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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define:
Anthropology
This is the study of all aspects of humanity. It is a holistic discipline, and attempts to be a scientific endeavor. It is the study of human culture.
Define:
Holistic
Emphasizing the importance of the whole and the interdependence of its parts.
Define:
Culture
This refers to the learned, socially acquired traditions of thought and behavior found in human societies.
Define:
Sub-culture
Groups within a society which have lifestyles recognized as different from the rest of society.
Define:
Society
An organized group of people who share a homeland and who depend on each other for their survival and well-being
How does one acquire culture (aka "enculturation")?
The partially conscious and partially subconscious learning experience whereby the older generation invites, induces, and compels the younger generation to adopt traditional ways of thinking and behaving
How do we view other cultures?
- Enthnocentrism
- Cultural Relativism
Define:
Ethnocentrism
The belief that one’s own patterns of behavior are always better than those of another culture.
Define:
Cultural Relativism
The Idea that all aspects of our world-view are ethnocentric, and that all of these perspectives are equally valid.
Define:
Archaeology
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The scientific study of past peoples and cultures based on material evidence that covers all aspects of humanity, and helps illuminate the present.
What is the relationship between Archaeology and Anthropology in the Americas?
It is one of the four fields of study under the umbrella of Anthropology.
What are the 4 fields of study under Anthropology?
- Cultural Anthropology
- Linguistic Anthropology
- Biological Anthropology
- Archaeology
As Archaeology is an interdisciplinary science, name 8 other sciences are involved?
History, Psychology, Sociology, Botany, Zoology, Biology, Physics and Chemistry
What are the basic goals of Archaeology?
- Discovery and Description (data)
- Explanation (analysis of data)
- Understanding Human Behavior
What are the 5 main types of Archaeology?
- Prehistoric
- Historical
- Classical
- Maritime
- Public
What does Prehistoric Archaeology cover?
– Before written records
– Paleolithic
– Mesolithic
– Neolithic
What does Historic Archaeology cover?
– Archaeology of the recent past
– Biblical archaeology
– Egyptology
– Medieval Archaeology
What does Classical Archaeology cover?
– ‘Classical’ states
– Greece
– Rome
What does Maritime Archaeology cover?
– Underwater archaeology
– Nautical archaeology
What does Public Archaeology cover?
– Cultural resource management
Define:
Science
- Science is a philosophical system that has developed over time
- Science is a particular way of describing the world
- Science is a community of people: It is a social exercise
- The basic concepts of science have become an integral part of Western culture
What is the objective of science?
To gain knowledge of the natural world, and is based on Naturalism
Define:
Naturalism
The philosophical position that all of reality is part of the natural order
Define:
Methodological Materialism
Maintains that a materialist stance is the *necessary* means of attaining knowledge of the world (i.e. science).
Define:
Ontological Materialism
Holds that materialism is both necessary and sufficient to describe all reality. This position is sometimes called "Physicalism".
What are the 4 basic assumptions of science?
- There is an independent reality which can be observed by humans
- The properties of this reality can be described in quantitative terms
- A limited objectivity can be obtained by using multiple independent observers
- Inductive logic can be combined with observations to form a model of the world
What make up the Western Scientific Paradigm structure?
- Laws
- Theory
- Models
- Hypotheses
How do scientists generate new knowledge?
Adhering to the Scientific method:
- Data
- Hypothesis
- Test
- Retest
- Model Building
- Theory
What is the main tool of scientific discovery?
Hypothesis testing
Define:
Hypothesis
An assertion of a relationship between phenomena that is subject to verification.
Define:
Evidence
A relative term even in science, it consists of observation and measurement. Measurement may be approximate, but it will be couched in qualitative terms. One assigns a value to it so that it can be communicated to anyone. The crux of Science is here. Of course, it is the other people in the field that often decides what is sufficient evidence to support a theory.
Define:
Theory
This is a hypothesis that has been supported by observations
Define:
Law
A general principle that seems to be obeyed in all situations where it can be applied. It is a theory that has been tested so many times that no one bothers to test it any more.
