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439 Cards in this Set

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Every event has a cause.
Striving for immediate causes rather than searching for final causes.
Determinism
Behavior is due to a person's decision not external determinants.
Free Will
Relationship between mind and body.
Mind-Body (Mind-Brain)
Mind is seperate from brain.
Mind Controls the brain and body.
Dualism
Conscious experience is inseperable from the physical brain.
Monism
Determines roles of heredity and environment in expression of particular behaviors.
Nature-Nurture
1st Psych lab in Germany in 1879. Experiments have 2 elements (Feeling,Sensations).
William Wundt
Cornell University in 1892. Nature of mental experiences.
Edward Titchener
Present stimuli and subjects describe features.
Structuralism
Founder of american psychology. Harvard University. Concerned with actions the mind performs.
William James
How the mind produces various behaviors.
Functionalism
Genetic factors (Drugs,Genetics)
Biological
Result of past actions, not what they think.
Behavioral
Behavior can be understood with scientific methods.
Determinist
Simple responses to simple stimuli. Tested this in animals.
Jacques Loeb
Behavior is how a stimulus triggers a response.
Stimulus Response Psychology
Describing what someone did, not guessing what he was trying to do.
B.F. Skinner
Founder of Behaviorism. Environment molds behavior.
John Watson
Thinking processes and aquiring knowledge.
Cognitive
Consciousness, values and beliefs.
Humanistic
Person feels fulfilled and content.
Peak Experiences
Viewed humans as basically good.
Carl Rogers
Striving for ones full potential.
Self-Actualization
Accepting someone as they are.
Unconditional Positive Regard
Basic needs, safety, psychological needs, then self-actualization.
Hierarchy of Needs/
Abraham Maslow
Uncovering underlying drives and motivations.
Psychodynamic
Sexual motivation to explain behavior.
Sigmund Freud
Guided by individuals ancestors. Saw humans as basically good.
Carl Jung
Guided by ambitions.
Alfred Adler
1.)Develop Hypothesis
2.)Test Hypothesis
3.)Measure Results
4.)Develop Conclusions
Research Methods
Entire group being tested.
Population
Closely resembles the population.
Representative Sample
Everyone has equal chance of being selected.
Random Sample
Experimenter unintentionally distorts procedures or expected outcome.
Experimenter Bias
Observer records data without knowing predictions.
Blind Observer
Pill with no known pharmacological effects.
Placebo
Either observer or participants are unaware who received which treatment.
Single-Blind Study
Both observers and participants are unaware of who received treatments.
Double-Blind Study
Study subjects in natural conditions.
Naturalistic Observation
In depth description of individual.
Case History
Attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors through responses to questions.
Surveys
Measure relationship between 2 variables.
Correlation
Measure 2 variables without controlling either.
Correlation Study
Mathematical relationship between 2 variables.+1 to -1.
Correlation Coefficient
Investigator manipulates at least 1 variable. Can prove cause and effect.
Experiment
Experimenter changes or controls.
Independent Variable
Item measured to see how it is affected.
Dependent Variable
Told what is expected and agree to continue with study.
Informed Consent
Must be ensured among participants.
Confidentiality
Contains a Cell body, Dendrites, and an Axon.
Neuron
Insulator that aids in the transmission of impulses along an axon.
Myelin
Axons send information with electrical and chemical processes called?
An on off switch
Action Potential
Area between 2 neurons where one either excites or inhibits the next.
Synapse
Chemicals stored in the neuron and activate receptors of other neurons.
Neurotransmitters
Brain and spinal cord that communicates with the body.
Central Nervous System
Bundles of axons between spinal cord and the body.
Peripheral Nervous System
Peripheral nerves that communicate with the skin and muscles.
Somatic Nervous System
Controls internal organs and is involuntary.
Autonomic Nervous System
2chanins of neurons to the left and right side of the spinal cord. Fight or Flight.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Axons extending from medulla and spinal cord to neurons near the internal organs. Non-Emergency functions.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Set of glands producing hormones and releasing them into the blood.
Endocrine System
Chemicals released by glands, and travel in the blood to other body parts.
Hormones
Where are the Medulla and Pons located?
