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94 Cards in this Set

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AdSense
A Google application that allows the owner of a web site to host ads. When the ads are clicked on, the web site owner makes revenue.
AdWords
A Google application that allows users to produce ads to appear in Google searches. Users only pay each time searchers click on their advertisement.
Analog
A continuous, linear stream of information. All information has to travel in sequential order (like a phone line or a record)
Analog v. digital
Analog is slower because it requires one, linear path for information transfer. Digital is speedier because the information is broken into pieces (0s and 1s) that can bounce around in packets and then reassemble at the end of the transmisison. It is faster because there are multiple paths for the packets to travel through simultaneously and there is no physical line required.
application
A type of software, an application lies on top of an operating system and allows the user to manipulate the commands that control the hardware and completeing a specific task. Examples: Word, Excel, Adobe, etc. Google is an Internet application
Binary
A system of ones and zeros used by a computer to manipulate electricity to represent more sophisticated activity.
Blog
a user-generated website where entries are made in journal style and displayed in a reverse chronological order.
Blogroll
A collection of links to other weblogs.
Bluetooth Proximity
Using Bluetooth technology to send messages to people using Bluetooth devices when they pass within a certain range. Example: Restaurant review.
BitTorrent
Stores packets on 1,000's of computers (movies, music). It is a way to scale to demand w/o paying for bandwidth.
BOM (Bill of Materials)
describes a product in terms of its assemblies, sub-assemblies, and basic parts. Basically consisting of a list of parts, a BOM is an essential part of the design and manufacture of any product. Often, BOMs contain hierarchical information with the master, or top level, BOM describing a list of components and sub-assemblies. Take a PC, for example: the top level BOM might list the shipping box, manual, packaging, packaging labels and the actual PC. The BOM for the PC itself is referenced in the top level BOM and would contain its own list of sub-assemblies like power supply, motherboard, case, etc.
Broadband
is a term which refers to a signaling method which includes or handles a relatively wide range of frequencies which may be divided into channels or frequency bins. Broadband is always a relative term, understood according to its context. The wider the bandwidth, the more information can be carried.
CamelCase
Creates a new web page. A programming trick Example: Typing DigitalAge would create a new page.
Clickstream
is the recording of what a computer user clicks on while web browsing or using a personal computer.
Closed Source
Opposite of Open Source. Licensing ownership limits use of product or services.
Cluetrain Manifesto
The Cluetrain Manifesto is a set of 95 theses organised and put forward as a manifesto, or call to action, for all businesses operating within what is suggested to be a newly-connected marketplace. The ideas put forward within the manifesto aim to examine the impact of the Internet on both markets (consumers) and organisations. In addition, as both consumers and organisations are able to utilise the Internet and Intranets to establish a previously unavailable level of communication both within and between these two groups, the manifesto suggests that the changes that will be required from organisations as they respond to the new marketplace environment.

The manifesto was written in 1999 by Rick Levine, Christopher Locke, Doc Searls, and David Weinberger.
CPC
Cost per click. Ad appears when key word appears in Google. Adverstiser sets a limit for how much they are charged. Price of word based on auction, who is willing to pay the most for that word.
Crawl
A web crawler (also known as a Web spider or Web robot) is a program or automated script which browses the World Wide Web in a methodical, automated manner. Other less frequently used names for Web crawlers are ants, automatic indexers, bots, and worms (Kobayashi and Takeda, 2000).

This process is called Web crawling or spidering. Many sites, in particular search engines, use spidering as a means of providing up-to-date data. Web crawlers are mainly used to create a copy of all the visited pages for later processing by a search engine, that will index the downloaded pages to provide fast searches. Crawlers can also be used for automating maintenance tasks on a Web site, such as checking links or validating HTML code. Also, crawlers can be used to gather specific types of information from Web pages, such as harvesting e-mail addresses (usually for spam).

