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59 Cards in this Set

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Define "Metabolism"
The totality of an organism's internal chemical reactions.
what word means "the totality of an organism's internal chemical reactions."?
Metabolism
Metabolism contains these kinds of pathways in which a certain molecule is converted again and again until it becomes the final, desired product.
Metabolic pathways.
In metabolic pathways, molecules are ______ again and again until it becomes the final, desired product.
In metabolic pathways, molecules are CONVERTED again and again until it becomes the final, desired product.
State and define the two kinds of metabolic pathways.
Catabolic pathways - (sounds like "catastrophe") molecules break down into simpler pieces.

Anabolic pathways - Energy is consumed in order TO BUILD a larger molecule.
Define "Bioenergetics".
The study of how organisms manage energy resources.
What is defined as "The study of how organisms manage energy resources."?
Bioenergetics
What is defined as "The capacity to cause change."?
Energy
What are the two types of energy?
Kinetic energy (relative motion)
Potential energy (based on location)
What's the sub-type of kinetic energy and define it.
Heat/Thermal Energy - Kinetic associated with the random movement of molecules.
What's the sub-type of potential energy and define it.
Chemical Energy - Energy for release in a chemical reaction.
List the types of energy and their sub-types.
- Kinetic
- - Heat/Thermal

- Potential
- - Chemical
Thermodynamics is the study of energy ______________.
Thermodynamics is the study of energy TRANSFORMATION.
What is the first law of Thermodynamics?
Energy can be transferred and transformed but not created or destroyed. (Also known as the conservation of energy)
What is the second law of Thermodynamics?
Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the system/universe.
Define "Entropy".
Entropy: Disorder in the universe.
In what form does energy tend to be lost in reactions?
Energy tends to be lost in the form of HEAT in reactions.
We can NEVER _____ of energy input to energy output.
We can NEVER 100% of energy input to energy output.
Define "Free Energy".
Free Energy measures the portion of a system's energy that can perform work when conditions are uniform (inside of a cell).
What is "free energy" in a nutshell?
Energy available to perform work.
ONLY processes with a negative ∆G are ________ (require ____ input of energy).
ONLY processes with a negative ∆G are SPONTANEOUS (require NO input of energy).
Processes that require NO input of energy (such as rolling a ball down a hill) are spontaneous/instantaneous.
Processes that require NO input of energy (such as rolling a ball down a hill) are spontaneous.
Describe a spontaneous event.
It is not immediate; we can predict or foresee it's impending arrival or happening. Instinctive or involuntary.
A positive/negative ∆G value indicates that there must be an input of energy to drive the reaction.
A positive ∆G value indicates that there must be an input of energy to drive the reaction.
What equation is used to determine the ∆G value?
∆G = Gf - Gi

(f = final state ; i = initial state)
All systems want to be in a stable state, or _______.
All systems want to be in a stable state, or EQUILIBRIUM.
Very unstable systems will have a ______ G value.
Very unstable systems will have a HIGH G value.
Systems that have a high G value tend to be stable/unstable.
Systems that have a high G value tend to be unstable.
Anything that has high potential energy, has a high _________.
Anything that has high potential energy, has a high G value.
Do potential energy and G values go hand-in-hand?
Yes.
Systems that have a low G value tend to be stable/unstable.
Systems that have a low G value tend to be stable.
Anything that requires energy is/isn't spontaneous.
Anything that requires energy isn't spontaneous, or non-spontaneous.
An exergonic reaction absorbs/releases free energy.
An exergonic reaction releases free energy.
In exergonic reactions, ∆G increases/decreases.
In exergonic reactions, ∆G decreases.
When ∆G decreases, as in an exergonic reaction, the difference is usually positive/negative, which means it is spontaneous/non-spontaneous.
When ∆G decreases, as in an exergonic reaction, the difference is usually negative, which means it is spontaneous.
In an exergonic reaction, the greater the decrease of ∆G, the greater amount of _______ is produced.
In an exergonic reaction, the greater the decrease of ∆G, the greater amount of ENERGY is produced.
Describe a situation where the ∆G increases and is positive.
When the ∆G increases and is positive, the situation is non-spontaneous; energy is required; and it is endergonic.
When the ∆G of a situation is negative or decreasing, describe it.
When the ∆G of a situation is negative or decreasing, that situation is exergonic, spontaneous, and no energy is required for it to occur.
Cellular respiration is exergonic. Why?
In the cellular respiration equation: Cv6Hv12Ov2 + Ov2 → 6 COv2 + Hv2O, the [Cv6Hv12Ov2 + Ov2] part has a high G value, which makes it unstable. The reaction that takes place is exergonic because the G value is going from high to low, indicating that it is going to equilibrium. The reaction is spontaneous, bound to happen, and no energy is required.
Describe endergonic reactions.
Endergonic reactions absorb free energy from the surrounding material. In these reactions, ∆G increases and it positive. It is a non-spontaneous reaction. It's like pushing a ball up a hill.
Once something has reached equilibrium, all ______ ends.
Once something has reached equilibrium, all WORK ends.
Keeping our molecular selves our of equilibrium ultimately does what since cells which have achieved equilibrium are already dead?
Keeping our molecular selves our of equilibrium ultimately keeps us alive.
There is a constant flow of energy into and out of our system. Describe what happens, using G value levels, when cellular respiration occurs.
When cellular respiration occurs, the input is oxygen and glucose, with high G values, and the output is carbon dioxide & water with low G values.
What are the three types of work that's going on inside of a cell?
Mechanical - Muscle cells, cilia
Transport work - Pumping across a membrane
Chemical work - Pushing of endergonic reactions for synthesis (anabolic)
Describe energy coupling.
When an exergonic reaction is used to drive an endergonic reaction. It's seen frequently with ATP.
What is described as an exergonic reaction that is used to drive an endergonic reaction. And is frequently seen with ATP.
Energy coupling.
Exergonic _______ energy, and endergonic _______ energy.
Exergonic CREATES energy, and endergonic REQUIRES energy.
What are the three components that make up ATP?
Ribose sugar, adenine, and a chain of phosphorous.
When hydrolyzed, ATP produces how much kcal of energy per mole?
When hydrolyzed, ATP produces -7.3 kcal of energy per mole?
ATP + Hv2O → ___________
ATP + Hv2O → ADP = Pvi
What is the most visual way of seeing our body use hydrolysis on ATP?
Shivering.
When an inorganic phosphorous leaves ATP due to hydrolysis, what occurs next?
When an inorganic phosphorous leaves ATP due to hydrolysis, that phosphorus goes through phosphorylation and attaches to another molecule involved in an endergonic reaction, make it more unstable, and movement of that protein or molecule is produced.
How does ADP become ATP again?
Through an endergonic reaction, it is possible to regenerate ATP.
What is the purpose of enzymes?
To speed up spontaneous reactions.
What is a catalyst?
A chemical agent that speeds up a reaction WITHOUT BEING CONSUMED!
Any biological or chemistry term ending in "-ase" is most likely what?
An enzyme.
What is Activation Energy?
Energy needed to start a reaction.
The most unstable condition a molecule can be in is known as the ______ state.
The most unstable condition a molecule can be in is known as the transition state.
What usually provides activation energy? Why can't biological systems always use this?
Heat usually provides activation energy, but biological systems, such as the human body, cannot rely on this because too much heat causes proteins to denature and will also break bonds that aren't meant to be broken.