Midbrain
What regulates overall arousal of the brain?
Reticular Formation
Controls rapid actions such as dribbling a basketball. Located in the hindbrain.
Cerebellum
Outer surface of the forebrain. 2 Hemispheres. Sensation and motor control. Gray Matter.
Cerebral Cortex
Specializes in vision.
Occipital Lobe
Specializes in touch, pain, temp. and awareness of body parts.
Parietal Lobe
Processing area for hearing and complex vision.
Temporal Lobe
Controls fine movements.
Frontal Lobe
Set of axons connecting the two hemispheres of the brain.
Corpus Callosum
Condition where neurons in the brain emit abnormal spontaneous impulses.
Epilepsy
A scan where x-rays pass through the head and dyes increase contrast between fluids and brain cells.
CT (Computerized Axial Tomography)
A high resolution image of the brain recording radioactivity of injected chemicals.
PET Scan (Positron-Emmision Tomography)
Uses magnetic detectors to record scans of the brain. Active area of brain has less oxygen recorded.
MRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
What occurs to someone who damages the entire primary cortex?
Completely Blind
Damage to the inferior temporal cortex would cause?
Faceblindness
Damage to part of the color pathway causes? Definition: Recognizing colors after light changes.
Color Constancy
Causes neglect of the opposite side of the body.
Unilateral Neglect
Located in the nucleus. Chemical basis for heredity.
23 individual or 23 paired.
Chromosomes
A fertilized egg.
Zygote
Sections along a chromosome. Direct someones development.
Genes
A chemical that controls the production of RNA.
DNA
A chemical that controls the production of protein.
RNA
Two genes of a pair that are the same.
Homozygous
Two genes of a pair that are different.
Heterozygous
Chromosomes that determine the sex. XX=female XY=male
Sex Chromosomes
A disease resulting in progressive memory loss.
Alzheimer's Disease
Disease resulting in loss of muscle control.
Huntington's Disease
An estimation of the variation of a population due to heredity. From 0=not due to heredity or 1=due to heredity.
Hereditability
Identical heredity.
Monozygotic Twins
Similar genetic makeup.
Dizygotic Twins
Changes in gene frequencies of a species.
Evolution
When individuals with certain characteristics reproduce more successfully, then future generations resemble those.
Natural Selection
Cells that convert energies into signals from the nervous system.
Receptors
Visual receptors covering the back of the eyeball.
Retina
A rigid, transparent structure on the outer surface of the eyeball.
Cornea
Decreased flexibility in the lens resulting in difficulty focusing close up.
Presbyopia
Elongation of the eyeballs resulting in nearsightedness.
Myopia
Flattened eyeballs resulting in farsightedness.
Hyperopia
An increase in pressure in the eyeball.
Glaucoma
When the lens in the eye becomes cloudy.
Cataract
Central area of the retina. For highly detailed vision.
Fovea
Gradual improvement in the ability to see in dim light.
Dark Adaptation
Cells that make contact with other neurons. Vision
Bipolar Cells
Recieve input from bipolar cells.
Ganglion Cells
Ganglion cell axons join to form?
Optic Nerve
Theory that receptor respond to 3 colors. Blue, Red, and Green.
Trichromatic Theory or Young-Helmholtz Theory
Vision is paired opposites. red-green, yellow-blue, white-black.
Opponent Process Theory
Seeing one color after removing the other color.
Negative (Color) Afterimages
Perceiving a color in the cerebral cortex camparison of retinal patterns.
Retinex Theory
Cannot tell one color from another.
Color Blindness
Vibrations of air or other medium.
Sound waves
The frequency of a sound.
Hertz
Perception of sound.
Pitch
The amplitude of sound waves.
Loudness
Snail shaped organ with fluid filled canals and contain receptors for hearing.
Cochlea
Structure within the Cochlea that contains hair cells.
Basilar Membrane
Failure of the bones in the ear that cannot transmit sound to the Cochlea.
Conduction Deafness
Damage to the Cochlea, hair cells, or auditory nerve.
Nerve Deafness
Basiliar membrane produces movement at the same frequency of the sound.
Frequency Principle
Structure in the inner ear. Balance and posture.