Define:
The Null Hypothesis
When we suspect A + B = C,
we set out to prove A + B ≠ C.
What is:
The "Principle of Dismal Induction"?
You are ALWAYS wrong in the end.
Describe:
Research Design
- Statement of the Question
- Discussion of what is already known (Given)
- Description of the how the question is to be tested
- Expected data
Define:
Pseudoscience
Uses scientific terminology in an attempt to appear scientific
- data does not meet standards
- untestable hypotheses
Define:
Frauds
instances in which people fake data or otherwise attempt to fool archaeologists
Give 5 reasons why archaeology is important
- Help predict the future
- Preserve ancient traditions
- Manage cultural resources
- Recover ancient knowledge
- Conserve diversity
Define:
Artifact
The basic unit of archaeological analysis which is any object made, modified or utilized by humans. In practice, it is usually portable.
Define:
Feature
Immovable products of human activities that are affixed toor embedded in the landscape
Define:
Ecofacts
Remains deriving from the natural environment that, while not intentionally made or manufactured by humans, become incorporated into archaeological deposits. These include the products of human activities such as the preparation and consumption of food.
Define:
Site
Where artifacts, ecofacts, and features found together.
Grains of einkorn wheat would be an example of ____________.
This is an example of an ecofact.
Define:
Assemblage
Any group of artifacts found togethr and which appear to have been deposited together, intentionally or unintentionally.
Define:
Cultural ecology
An extension of the biological study of ecology that examines the mutual relationships among various organisms and their environments
Who is:
Jacques Boucher de Perthes
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Define:
Catastrophism
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Define:
Covering laws
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Define:
Cultural history
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Who is:
Charles Darwin
--
Define:
Diffusion
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Define:
Direct historical analogy
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Define:
Ethnoarchaeology
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Define:
Ethnography
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Who is:
John Frere
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What is the significant of:
Hand axe
p8
Who is:
James Hutton
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Define:
Independent invention
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Who is:
Charles Lyell
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Define:
Material culture
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Define:
Middle-range theories
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Define:
Migration
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Define:
New Archaeology
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Define:
Open-area excavation
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Define:
Paleoeconomy
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Who is:
William Pengelly
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Define:
Physical anthropology
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Define:
Postprocessual movement
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Define:
The principle of superposition of strata
-
Define:
Processual aproach
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Define:
Strata
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Define:
Stratigraphic analysis
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Define:
Stratigraphic control
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Define: Stratigraphic cross section
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Define:
Test trench
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Who is:
Christian J Thomsen
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Define:
Three Age System
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Define:
Uniformitarianism
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Who is:
Jens Worsaae
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Define:
Anthropological linguistics
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What is the key to successful excavation?
Careful record keeping and preservation of maps, plans, photographs, and other records that can be preserved long after the site has been excavated.
What is Star Carr?
This was a waterlogged site in East Yorkshire, England discovered in the early 1950's. A former campsite of hunters who lived at the very end of the Stone Age.
Define:
Culture
Refers to the system of values, beliefs, customs, behaviors and artifacts that the members of a particular society share, and help cope with their world, etc.
The Linear Pottery culture is an example of _________ _____.
An example of an archaeological culture
What are the 5 goals of archaeological interpretation?
1- Aim to build a time & space framework for the past
2- Understand how humans lived
3- Answer the why questions of human prehistory
4- Understanding the nature of the arch record itself
5- Preserving the past for the future
Who is considered the father of American archaeology?
Thomas Jefferson
Define:
Prehistory
The sum of all that we know of the activities of humans before the beginning of written history.
What are the oldest samples of writing we have recorded?
Sumerian/Mesopotemia - 4,000 to 5,000 years ago. They are inventory/tax records.
How long has man been on earth?
180,000 years.
What is the significance of the Iceman discovery?
While he dated from the Copper Age, his tools were designed thought not to have been invented until at a later time(Bronze Age). Also, he was an average person living daily life (vs a Pharoah of Egypt).
Define:
Archaeology
The study of ancient things; refers to the study of material remains created by past human beings.
Define:
Anthropological archaeology
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Define:
Anthropology
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Define:
Archaeological culture
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