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44 Cards in this Set

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p 301
What is a plant?
1. plants are atutotrophs that produce their own food
2. they are eukaryotes that contain many cells
p 301
What is process by which plants make food?
1. photosynthesis
2. photo means light
3. synthesis means "to make"
p 301
What does plant use to food and oxygen and what powers photosynthesis?
1. carbon dioxide gas and water
2. sunlight powers it
p 301
PLANT CELLS
What are plants cells enclosed by?
cell walls
p 301
PLANT CELLS
What are plant cell walls made mostly of?
cellulose -- they make the cells rigid
p 301
PLANT CELLS
What are the plant structures called?
chloroplasts -- look similar to green jelly beans, are structures in which food is made
chloro means green
p 302
PLANT CELLS
What is an example of a cell structure?
1. vacuole
2. a large sack like storage area. It stores water, wastes and food
p 301
PLANTS ARE MULTICELLULAR
What are tissues?
1. It's how plants cells are organized.
2. they perform a specific function in an organism
p 301
ORIGIN OF PLANTS
How old? Clues of age?
1. over 400 million years old
2. chlorophyll -- is the green pigment
3. algae and plants have same form of chlorophyll. Plants come from algae
p 303
LIVING ON LAND
Where do most plants liveÇ
1. on land
2. algae live in water
p 303
LIVING ON LAND
How do plants survive on land?
1. they need a way to obtain water, retain water, reproduce successfully
p 303
LIVING ON LAND - obtainting water
What do plants need to get water?
1. adaptations to get water from soil
p 303
LIVING ON LAND - retaining water
What do plants retain water?
they have waxy, water proof layer called cuticle
p 306
LIVING ON LAND - transporting mateial
What do plants transport material
1. water and minerals are taken up from bottom part of plants.
2. food is made at top part
3. transporting tissue called vascular tissue do this -- tuble like structures through which materials move
4. vascular plants can grow tall
p 306
LIVING ON LAND - support
How are plants supported?
vascular tissue
p 306
LIVING ON LAND - reproduction
What do plants reproduce?
1. sexual reproduction with fertilization
2. fertilized egg is a zygote
p 307
COMPLEX LIFE CYCLES
Describe life cycle plants
1. made of 2 different stages, generations
2. one stage called sporophyte, plant produces spores
3. 2nd stage is gametophyte, plant produces 2 kinds of sex cells, called gametes -- sperm cells and egg cells
4. draw this out, figure 5
5. zygote then develops into sporophyte -> spores -> gametophyte -> sperm and eggs -> repeat
p 310 SECTION 2
PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND LIGHT
Tell of Engelmann
1. 1883, Engelmann saw gas bubbles forming in water of algae
2. his experment provided clue of how light is involved in photosynthesis
p 310 SECTION 2
PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND LIGHT -- nature of light
1. white light consists of different colors
2. the color you see is what is not absorbed by the object
p 311 SECTION 2
PLANT AND LIGHT
Why are plants green?
1. when light hits plants, green is reflected back.1. it is absorbed by chloroplasts
2. chlorophyll is most abundant pigment in plants. It reflects green.
3. accessory pigments. They absorb what chlorophyll does not.
p 312 SECTION 2
CAPTURING ENERGY
What is energy needed for photosynthesis? When does it begin?
1. light
2. photosynthesis begins when light strikes chlorophyll
p 313 SECTION 2
CHEMESTRY OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
What 3 things do plants need for photosynthesis?
1. light, water, carbon dioxide gas
2. they produce sugar, a type of carbohydrate, oxygen gas
3. equation is carbon dioxide + water -> sugar + oxygen
4. (draw the diagrams on this page)
CHAPTER 11, p 330 SEED PLANTS
Describe dandelion
1. blossoms only open in sunlight
2. each blossom is made up of tube shaped flowers
3. each seed head, called a fruit, contain seeds
CHAPTER 11, p 330 SEED PLANTS
WHAT IS A SEED PLANTÇ
1. most plants are seed plants by more than 10 to 1
2. rice, tomatoes, peas and squash
3. cotton and flax come from seed plants,
4. oak, pine, and maple are seed plants
CHAPTER 11, p 331 SEED PLANTS
What are 4 characteristics seed plants shareÇ
1. have vascular tissue
2. use seeds to reproduce
3. all have bodies that include leaves, stems and roots
4. have complex life cycle that include sporophyte and gameetophyte
CHAPTER 11, p 331 SEED PLANTS
VASCULAR TISSUE
What are the 2 challenges met by vascular tissues
1. plants stand tall and straight
2. supply plant with water and food
CHAPTER 11, p 331 SEED PLANTS
What are 2 types of vascular tissues?