Vestibular Sense
Feeling of warmth, skin pressure, cold, pain, etc.
Cutaneous Senses
Refers to the body-sensory system.
Somatosensory System
A neurotransmitter that inhibits release of substance P and decreases pain.
Endorphins
Sense of smell.
Olfaction
Sense of position of the head and limbs in relation to the trunk.
Kinesthesis
Receptors for orientation and movement that are located in fluid filled sacs and contain hair cells.
Vestibular Sacs
When hair cells are bent by body tilt a neual impulse is?
Transduction
Intensity someone can detect a stimulus 50% of the time.
Sensory Threshold
The time of maximum dark adaptation.
Absolute Threshold
Stimuli that can affect behavior even when we do not consciously perceive message.
Subliminal Perception
Tendency to perceive and object even when what strikes the retina changes.
Visual Constancy
Two kinds of Visual Constancy.
Shape and Size Constancy
An object incorrectly perceived to be moving against a stationary background.
Induced Movement
Illusion of movement by a rapid succession of stationary images.
Stroboscopic Movement
Perception of distance.
Depth Perception
Movement of both eyes.
Binocular Cues
Perceive depth and distance with one eye.
Monocular
Determines the development of monocular depth perception.
Visual Cliff
The misrepresentation of a visual stimulus.
Optical Illusions
A rhythm of activity and inactivity.
Circadian Rhythms
When you travel and your internal clock is out of sync.
Jet Lag
Sleep that enables the body to recover from the exertions of the day.
Repair and Restoration Theory
Sleeping and walking in order to conserve fuel and protect us from danger.
Energy-Conservation Theory
Eyes move rapidly, and this sleep is light and heavy sleep.
REM Sleep
A theorist that believes dreams reveal unconscious thoughts and motivations.
Sigmund Freud
Dreams are accidental by-products of arousal during REM sleep.
Activation-Synthesis Theory
Believes dreams are a form of thinking and not overridden by sensory control.
Neurocognitive Theory
Lack of sleep.
Insomnia
Irregular or no breathing during sleep.
Sleep Apnea
Abnormal sleep pattern with extreme sleepiness during the day.
Narcolepsy
Unsettling experiences while sleeping resulting in talking.
Sleep Talking
Occurs in stage 4 sleep and lasts for less than 15 minutes.
Sleep Walking
An unpleasant dream.
Nightmare
State of extreme panic during sleep.
Night Terrors
Excessive unrefreshing sleep.
Hypersomnia
Condition of increased suggestibility
Hypnosis
A suggestion an individual performs after coming out of hypnosis.
Posthypnotic Suggestion
Induced relaxation with special techniques.
Meditation
A class of molecules including methanol, ethanol,and propylalcohol.
Alcohol
A medication that helps people calm down and relax.
Tranquilizers
A medication that causes individuals to feel happy, warm, and content without anxiety and pain.
Opiates
A medication resulting in intesification of sensory experiences, drowsiness, and time passing slow. THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Marijuana
A medication that increases energy, alertness and results in pleasant feelings.
Stimulants
Drugs responsible for inducing sensory distortions. LSD, PCP.
Hallucinogens
Psychologists that believe you should only study observable, measureable behaviors. Not mental processes.
Behaviorists
Russian Scientist. Experimented with dogs to prove conditioning.
Ivan Pavlov
Learning a new response by pairing 2 stimuli. A neutral stimulus and 1 that already evoked a response.
Classical Conditioning
Something that automatically elicits an unconditioned response.
Unconditioned Stimulus
The action that the unconditioned stimulus elicits.
Unconditioned Response
A stimulus in which can be controlled such as a buzzer.
Conditioned Stimulus
The response the conditioned stimulus elicits as a result of training.
Conditioned Response
A process that strengthens a conditioned response.
Acquisition
Repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus. When responses stop producing reinforcements.
Extinction
Temporary return of an extinguished response after a delay.
Spontaneous Recovery
Responding differently to the 2 stimuli based on the result that follow from each.
Discrimination
The extension of a conditioned response from the training stimulus to a similar stimulus.
Stimulus Generalization
What is the term for the definition nearness in time?
