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55 Cards in this Set

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solutions are made up of a fluid called a _________ with particles dissolved in the fluid which are called _________.
solvent, solute
In the body our solvent is made up of ________ and the solute is made up of ________ and _________.
water, electrolytes and nonelectrolytes
electrolytes dissociated into electrically charged atoms are called __________.
ions
positively charged ions are called what?
cations
negatively charged ions are called what?
anions
Do nonelectrolytes such as urea have charge?
no, they do not have electrical properties
How much of our body weight is water?
60%
What two major compartments are body fluids located within?
Intracellular & extracellular compartments
extracellular fluid is made up of ________ fluid and _________ fluid.
interstitial, intravascular
Where are trascellular fluids found?
cerebropinal, digestive, synovial
How much fluid is normally lost each day and how?
2500cc/day. Loss is sensible fluid loss (from urination, bowel elimination, etc.) and insensible fluid loss (perspiration and breathing)
What are three types of passive transport systems used to move F & E?
diffusion, osmosis, filtration
diffusion is the movement of a ________ from and area of ________ concentration to an area of __________ concentration.
solute, higher, lower
osmosis is the movement of a ________ from and area of ________ concentration to an area of ________ concentration.
solvent, lower, higher
The sodium-potassium pump in the cell membrane allows movement of sodium and potassium and is an example of what type of transport system?
Active transport
Active transport requires ______ to function.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Accross cell membranes sodium-potassium pumps allow the movement of sodium _______ and potassium _______.
out, in
True or False? The total number of cations and the total number of anions are different from each other.
False, you should have the same amount of cations as anions.
Where do electrolytes come from and what do they do?
They come from minerals from foodstuffs and play a key role in bodily function
What major electrolytes make up ICF (intracellular fluid)?
K+, Mg2+ and PO4
What major electrolytes make up extracellular fluid (ECF)?
Na+, Cl-, HCO3
What is an example of electrolyte function in cellular processes?
The sodium-potassium pump
What types of things can cause an electrolyte imbalance?
inadequate intake, actual loss from the body, dislocation of the electrolyte (shift to third space such as during edema)
Two most common electrolyte imbalances are _________ during when there is an excess and _________ during when there is a deficit.
hyper, hypo
True or False? The location of body electrolytes may change to assist in maintaining equilibrium of body electrolytes at the expense of maintaining correct ration between fluid compartments.
True
What are the four major control mechanisms to regulate the ECF volume?
Baroreceptors, volume receptors, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism and antidiuretic hormone.
How do baroreceptors control ECF volume?
They respond to a fluid deficit by constricting the kidney's afferent arterioles, thus raising BP.
how do volume receptors control ECF volume?
they respond to fluid excess in the atria and great veins by causeing a strong renal response that increases urine output, thus decreasing the ECF.
Briefly, how does the RAAS work?
When BP or ECF drops renin is released which triggers the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II which is a powerful vasoconstrictor. Then angioII triggers the release of aldosterone which controls Na+ & K+ levels in the blood and thus increase ECF volume.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is released by the _______ ________ in order to restore ____________ fluid volume.
pituitary gland, intravascular
What are normal, hyper and hypo potassium serum levels?
normal: 3.5-5.3 mEq/L
Hyperkalemia: >5.3
Hypokalemia: <3.5
K+ is the most abundant cation in body cells. How much is found in ICF compared to ECF?
97% is found in ICF where only 2-3% is found in ECF
True or False? Rarely does hyperkalemia or hypokalemia ever cause cardiac arrest.
False, both can cause cardiac arrest because the heart needs K+ for conduction of nerve impulses and contracting of the heart muscle.
Name some foods rich in potassium.
Bananas, raisins, avacados, broccoli, potatoes, strawberries, OJ
True or False? Hypokalemia is more common than Hyperkalemia.
True, Hyperkalemia is usually only seen in people with kidney failure.
What are some causes of Hypokalemia?
GI losses, dietary changes, renal losses, cellular damage, & redistributions of K+
True or False? 80-90% of K+ is exreted in stools.
False, 80-90% of K+ is exreted by the kidneys in urine and this is why decreased renal function is the #1 cause for hyperkalemia.
What are some causes of Hyperkalemia?
excessive K+ intake, decreased renal function, taking K+ sparing diuretics, altered cellular function, or hormonal deficiency.
What are some signs and symptoms of Hypokalemia?
Nausea, vomiting, abd. distention, dysrrhythmias, MI, polyria, malaise, drowsiness, confussion, resp paralysis, muscle cramps etc
What are some signs and symptoms of Hyperkalemia?
abd cramps, tachycardia, eventually bradycardia & MI, oliguria/anuria, numbness, tingling, muscle cramps, etc.
What things can be done to correct hyperkalemia?
restrict intake of K+, IV Na HCO3, Ca gluconate, combo of insulin & glucose, Kayexalate enema, K+ wasting diuretics, etc.
What things can be done to correct hypokalemia?
add K+ to IV
The kidneys maintain homeostasis through excretion or absorption of H2O and ________ from renal tubules.
sodium
What are the functions of sodium?
Neuromuscular conductor, osmolarity of body fluids, Na+ pump action, Acid-based levels
What is the normal serum level of sodium?
135-146mEq/L
What some functions of Chloride?
osmolality of ECF, body water balance, acid-base balance, acidity of gastric juice
True or False? You will usually have a loss of potassium with a loss of chloride.
True
What are some causes of hypochloremia?
vomiting, kidney disorders, diuretics, hormone problems, altered cellular function
What is the normal serum level for chloride?
95-108mEq/L
What is the normal serum level for Ca+?
4.5-5.5mEq/L
____% of Ca+ is found in our _______ and _______ while only ____% is found in our _______.
99, bones and teeth, 1, ECF
True or False. Ca+ has a reciprocal relationship with phosphorus. When Ca+ is high then phosphorus is low.
True.
What does Ca+ do to phosphorus absorption?
It inhibits phosphorus absorption
What needs to be present for Ca+ absorption?
Vitamin D
What regulates the serum level of Ca+?
parathyroid glands