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7 Cards in this Set

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Provide a framework for thinking about disease processes, which will serve as an invaluable guide throughout pathology and medicine.
Introduce terminology and traditional concepts upon which general pathology is based.
Summarize the important etiologies and mechanisms of cell injury.
etiology: cause of disease

7 types:
Hypoxia - lack of O2 in tissue due to either ischemia (deficient blood supply), cardiopulmonary failure, or anemia

Physical - trauma, extreme cold/heat/pressure, radiation, electricity

Chemicals/drugs - salts, mercury, etc
Infectious pathogens: viruses bacteria, fungi, parasites

Immunologic: analphylaxis hypersensitive allergic reaction

Genetic: always congenital (point mutations, insertions, deletions, translocations, etc)

Nutritional imbalance: calorie, protein, vitamin deficiency, dietary excess
Mechanisms of Cell injury:

Intracellular malfunctioning: compromised cell membrane, aerobic respiration, protein synthesis, genetic machinery

reversible type: oxidative phosphorylation, causes cell swelling
irreversible type: lysosomal with enzyme leakage --> cytoplas leads to destruction/consumption of the entire cell

ATP depletion --> no more cellular energy
Mitochondrial damage --> no more energy and released proteins cause apoptosis
Innappropriate Ca influx --> chaotically activates enzymes which will cause apoptosis
Free radical (reactive oxygen species) accumulation --> widely damages DNA, proteins, lipids
Cell membrane damage: an occurence common to all these irreversible mechanisms
Describe the cellular components that are damaged when cells are injured.
Genetic material, proteins, cell membrane, lysosomes, and mitochondria
Define necrosis and compare the different types of tissue necrosis.
Necrosis is the conversion of dead cells to debris in a living organism. by definition, this occurs due to tissue death and is always pathologic. MUST occur in living organism

6 types of necrosis:
1) coagulative: associated with ischemia, cell outline preserved, but nucleus fades (karyolysis) and genetic material becomes fragmented (karyorrhexis)
2) liquefactive: massive release of lytic enzymes --> cell lysis; compare: autolytic (enzymes released by injured tisue) vs. heterolysis (released by inflammatory cells)
3) caseous: combo of coagulative and liquefactive, tissue specimens look like cheese
4) fat: saponification (fat--> soap) of adipose tissue; In fat necrosis the enzyme lipase releases fatty acids from triglycerides. The fatty acids then complex with calcium to form soaps. These soaps appear as white chalky deposits
5) fibrinoid: injury to connective tissue (relevant protein is fibrin), associated with acute immunological response and vascular disease.
6) gangrenous: extremities lose blood supply and bacteria take over; bacteria + leukocytes induce liquefaction; dry gangrene: coagulative; wet gangrene: liquefactive
Define apoptosis and its importance in normal and abnormal cellular processes.
apoptosis: programmed cell death that is not always pathological; unlike necrosis, will not incur an inflammatory response

normal apoptosis:
occurs in embryogenesis, hormone-deprived tissues (endometrial cell sloughed off during menstruation), deleting some portion of proliferating cells, immune system (to kill lymphocytes and prevent autoimmunt disorders)

abnormal apoptosis:
destroys cells with major DNA damage, accumulated misfolded proteins, viral infections, pathologic atrophy, induction of cell death via cytotoxic CD8 T cells, and other agents (drugs, heat, radiation)
Define and contrast cellular adaptations including atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and metaplasia.
Atrophy: size decrease in a cell or organ; has different causes such as lack of innervation or blood supply; organ atrophy due to either shrinkage, loss of cells, or fibrosis (connective tissue scarring)

Hypertrophy: size increase in cell or organ; example is uterus during pregnancy

Hyperplasia: increased number of cells
hormonal: breast enlargement during puberty or pregnancy
compensatory: liver regeneration
pathologic: growth hormone overstimulation

Metaplasia: conversion of one cell type to another cell type
Ex: Chrnoic bronchitis: pseudostratified columnar epithelium --> squamous