Temporal Contiguity
Predictability that the unconditioned stimulus is more likely to occur after the conditioned stimulus than otherwise.
Contingency
The psychologist that studied cats that were placed in a box and had to escape.
Edward L. Thorndike
An event that increases the future probability of the most recent response.
Reinforcement
Responses that closely follow reinforcement will be connected with the situation.
Law of Effect
The changing of a behavior by providing reinforcement after a response.
Operant Conditioning
Responses that include salivation, digestion and affect internal organs. (Classical Conditioning)
Visceral Responses
Responses that include muscles of the body. (Operant Conditioning)
Skeletal Responses
More similar a stimulus is to the original stimulus the more strongly the subjest is to respond.
Stimulus Generalization
A stimulus designating which response is appropriate or not.
Discriminative Stimulus
A change in electrical activity of the skin when under stess.
Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)
Used rats to prove operant conditioning in a Box.
B.F. Skinner
Using successive approximations to change behavior.
Shaping
Reinforcing each behavior with the opportunity to engage in the next behavior.
Chaining
When an event presented strengthens or increases the likelihood of a behavior.
Positive Reinforcement
A response followed by a negative reinforcement.
Punishment
The lack of response leads to reinforcement.
Omission Training
The avoidance of a painful circumstance.
Escape Learning
Reinforcement of the response by absence of pain.
Negative Reinforcement
Exhibit frequent behavior serves as a reinforcer for any less frequent behavior. David Premack.
Premack Principle
A reinforcer that is reinforcing because of their own properties.
Unconditioned Reinforcers
A reinforcer that reinforces because of their prior connection with an unconditioned reinforcer.
Condtioned Reinforcers
What provides evidence that operant conditioning does more than increase behavioral frequencies?
Latent Learning
Reinforcement occurs for every accurate response exhibited.
Continuous Reinforcement
Reinforcement for some responses but not for others.
Intermittent Reinforcement
Reinforcement only after a predetermined number of correct responses.
Fixed-Ratio Schedule
Reinforcement after a variable number of correct responses.
Variable-Ratio Schedule
Reinforcement for the first response after a specified time interval.
Fixed-Interval Schedule
Reinforcement after a variable amount of time has lapsed.
Variable-Interval Schedule
Attempting to change a subjects behavior through reinforcement techniques.
Applied Behavior Analysis or Behavior Modification
Learning about behaviors even before trying them for the first time. Albert Bandura
Social-Learning Approach
The perception that you can successfully perform a task.
Self-Efficacy
Very brief storage of sensory information.
Sensory Store
Temporary storage of information someone has just experienced.
Short-Term Memory
More permanent storage of meaningful information and may last a lifetime.
Long-Term Memory
To produe it?
Recall
An individual receives hints about material to help recall it.
Cued Recall
An association that elicits the memory.
Retrieval Cue
Organizing information into familiar or meaningful units.
Chunking
The ability to state a fact.
Declarative Memory
A memory of a skill.
Procedural Memory
The ease to retrieve a memory depends on the number and type of associations formed.
Levels-of-Processing Principle
Skimming something is harder for you to remember.
Shallow Processing
Reading something then thinking about it in different ways.
Deeper Level of Processing
Survey
Process Meaningfully
Ask Questions
Review
SPAR Method
Remembering a few words from a list usually the first and the last few.
Serial-Order Effect
Tendency to remember the first few items on the list.
Primary Effect
Remembering the last items on a list.
Recency Effect
Information that may help regain memory at a later time.
Retrieval Cues
An association formed at time of learning to help retrieve it later.
Encoding Specificity Principle
Being in the same condition when original learning took place.
State Dependent Memory
A memory aid bases on encoding each item in a special way.
Mnemonic Device
Severe loss or deterioration of memory.
Amnesia
Damage to the hippocampus causes difficulty storing long term memories known as?
Anterograde Amnesia
Loss of memory surrounding events just before brain damage.
Retrograde Amnesia
Prolonged vitamin D deficiency due to alcoholism causes what?
Korsakoff's Syndrome
Recognition that someone is using their own memory.
Explicit Memory
Does not require any recognition that someone is using their own memory.