A Web crawler is one type of bot, or software agent. In general, it starts with a list of URLs to visit, called the seeds. As the crawler visits these URLs, it identifies all the hyperlinks in the page and adds them to the list of URLs to visit, called the crawl frontier. URLs from the frontier are recursively visited according to a set of policies.
DARPA
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is the central research and development organization for the Department of Defense (DoD). It manages and directs selected basic and applied research and development projects for DoD, and pursues research and technology where risk and payoff are both very high and where success may provide dramatic advances for traditional military roles and missions.
Del.icio.us
a social bookmarking website -- the primary use of del.icio.us is to store your bookmarks online, which allows you to access the same bookmarks from any computer and add bookmarks from anywhere, too. On del.icio.us, you can use tags to organize and remember your bookmarks, which is a much more flexible system than folders. You can also use del.icio.us to see the links that your friends and other people bookmark, and share links with them in return.
Digital
information broken up into packets of 0s and 1s so that they can be transferred simulataneously through mulitple channels. No physical line required for communication
Digital Footprint
Where a person has been on the internet.
Disintermediation
The removal of the middle man. In media, the Internet has removed the middle men involved in publishing and as a result, everyone can publish content.
DNS
Domain Name Server, translates domain names into IP addresses. Example: www.google.com is translated to 64.233.187.99
DRM
Digital Rights Management. Application that allows copyright holders to manage how their products are used. Usually restricts installment to only the person who purchased the product.
Folksonomy
User generated classification system to organize web pages. Example: the key words entered to describe del.icio.us posts. TAGS
Google Juice
The presumed quality inherent in a Web site that enables it to appear at or near the top of search engine results, particularly those of the Google search engine.
Googlebot
A search bot used by Google. It collects documents from the web to build a searchable index for the Google search engine.
Google bombing
A certain kind of attempt to influence the ranking of a given page in results returned by the Google search engine, often with humorous or political intentions.[1]
Because of the way that Google's algorithm works, a page will be ranked higher if the sites that link to that page use consistent anchor text. A Google bomb is created if a large number of sites link to the page in this manner.
Hardware
Hardware is the general term that is used to describe physical artifacts of a technology.
HTML
HyperText Markup Lanaguage,The markup language used to create web pages. Tim Berners-Lee invented HTML as the first universal format for the Internet.
ICANN
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, oversees the Internet, including the management of assigning domain names and IP addresses
Interface
Interface (computer science), a property of a software component
Interface (Java), an abstract type which is used to specify an interface that classes must implement
Network interface, a point of interconnection between a terminal and a network or between two networks
User interface, the aggregate of means by which people interact with a machine, device, computer program, or other complex tool
Intellectual Property
In law, intellectual property (IP) is an umbrella term for various legal entitlements which attach to certain names, written and recorded media, and inventions. The holders of these legal entitlements are generally entitled to exercise various exclusive rights in relation to the subject matter of the IP. The term intellectual property reflects the idea that this subject matter is the product of the mind or the intellect,
Internet Protocol
the computer networking protocol used on the Internet
IPO
An initial public offering (IPO) is the first sale of a corporation's common shares to investors on a public stock exchange. The main purpose of an IPO is to raise capital for the corporation.
Long Tail
Hits vs. Niche
Machine language
Machine code or machine language is a system of instructions and data directly understandable by a computer's central processing unit.
Machinima
As a production technique, the term concerns the rendering of computer-generated imagery (CGI) using real-time, interactive (game) 3D engines, as opposed to high-end and complex 3D animation software used by professionals. Engines from first person shooter and role-playing simulation video games are typically used.
Meetup
Helps groups of people with shared interests plan events and form offline clubs in local communities around the world.
Metadata
data about data.
Metcalfe's law
Metcalfe's law states that the value of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of users of the system (n2). First formulated by Robert Metcalfe in regard to Ethernet, Metcalfe's law explains many of the network effects of communication technologies and networks such as the Internet and World Wide Web.

The law has often been illustrated using the example of fax machines: A single fax machine is useless, but the value of every fax machine increases with the total number of fax machines in the network, because the total number of people with whom each user may send and receive documents increases.

Some argue that Metcalfe's law may exaggerate that benefit. Since a user cannot connect to itself, the reasoning goes, the actual calculation is the number of diagonals and sides in an n-gon (see also the triangular numbers):


However, that value, which simplifies to (n2 − n) / 2, is "Big O" proportional to to the square of the number of users, so this remains the same as Metcalfe's original law.
Moore's law
Moore's Law is the empirical observation made in 1965 that the number of transistors on an integrated circuit for minimum component cost doubles every 24 months.[1][2] It is attributed to Gordon E. Moore (born 1929),[3] a co-founder of Intel. Although it is sometimes quoted as every 18 months, Intel's official Moore's Law page, as well as an interview with Gordon Moore himself, state that it is every two years.
MP3
an audio file
New Media or Social Media
New media is a term describing media that can only be created or used with the aid of computer processing power. It is a form of media that includes some aspect of interactivity for its audience and is usually in digital form.

Social media describes the online technologies and practices that people use to share opinions, insights, experiences, and perspectives with each other.

Social media pros:
freedom of choice, information flow, elevation of marganlized voices, everyone has printing press, civic voice, global connection.

Social media cons:
echochamber, mob rule, accuracy
OhMyNews
A South Korean online newspaper with the motto "Every Citizen is a Reporter". It was founded by Oh Yeon Ho on February 22, 2000. It is the first of its kind in the
world to accept, edit and publish articles from its readers, in an open source style of news reporting. About 20% of the site's content is written by the 55-person
staff while the majority of articles are written by other freelance contributors who are mostly ordinary citizens.
Open Source
Open source describes the principles and methodologies to promote open access to the production and design process for various goods, products, resources and technical conclusions or advice. The term is most commonly applied to the source code of software that is made available to the general public with either relaxed or non-existent intellectual property restrictions. This allows users to create user-generated software content through either incremental individual effort, or collaboration.
OS
Operating system refers to the system that allows the user to interact with the hardware. The operating system translates the commands. Examples: Windows (90% of all operating systems used), MACOS, LINUX
Packets
How digital information is delivered. Small pieces of information travel more effectively, faster and more efficient, than the continuous line of analog.
PageRank
Where a webpage is located within search results. These are most often used to discuss Google searches, and their ever-changing mathmatical algorithm used to
create search results. These results can make or break businesses who rely on online advertising.
PPC
(Pay-Per-Click): One form of payment plan for advertisers online. Each time a customer click on their ad, they are charged for the service. The more popular the search term
the more expensive the advertisement can be.
Permalink
A URL that points to a specific blogging entry even after the entry has passed from the front page into the blog archives. Because a permalink remains unchanged indefinitely, its use avoids link rot.
Pervasive Computing
The concept that digital, computer functions are everywhere. Technologies include cell phones, MP3s, Blackberry, and RFID.
Proprietary
Intellectual property rights to products or services limiting the use to third parties. This can range from software to books/poetry.
RAW format
The ones and zeros format that information is translated into when burning a CD
Reed's law
Reed's law is the assertion of David P. Reed that the utility of large networks, particularly social networks, can scale exponentially with the size of the network.