Phloem -- vascular tissue through which food moves from the leaves DOWN to roots and stems
Xylem -- is where water and nutrients move UPWARDS into leaves and stems
CHAPTER 11, p 332 SEED PLANTS
SEEDS
Why so numerous?
1. they produce seeds
2. seeds are structures that contain young plants
3. seedless plants need water surroundings for fertilization
CHAPTER 11, p 332 SEED PLANTS
SEEDS
What are the 3 structures of seeds?
embryo -- a young plant that develops from a zygote
cotyledons -- stored food
seed coat -- the outer covering of the seed, example is skin on lima beans, peanut
CHAPTER 11, p 333 SEED PLANTS
SEED DISPERSAL
What is needed for a new plant
light
water
nutrients
CHAPTER 11, p 333 SEED PLANTS
SEED DISPERSAL
What is seed dispersal?
scattering of seeds
CHAPTER 11, p 333 SEED PLANTS
SEED DISPERSAL
What causes seed dispersal?
1. animals
2. water
3. wind
CHAPTER 11, p 333 SEED PLANTS
GERMINATION
What is it
1. is the early growth stage of the embryo
2. begins when seed absorbs water
3. roots grow downwards, step grows upwards
4. seeds that are far away have beter chance for survival
CHAPTER 11, p 333 SEED PLANTS
LEAVES
What is the role of leavesÇ
1. capture sun;s energy and carry out food making process
CHAPTER 11, p 334 SEED PLANTS
LEAVES
What is the structure of leaves?
1. leaves contain xylem and phloem2
2. underside has stomata, that open and close to control gases that enter leaf. Water vapor and oxygen exit, carbon dixoide enter
CHAPTER 11, p 334 SEED PLANTS
LEAF and PHOTOSYNTHESIS
What traps sun's energy?
chlorophyll in chloroplasts trap sun's energy
CHAPTER 11, p 335 SEED PLANTS
LEAF and PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Describe the process of plant energy
Carbon dioxide enter plant through stomata. Water travels from roots, up stem, through xylem. During photosynthesis sugar and oxygen are made from carbon dioxide and water. Oxygen passes out through stomata. Sugar enters the phloem and then travels through plant.
CHAPTER 11, p 336 SEED PLANTS
CONTROLLING WATER LOSS
What is transpiration
the process by which water evaporates from a plants leaves
CHAPTER 11, p 336 SEED PLANTS
CONTROLLING WATER LOSS -- STEMS
What is function of stems?
carries substances between roots and leaves
provides support for plant, holds up leaves
CHAPTER 11, p 337 SEED PLANTS
CONTROLLING WATER LOSS -- STEMS
structure of stems
1. can be herbaceous, woody
2. cambium -- inside the outer bark layer. They divide to produce new phloem and xylem. In center is called the pith
CHAPTER 11, p 337 SEED PLANTS
ANNUAL RINGS
What do they represent?
1. one year of a tree's growth
2. made of xylem
3. can provide many clues of past weather patterns
CHAPTER 11, p 338 SEED PLANTS
ROOTS
What do they do?
1. anchor a plant to the ground
2. absorb water and nutrients
CHAPTER 11, p 338 SEED PLANTS
ROOTS
types of roots
1. 2 types -- taproot and fibrous
2. taproot constis of long, thick main root.
3. grass has fibrous roots
CHAPTER 11, p 339 SEED PLANTS
STRUCTURE OF A ROOT
Draw diagram
1. root cap -- contains dead cells, protects root
2. root hairs increase surface area