Implicit or Indirect Memory
A degenerative condition that destroys brain cells and impair memory.
Alzheimer's Disease
Use this to fill in the blanks of a forgotten memory.
Reconstruction
Used to mold the recollection of an event to fit how the event actually turned out.
Hindsight Bias
Moving a memory from the conscious mind to the unconscious mind.
Repression
Thinking or gaining knowledge.
Cognition
Using categories to define objects.
Categorization
Mental images that resemble vision.
Cognitive Maps
A serial process. You must attend to one part after another in series.
Attention
The difficulty in naming a color when it is written in a different color.
Stroop Effect
Understanding the problem
Generating a hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
Cheking the results
Problem Solving
The ability to express a variety of ideas.
Productivity
A system involving converting a deep structure into a surface structure. Not memorzing sentences but using rules to make your own.
Transformational Grammer
Broca's Area and Wernicke's Area.
Areas of the brain important for language.
Inarticulate speech and trouble using and understanding grammer.
Broca's Aphasia
Problems recalling names and comprehension impairment.
Wernicke's Aphasia
1-Understand and say 1-2 words
2-Say a few words. 50
3-Phrases of 2+ words
4-Full sentences.
1-1st year of life
2-18 months
3-2nd year
4-2.5 to 3 years
A unit of sound. One type of cluster.
Phoneme
A unit of meaning. One type of cluster.
Morpheme
During reading when the eyes are not moving.
Fixations
During reading the eyes move from one fixation point to another.
Saccades
The ability to cope with the environment.
Intelligence
Measuring someones differences in behaviors and abilities. Charles Spearman.
Psychometric Approach
The power to reason and use information.
Fluid Intelligence
Already acquired knowledge and the ability to use that knowledge.
Crystallized Intelligence
Various unrelated forms of intelligence.
Multiple Intelligences
3 aspects of intelligence.
1-Cognitive processes.
2-Situations that require intelligence.
3-How intelligence relates to the world.
Triarchic Theory
Someone who falls 2 standard deviations below the mean can be classified as?
Mentally retarded
Motivation is described as a?
Drive
Striving to reduce needs and drives as much as possible.
Drive-Reduction Theory
The maintenance of an optimum level of biological conditions.
Homeostasis
External stimuli that influence individuals toward certain actions.
Incentive Theories
A motivation to act for its own sake.
Intrinsic Motivation
Motivation that involves reinforcements and punishments that may accompany the act.
Extrinsic Motivation
What are the 2 types of motivation?
Primary-Biological needs
Secondary-Learned experiences
Short-term hunger regulation:
Most abundant sugar in the body. Energy Source
Glucose
Short-term hunger regulation:
A hormone that increases the flow of glucose and several other nutrients into the body cells.
Insulin
Long-term hunger regulation:
A hormone produced by the bodys fat cells which changes the activity in the hypothalamus causing faster hunger satisfaction.
Leptin
Accumulation of excessive body fat.
20-40% mild
41-100% moderate
Obesity
The lateral hypothalamus controls what?
Hunger
Areas of the hypothalamus that help end meals.
Ventromedial-damage causes faster digestion.
Paraventricular-damage leads to normal frequency of meals but they are enormous
A level that the body attempts to maintain is called the?
Set Point
A condition involving starvation, refusing to eat food, and steady weight loss.
Anorexia Nervosa
Alternating between self-starvation and excessive eating is?
Bulimia
Who conducted the first important survey of human sexual behavior?
Alfred Kinsey
The four phases of sexual arousal.
Excitement
Plateau
Orgasm
Resolution

(EPOR or ROPE)
What defines the sex that a person views himself or herself to be?
Gender Identity
A persons preference for a male or female partner, both, or neither is?
Sexual Orientation
People with low achievement motivation often have a?
Fear of Failure
What approach views employees as lazy and uncreative?
Scientific-Management Approach
What approach allows employees to take responsibility, have job variety and feel accomplishment?
Human-Relations Approach
The ability to perceive, imagine, and understand emotions and use that info. in decision making.
Emotional Intelligence
What theory says a persons interpretation of a stimulus trigger autonomic nervous system changes?