The reason for this is that the number of possible sub-groups of network participants is , where N is the number of participants. This grows much more rapidly than either

the number of participants, N, or
the number of possible pair connections, (which follows Metcalfe's law)
so that even if the utility of groups available to be joined is very small on a per-group basis, eventually the network effect of potential group membership can dominate the overall economics of the system.
RFID
Radio Frequency Odentification.

Examples: KastleKeys used to access buildings or tags used on clothing to reduce theft
RIAA
Recording Industry Association of America - the trade group that represents the US recording industry. The organization credits itself with working to protect intellectual property rights worldwide and the First Amendment rights of artists. The RIAA also certifies the Gold, Platinum, Multi-platinum, and Diamond sales awards for music.
RSS
Rich Site Summary / Really Simple Syndication is a medthod to syndicate website content. This is done by creating an XML document which summarizes specific site
content such as news, blog posts or comments and forum threads.
Sarnoff's law
The value of a network is proportional to the size of the audience. Originally applied to broadcast networks
Server
Computer whose job it is to serve, icluding running software aplications. Any home computer can be a server.
SMS
Short Message Service, text messaging
Software
Programs that allow a computer to perform tasks. Example: Microsoft Word
Spider
Software program that browses all of the pages on the net, copies the content and then indexes the information. Also known as a crawler or web crawler.
Tagging
Means of identifying or logging information or metadata. Similar to card catalog of libraries. Websites can tag themselves with "technology" or "comic books" to more easily be found in searches.
Toothing
When a Bluetooth device is used to notice other Bluetooth-capable devices within a small area. People then contact each other through the devices.
TraceRoute
Traces the number of computers accessed to get to the web server.
Trackback
A notification when another blog cites your blog using a PermaLink
URL
Uniform Resource Locator; an address that specifies the location of a file on the Internet (eg http://www.introtodigitalage.com)
User-Generated Media
Photos or videos taken by an individual that is then used by the media.
Wiki
web application that allows users to add content, as on an Internet forum, but also allows anyone to edit the content. Wiki also refers to the collaborative software used
to create such a website
WWW
World Wide Web, A system of interlinked, hypertext documents that runs over the Internet (the individual web pages).
XML
XML is the abbreviation for 'Extensible Markup Language' and designates a universal data format for publishing and exchanging structured documents on the Internet or
Intranets. RSS uses XML.
Search
The 3 elements of search:

Crawl-bots red all web pages
Index-where info
Interface-results
CPM
Cost per thousand impressions.
PPC
Pay per Click.
CPC
Cost per click
API
Application programming. An open API allows someone to hack it or interface with it. example is flexcar interfacing with Google to show a map where their cars are located.
Bandwidth
size and speed of cables connecting servers. size of pipe
RAW format
0's and 1's
RAM
Thinking memory.
ROM
Saving memory.
Computer platform
Network Applications sit on...
Operating system sits on...
Machine language sits on...
Binary sits on...
Hardware sits on...
Electricity.
Hardware
Physical computer
"1"
electricity
"0"
No electricity
CMS
content management system. computer software system that facilitates the organization, control, and publication of content,allowing for the collaborative creation of documents.
Long Tail
the economics of abundance in which niche products and services that do not sell in large numbers can be made available. The sum of the revenue from the endless number of niche sales is greater than the "head" of the curve which is the revenue from popular hits.
Natural Search
organic search - search results that are not paid for through advertising, but found through keyword search.
Time-shifting
the recording of programming to a storage medium to be viewed or listened to at a time more convenient to the consumer. TV programming - TiVo or DVR, or download from iTunes or other website. Audio shows - podcasts.
Echo Chamber
a few people conversing back and forth frequently, which amplifies the chatter and gives the impression of a much larger group when in reality the group is smaller. This was exemplified in the Dean campaign in 2004 when the passionate supporters blogged back and forth which raised his profile with media and fundraising and made him appear to be a stronger candidate when in reality Kerry was ahead in the polls and fundraising efforts.
TiVo or DVR
TiVo is a brand of DVR (digital video recorder) which is a device that records television programming and stores it on a hard drive for later viewing.
Encryption
a way to make the intellectual property secure by encoding the software.
Domain
the name that appears as part of the URL, e.g. www.introtodigitalage.com