
Association areas
Occipital

The temporal lobes are involved in hearing, the parietal lobes in the sense of touch, and the frontal lobes in organizing behavior and predicting its consequences. Association areas are located in each lobe and don't appear to play specific functions.
Which of the following is often called the master gland?

Thyroid
Adrenal
Pancreas
Ovaries/Testes
Pituitary
Pituitary

Secretions from the pituitary gland influence the release of hormones from other glands in the endocrine system.
The resting potential for a neuron is

0 mV
40 mV
70 mV
- 40 mV
-70 mV
-70 mV

This refers to the electrical charge inside the neuron, relative to the charge outside; the charge is positive outside and negative inside. When part of a neuron fires, that part is "depolarized."
A neuron can receive signals through its

soma
Axon
Terminal buttons
nucleus
dendrites
Dendrites

Dendrites receive signals from other cells.
Which section of the brain translates thoughts into speech?

Wernicke's area
Occipital lobe
Corpus callosum
Broca's area
Parietal lobe
Broca's area

Broca's area is responsible for directing the muscle movements involved in speaking. Wernicke's area, another brain structure involved in speech, is the part of the brain where acoustical codes including spoken words are decoded and interpreted.
Neurons are held together and provided with nutrients by

neurotransmitters
hormones
glia cells
serotonin
dopamine
glia cells

Glia cells act as a sort of "neuronal glue," holding neurons together. They also provide myelin sheathing and nutrients, and clean up excess ions and neurotransmitters. Serotonin and dopamine are neurotransmitters that help neurons communicate with one another. Hormones affect body tissues.
What is the most common inhibitor in the brain, and may have something to do with eating and sleeping disorders?

Acetylcholine
GABA
Dopamine
Norepinephrine
Serotonin
GABA

Acetylcholine contributes to learning and memory; dopamine influences emotions, memory, and movement; norepinephrine helps regulate arousal; and serotonin helps to regulate mood.