James-Lange Theory
What theory states that emotions is independent of the autonomic aspect?
Canon-Bard Theory
What theory says the degree of the sympathetic system determines the emotional intensity but not the type of emotion?
Schachter and Singer
Robert J. Sternberg created a triangular theory of love which is?
Intimacy
Passion
Commitment
What develops when all 3 points of the love triangle come together?
Consummate Love
Martin Seligman encourages things that enrich our lives such as hope, courage, responsibility, etc. What is this called?
Positive Psychology
Most american researchers focus on Subjective Well Being which means?
A self evaluation of one's life
A nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it.
Stress
The first stage of stress resulting in a high arousal.
Alarm
Second stage of stress is a prolonged but moderate arousal is?
Resistance
Third stage of stress is very intense and long lasting is called?
Exhaustion
A type of stress that occurs in violent situations such as war and rape.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
What type of personality do people have that are competitive, impatient, and are angry and hostile?
Type A
What type of personality do people have that are easy-going, less hostile, and less hurried?
Type B
A fertizlized egg is a?
Zygote
A Zygote goes through several stages between 2 and 8 weeks which are?
Blastula, Gastrula, Embryo
An infants decreased response to a repeated stimulus.
Habituation
An infants stimulus change that produces an increase in a previously habituated response is a?
Dishabituation
Infants lack _____ which is the idea that objects continue to exist even when they can't be seen.
Object Permanence
Who conducted experiments with children to uncover their development of thinking and reasoning?
Jean Piaget
An organized way of interacting with objects in the world.
Schema
When someone applies an old schema to new items.
Assimilation
When someone changes or modifies an old schema to fit a new item.
Accommodation
A level of harmony or balance between accommodation and assimilation that one tries to reach.
Equilibration
What are the 4 stages of development?
Sensorimotor (Birth-1.5 yrs)
Preoperational (1.5-7yrs)
Concrete Operational(7-11 yrs)
Formal Operational (11+)
The distance between what children can do on their own and what they can do with help from other.
Zone of Proximal Development

Lev Vygotsky- Characteristics of human thought: Language and symbols.
According to Lawrence Kohlberg what are the levels of moral reasoning?
Preconventional Morality
Conventional Morality
Postconventional Morality
Comparison of groups or individuals of different ages at the same time.
Cross-Sectional Study
People born in one era differ from people born in a different era.
Cohort Effect
A study in which a single group of people is followed over a time span.
Longitudinal Studies
Some people that are more likely to drop out of a study is called?
Selective Attrition
Infant wonders if the world is predictable and supportive.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Toddler wonders can I do it for myself or do I need to rely on others?
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Preschooler wonders "Am I good or bad?"
Initiative vs. Guilt
Children wonder "Am I a success or a failure?"
Industry vs. Inferiority
Teens wonder "Who am I?"
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Young adults wonder if they want a relationship or to be alone.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
People in the late 20's wonder how they will contribute to society and will they succeed in life.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Retirement ages reflect on their life and wonder if they have lived a full life or not.
Integrity vs. Despair
A long term feeling of closeness between people?
Attachment
A procedure where infants are given to and taken away from the mother and a stranger to determine their reaction?
Strange Situation
When an infant reacts with the mother.
Securely Attached
Infant responds to the mother with mixed emotions. (Anger and Happiness)
Anxiously Attached
Infant produces moments of apparent indifference.
Anxious and Avoidant
The infant does not pay much attention to the mother.
Disorganized Category
An adoleschent's concerns with decisions about the future and himself.
Identity Crisis
People who have not put serious thought into decisions and not a clear sense of identity?
Identity Diffusion
People that seriously consider issues but have not made any decisions?
Identity Moratorium
People that are in a state of making a firm decision but haven't given much thought to the decision?
Identity Foreclosure
People who explore various identities then make their own decision?
Identity Achievement
What are the 5 stages of death as stated by Elizabeth Kubler-Ross?
Denial
Anger
Bargaining
Depression
Acceptance
The tendency to be active or inactive, extroverted or reserved?
Temperament
A parenting style where high standards are set, yet they are warm and responsive to their children?
