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25 Cards in this Set

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What configuration are the double bonds in fats?
Cis
what is the charge of the carboxyl group of a fatty acid at phyiological pH?
Negative
when a carboxy is ionized -COOH --> COO + H on a fatty acid, what is the carboxyl group now called?
carboxylate, so any fatty acid goes from -ic to ate, e.g., steric acid to sterate… however, it is the same compound
Which are liquid, saturated or unsaturated?
Unsaturated
18:3∆9,12,15: what FA is this?
Linolenic acid
18:2∆9,12: what FA is this?
linoic acid
18:1∆9: what FA is this?
oleic acid
20:4∆5,8,11,14: what FA is this?
arachidonic acid
What is the effect of hydrogenating a fat?
makes it solid at room temperature
where does ß-oxidation occur?
mitochondria
In the activation of FAs, what is the first step? And why? What is required in this rxn? Where does this occur?
a) FA --> fatty acyl CoA… b) to allow it to take place in the ß-oxidation pathway… c) fatty acyl CoA synthase + ATP… d) cytosol
What happens to the fatty acyl CoA upon activation?
the long fatty acid is transported into the mitochondria
What happens the acyl CoA after transport into the inner mitochondrial space?
CPT-I removes the CO and add carnitine (now fatty acylcarnitine)
What happens to the fatty acylcarnitine?
it it transported into the matrix via the canitine acylcarnitine translocase
What happens to the fatty acylcarnitine after entering the matrix?
CPT-II removes carnitine and adds CoA (now it is fatty acyl CoA and ready for ß-oxidation)
How many acetyl CoAs are made from a n-number (where n is an EVEN number carbons in the fatty acyl CoA) fatty acyl CoA?
n/2
How many acetyl CoAs are made from a n-number (where n is an ODD number carbons in the fatty acyl CoA) fatty acyl CoA? What else is made?
a) (N-1)/2… b) propionyl CoA
What happens to the propionyl CoA?
it's part of the anapleurotic process of the TCA cycle… so it's converted to succinyl CoA
How many repetitions does a n-number (EVEN numbered) fatty acyl CoA have?
(n/2)-1
How many repetitions does a n-number (ODD numbered) fatty acyl CoA have?
[(n-1)/2]-1
Besides acetyl CoA, what else is generated in ß-oxidation?
FADH2 and NADH
what are the two enzyme that move the double bond in ß-oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acyl CoA?
enoyl CoA Isomerase and enoyl CoA reductase
What are the 3 ways to regulate the ß-oxidation of fatty acids?
a) hormone responsive lipases, which increase free fatty acids… b) Malonyl Coa inhibits CPT-I so FA can't get into mitochondria… c) ATP utilization and ETC influence NADH/FADH2 levels.
What is MCAD?
a deficiency in acyl coA dehydrogenase, where ß-oxidation is blocked in ranges 8-10 carbons
What symptoms do you see in a person that has MCAD?
1) hypoglycemic, since the ATP from FAO is used in gluconeogenosis… thus dizziness… 2) acyl carnitine build-up in blood… toxic side products.