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31 Cards in this Set

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Human Nervous System
Complex and highly organized network of billions of neurons and supporting neuroglia cells.
What are the functions of the nervous system?
Sensory, Integrative, Motor
Sensory Function
Receptors of a sensory neuron detect stimuli (internal or external) which conduct (carry) the information to the spinal cord and brain.
Integrative Function
Processing sensory information by analyzing, storing and determining the appropriate responses
Motor Function
Motor neurons conduct (carry) the responses from the integrative centers out of the brain and spinal cord to the effector organs (muscles, glands, etc.)
What are the principal divisions of the nervous system?
Central and Peripheral.
What is the function of the Central Nervous System?
Control center for the entire nervous system. Contains the Brain and Spinal Cord.
What is the function of the Peripheral Nervous System?
Connects receptors, muscles and glands with the central nervous system.
What is the anatomical structure of the Peripheral Nervous System?
Nerves exiting the brain (cranial nerves - 12 pairs) and spinal cord (spinal nerves - 31 pairs).
What are the two systems of the Peripheral Nervous System?
Afferent System and Efferent System.
Afferent System
(ascending) Sensory nerves that convey information from receptors within the skin, skeletal muscle or an organ to the central nervous system.
Efferent System
(descending) Motor nerves that convey information from the Central Nervous System to the muscles (skeletal, smooth or cardiac) and glands.
What are the two parts of the Efferent System?
Somatic and Autonomic
Somatic Nervous System
Efferent neurons that conduct impulses to skeletal muscle tissue, under conscious control.
Autonomic Nervous System
Efferent neurons that conduct impulses to smooth muscle tissue, cardiac muscle tissue and glands, not under conscious control.
Sympathetic Division
Generally stimulates and organ's activity.
Parasympathetic Division
Generally inhibits and organ's activity.
What are the two basic types of cells of the Nervous System?
Neuron and Neuroglia
Neuron
The structural and functional unit of the nervous system.
What are the parts of a Neuron?
Consists of a cell body, dendrites, and an axon.
What are the responsibilities of the Neuron?
Most special functions such as sensing, thinking, controlling muscle and gland activity. Responds to nerve impulses of other neurons by initiating and transmitting one or more impulses - Conduction
What are the types of Conduction performed by a neutron?
Afferent (to), Efferent (from), and Integrative (within) the central nervous system.
Neuroglia
Support and protect the neurons of the Central Nervous System.
What are the types of Neuroglia in the Central Nervous System?
Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, Microglia, and Ependyma.
Astrocytes
Star-shaped cells that twine around neurons to form a supporting network and attach neurons to blood vessels.
Oligodendrocytes
Similar, but smaller, in appearance to Astrocytes. Form the myelin sheath for neurons in the CNS.
Microglia
Derived from monocytes (white blood cells), small in size. Consume waste products and protect the neurons of the CNS by phagocytosis (consuming) of microbes and debris.
Ependyma
Epithelial cells (lining cells). Line the ventricles (spaces) of the brain, and the central canal in the spinal cord.
What are the types of Neuroglia that support and protect Neurons of the Peripheral Nervous System?
Schwann Cells and Satellite Cells.
Schwann Cells
Form the myelin sheath for neurons in the PNS. Crucial in neuron repair after injury.
Satellite Cells
Similar to astrocytes in function. Provide support to the Neurons.