Authoritative Parents
A parenting style where firm guideline are set, yet less emotionally responsive to the children?
Authoritarian Parents
A parenting style where no rules are set, yet they are warm and caring but don't place demands on the children?
Permissive Parents
A parenting style where they do not spend time with their children and only provide food and shelter?
Indifferent or Uninvolved Parents
The transition from feeling a part of ones own country to being comfortable in a new country.
Acculturation
The ability to alternate between memberships in two countries.
Biculturalism
Who studied infant responses to measure their temperaments?
Jerome Kagan
Freud believed that boys develop a sexual intrest in their mother and aggression toward their father. What is this called?
Oedipus Complex
The five psychosexual stages are?
Oral
Anal
Phallic
Latency
Genital
The 1st psychosexual stage from birth to 1yr. and enjoys sucking?
Oral Stage
Psychosexual stage from 1 to 3yrs. and enjoy stimulation of the sphincter. 2nd stage.
Anal Stage
Psychosexual stage from about 3 where children play with their genitals and are sexually attracted to their opposite sex parent. 3rd stage.
Phallic Stage
Psychosexual stage from about 5 or 6 where they supress their psychosexual intrest. 4th stage.
Latency Period
Psychosexual stage starting at puberty where there is a strong interest in the opposite sex. 5th stage.
Genital Stage
Id: irrational & emotional.
Ego: Rational part of personality.
Superego: moral aspect of personality.
The 3 Aspects of Personality
What are the 8 defense mechanisms?
Repression
Denial
Rationalization
Displacement
Regression
Projection
Reaction Formation
Sublimation
The rejection of unacceptable thoughts and impulses to the unconscious? Motivated Forgetting.
Repression
The refusal to believe information that leads to anxiety?
Denial
People attempt to prove that their behaviors are justifiable?
Rationalization
The moving away or diversion of a behavior or thought from it's regular target to a less threatening one?
Displacement
When people return to a more juvenile level of functioning?
Regression
When people attribute their own unacceptable characteristics to other people?
Projection
To keep unacceptable qualities repressed?
Reaction Formation
The transformation of sexual or aggressive impulses into acceptable, even admired qualities?
Sublimation
This group of individuals considered parts of Freud's theory valid, while they modified other aspects?
Neo-Freudians
Carl Jung believed this was present at birth and represents the cumulative experience of previous generations?
Collective Unconsciousness
Images that are inherited from the experiences of ancestors, are contained in the collective unconsciousness?
Archetypes
Psychology of the whole person, not just parts.
Alfred Adler.
Individual Psychology
An exaggerated feeling of failure and helplessness?
Inferiority Complex
A drive to seek personal excellence and fulfillment?
Strive for Superiority
A personality style that has concern for others?
Social Interest
A form of psychology that deals with consciousness, values, and abstract beliefs?
Humanistic Psychology
One of the most influential humanistic psychologists. Self-actualization and self-concept?
Carl Rogers
Believed in the stages of sexual development, personality structure, and defense mechanisms?
Sigmund Freud
When researchers seek generalities about how an aspect of personality affects behavior?
Nomothetic Approach
An approach that focuses on intensive studies of individuals?
Idiographic Approach
A long lasting behavioral tendency?
Trait
A temporary expression of behavior?
State
An approach that people have consistent personality characteristics such as honesty, friendliness, and nervouseness that can be studied?
Trait Approach
What are the Big 5 personality traits?
Neuroticism
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Openness
A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily?
Neuroticism
Seeks stimulation and enjoys being with other people?
Extraversion
Compassionate toward others?
Agreeableness
Shows self-discipline and strive for achievement?
Conscientiousness
The tendency to enjoy new intellectual experiences?
Openness
What are the 4 Personality tests?
1)Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
2)16-PF Test (Personality Factors)
3)Rorschach Inkblot Test
4)Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The personality test that has true-false to measure personality dimensions such as paranoia and schizophrenia?
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
A personality test that measures the aspects of normal personality? Measures 16 factors of personality traits.
16-PF Test
A personality test that is based on an individuals interpretations of ten ambiguous ink blots?
Rorschach Inkblot Test
A personality test of storytelling where clients are forced to discuss their problems?
