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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is form?
describes the overall structure of a musical composition or performance
What is blues form?
Singular musical section made up of 3 phrases.
Repetition
The presentation of the same musical material in two parts of a composition
Contrast
The introuductino of different musical material.
What are the nine points to remember when listening?
General Style
Instrumentation
Personability of Performance
Rhythm players
Influences
Standard song form or Improvised?
Melody singable or instrumental?
Who is the musical focus?
What is the social context?
WHat are the point of the listening guide form?
Melody
Tempo
Meter
Rhythm/Style
Harmony
Texture
Instrumental Color
Form
Size/type of Group
Mood or Feeling
Jazz Style
Piano Techniques
Bass Techniques
Drum Techniques
Other Jazz Influences
describe different types of melody
parts with jazz interpretation
parts improvised
all parts improvised
use blues tones
ornamented melody
types of rhythm/style
ballad
medium swing
fast swing
latin
bossa nova
shufffle swing
types of harmony
relaxed (not complex)
slow moving
uses IV to I (funky)
Tense (complex)
Fast chord progressions
Modal
types of Texture
vertical (homophonic, harmonic)
hroizontal (polyphonic, melodic)
types of mood/feeling
Frantic, driving
Happy
Low key, understatement
Rough, aggressive
Soulful
Sweet, calm, smooth
Detatched
types of bass techniques
two beat
four beat with repeated notes
walking bass
free
drum techniques
backbeat
flat four
bombs
rides the cymbal
syncopated accents
What is trading fours?
When two improvising instrumentalists play solo parts on alternating four bars. In short, they respond to each other's musical thoughts.
What is the famous field in new orleans?
congo square
What are the famous cries from the slave fields?
Field hollers
Who is the most famous female gospel singer?
Mahalia Jackson
What is the most popular form of blues?
12 musical measures
What is the meter used for most blues lyrics?
Iambic pentameter
What is the typical form for blues lyrics?
AAB
What are the spaces between lyrics that are only played by instruments?
fill-ins
Name an important country blues singer-guitarist.
Robert Johnson
What is a difference between country and city blues?
City blues seem to be more rhythmic, more crisp, than country blues. Most country blues singers accompanied thesmelves on guitar, whereas urban blues performers often used fairly elaborate accompaniment, including that of jazz musicians like Louis Armstrong.
Name some important city blues singers.
Bessie Smith, Ma Rainey
Who is Billie Holiday?
A cross-genre singer, associated with city blues.
How is ragtime played?
Left hand -bass/rhythm while right hand is used for highly syncopated melodic lines
How many themes did a typical ragtime piece have and what stress did each theme have?
4 themes and even
Who was the most prolific composer of ragtime music and what was his most famous song?
Scott Joplin and Maple Leaf Rag
Who was the most famous ragtime piano player?
Jelly Roll Morton
What are the three basic differences between stride piano and ragtime piano?
1. Stride players were not concerned with ragtime form. They played popular tunes of the day and any other kind of music that appealed to them.
2. Original ragtime was a composed music, whereas stride piano players were often very proficient improvisers and used this element in their performance.
3. The feeling of stride music was intense because, in general, stride pianists played faster and with much more drive than the more relaxed players of ragtime.
Who is considered to be the father of stride piano?
James P. Johnson
Who is considered to be the best/most versatile piano player in the history of jazz?
Art Tatum
What is the signature of boogie woogie style of piano playing?
the eight beats to a measure that are played as an astinato, the term for a melodic figure that recurs throughout the music.
What is the difference between ragtime and dixieland?
Ragtime is a solo piano music, while dixieland is an ensemble type of music.
What type of rhythm did dixieland play?
flat four
What is the customary structure of dixieland music?
Ensemble chorus, the solo chorus, and a return to the ensemble.
Who was Louis Armstrong's mentor ?
Joe "King" Oliver
What was Armstrong's most famous song?
Hello Dolly
What features distinguish the Chicago style?
1. a saxophone was added
2. guitar replaced banjo
3. fairly elaborate introductions and endings were common
4. ease and relaxation in playing style gaw way to tension and drive.
5. individual solos became more important than the collective imporvisation of ensemble sections.
6. rhythm change dfrom 44 to 24
Terms to describe melody
HIgh, low, smooth, jagged, scalem skips, key, diatonic, and chromatic
Terms to describe texture
thick, thin, few instruments, many instruments, homophonic, and polyphonic
Terms to describe form
repetition, contrast, theme, variation, imitation, section, part, three parts, and improvisation
Terms to describe tone
soft, smooth, forceful, powerful, etc.
What is vibrato?
The pulsating effect produced by small rapid variations in pitch. Most jazz uses vibrato for warmth and interpretation in imitating the human voice.
What is trading fours?
When two improvising instrumentalists play solo parts on alternating four bars.
What are field hollers?
A secret means of communication among slaves while they worked in the fields somtimes called field cries.
What is polyphonic?
The simultaneous sounding of two or more melodies of equal importance.
What was a difference between country and urban blues singers?
Most country blues singers were men, while most urban blues singers were women.
Who was a significant stride pianist?
"Fats" Waller (and James P. Johnson)
What is ostinato?
A clear melodic and/or rhythmic figure that is persistently repeated.
Who was the last person to be called king?
Joe "King" Oliver
Who was Sidney Bechet?
the first jazz artist to achieve fame through the use of the soprano saxophone
Name an important trombonist of early jazz?
Kid Ory
Who was Bix Beiderbecke?
a famous white early jazz trumpeter