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A behavior that results in stress, pain, impairs functioning, or increases risk of death?
Abnormal Behavior
A book of psychological disorders?
Diagnostic Statistics Manual (DSM)
___ includes disorders after infancy and a great chance of healing such as ADD, Stuttering, etc.
Axis 1
___ includes disorders that last a lifetime such as mental retardation and personality disorders.
Axis 2
___ evaluates medical conditions such as diabetes and cirrhosis of the liver.
Axis 3
___ includes psycosocial and environmental problems such as stress.
Axis 4
___ provides a global assessment or overall level of functioning.
Axis 5
A state of fear and apprehension that affects different areas of functioning.
Anxiety
Lingering, constantly present and includes attacks of severe anxiety.
Anxiety Disorder
A disorder causing sudden anxiety at an unbearable level.
Panic Disorder
A constant prescence of excessive and exaggerated anxiety.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
A repetitive thought that exists and continues to invade someones conscious mind.
Obsession
A repetitive action that someone has no conscious desire to repeat.
Compulsion
What is a checking ritual?
When someone interupts their activities to check to make sure something is done.
What is a cleaning ritual?
An obsession with the idea of contamination.
A disorder in which someone has extreme moods and mood swings that result in disruption of their lives.
Affective Disorders
A disorder having one or more major depressive episodes without manic, hypomanic, or mixed episodes.
Major Depressive Disorder
A mild condition of depression is called?
Dysthymia
Depression with a seasonal pattern.
Seasonal Affective Disorder
An affective disorder that is both depressive and manic.
Bipolar Disorder
A brief shock across the head to induce a seizure.
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Behaviors that are present such as hallucinations, delusions, etc.
Positive (present) Symptoms
Behaviors that are absent such as speech deficits, emotional expressions, etc.
Negative (absent) Symptoms
What are the 4 types of schizophrenia?
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
Catatonic Schizophrenia
Disorganized Schizophrenia
Paranoid Schizophrenia
A hypothesis of when schizophrenia starts at birth due to poor nourishment, weight, difficult pregnancy, etc.
Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis
The forgetting of past events and experiences.
Amnesia
A form of amnesia that appears suddenly after trauma and then suddenly disappears.
Psychogenic Amnesia
When a person forgets their identity and then assumes a new identity.
Psychogenic Fugue
A condition where the person alternates between two identities.
Dissociative Identity Disorder
A disorder that is characterized by a disruption of personal identity. A feeling of strangeness to himself.
Depersonalization
When someone feels a strangeness about the world.
Derealization
A condition of fear of having a disease.
Hypochondriasis
What disorder are classified as Cluster A disorders?
Paranoid, Schizotypal
What disorder are classified as Cluster B disorders?
Antisocial, Borderline, Narcissistic, Histrionic
What disorder are classified as Cluster C disorders?
Avoidant, Dependent, Obsessive-Compulsive
A treatment of psychological disorders by the relationship between a Dr. and a client.
Psychotherapy
What approach to psychotherapy uncovers and resolves people's underlying drives and motives?
Psychodynamic
A procedure to get thought into the conscious mind to help people understand their thoughts and actions.
Psychoanalysis
Pent up emotions with dreams, unconscious thoughts and memories.
Cathartic
When a client thinks of a problem and states everything that comes to mind without censoring.
Free Association
A way to understand hidden or latent content represented symoblically in the persons actual experiences.
Dream Analysis
Exaggerated reactions of love or hate toward their therapist.
Transference
A continued repression of material that interferes with the therapeutic goals.
Resistance
What is the mismatch between their self-concept and their ideal self?
Incongruence
The best version of humanistic therapy. Non-directive. Listens sympathetically.
Person-Centered Therapy
Using punishment to teach clients to dislike a stimulus.
Aversion Therapy
A listing of anxiety-evoking situations from the most arousing to the least.
Systemic Desensitization
To change someones thoughts and beliefs to improve their mental health is?
Cognitive Therapy
A treatment based on the assumption that emotions are dependent on their internal cognition.
Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)
A therapy that involves a combination of cognitive and behavior therapy.
Cognitive-Behavior Therapy