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116 Cards in this Set

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Karl Marx: theoretical perspective
Conflict theory = 2 conflicting groups.
Karl Marx: Ideas as to how society develops and operates
Society is a result of how people use material resources. We are currently in the stage of "capitalism", which has created a 2-class system of owners and workers.

key terms: Materialist concept of history, class conflict
Marx: Materialist concept of history
It is not the ideas or values human beings hold that are the main sources of social change (Durkheim), but social change is prompted by economic influences. The conflict between classes creates historical development
Marx: capitalism
a class system in which confict between classes is a commonplace occurence because it is in the interests of the ruling class to exploit the working class and the interest of the workers to overcome that exploitation.
Marx: who he was
He was a journalist who worked with Engels. Marx influenced Weber and Durkheim.
Max Weber: theoretical perspective
focused on meaning, value, symbols, status
Max Weber: ideas as to how society develops and operates
society is a result of material and social resources. He took Marx' ideas and argued that in addition to material resources, people gain power through social status.

Focused on why Western societies developed so differently from other societies. Emphasized the importance of cultural ideas and values of social change.

key terms: bureaucracy, social capital
Max Weber: bureaucracy
a large organization with multiple levels of leadership. Uses written records and rules. Makes organization run efficiently, but has no democracy.

We have formal and informal bureacracies.

Iron Law of Oligarchy: power flows to the top, rules given from top to bottom.

Bureaucratic ritualism: rules upheld at any cost, leads to moral and efficiency problems.
Max Weber: 5 characteristics of bureaucracies
1. Clear cut heirarchy
2. Written rules govern conduct
3. officials are salaried
4. separation between personal life and work
5. Workers do not own the materials they use
Emile Durkheim: theoretical perspective
Functionalism: society is a very powerful force that seeks balance and equilibrium. The reason things happen and exist is to make society work.
Emile Durkheim: anomie
Concept by Durkheim. When social norms lose their hold on individual behavior. Examined in the context of suicidal behavior, a feeling of aimlessness or despair provoked by modern social life being one of these influences.
Emile Durkheim: organic solidarity
saw society as a set of independent, specialized parts that work in harmony with one another and fuction as a whole. Like the human body parts. Social cohesion, consensus about values and customs.
Emile Durkheim: idea as to how society functions and operates
people are a result of society. Everything we observe is the result of society's need to function. Society is constantly trying to achieve balance.
Emile Durkheim: who he was
The first scholar to identify as a "sociologist".
Herbert Mead: symbolic interactionism
The exchange of symbols in social interaction, especially language. Applies to our sense of self, we become self-conscious. Almost all interactions involve an exchange of symbols.
Herbert Mead: self-identity
As infants, we have a sense of "I".

In young childhood (3-5 years), we develop sense of "Me" or social self. Imitates actions of those around them.

Later childhood we develop "generalized other", or general values and cultural rules. Take part in organized games, not systematic play.
Erving Goffman: civil inattention
When each individual acknowledges the other's presence but tries not to be too intrusive.
Erving Goffman: interactional vandalism
breaking norms of everyday interaction (Duneir study). Power: subordinate breaks rules that are of value to the more powerful.
Erving Goffman: response cries
Exclamations when others are listening. Usually something to apologize for behavior and to reassure others that things are in control.
Erving Goffman: impression management
acting in ways to influence how others perceive.
Labelling theories or deviance
People get deviant labels, internalize, and believe that they themselves are deviant. Assumes that no act is intrinsically criminal/deviant. People who represent the laws of conformity or who can impose definitions of conventiional morality on others do most of the labelling. Reflect the power structure in society.
What distinguishes sociology from psychology, history and anthropology?
Sociology focuses on the importance of environment and how it shapes people.

Psychology: an individual look, one person, individual problems.
History: Looking at facts without much analysis of causation.
Anthropology: Difference from sociology is the history of each. Anths' are mostly relativists, socs' are into social justice.
studying small groups, everyday behavior in face-to-face interaction.
the analysis of large scale social systems, and analysis of the long-term process of change
studying organizations (ex. examining Congress)
Sociologist's line of questioning: 4 kinds of research questions
1. Factual questions:
quantitative, have numerical value, can count or observe.
2. Comparative: compare/contrast. Helps get at intrinsic human qualities.
3. Developmental: how things change overtime
4: Theoretical questions: trying to figure out the more social dynamics of a study, what underlies a phenomenon
The research process: what are the 7 steps of research?
1. Define the problem: select a topic
2. Review the literature: familiarize yourself with existing research on the topic.
3. Formulate a hypothesis: what do you intend to test? What is the relationship between the variables?
4. Select a research design: choose one or more research methods.
5. Carry out the research: collect your data, record the information.
6. Interpret the results: work out the implications of the data you collect.
7. Report the research findings: what is their significance? How do they relate to previous findings?
The research process: 3 methods of sociological research
Ethnography: provides in-depth information and broader understanding of social processes. But can only be used to study relatively small groups/communities, and its hard to generalize on the basis of one study. Researcher can be influenced by people she's observing.

Surveys: anonymous, reaches lots of people, good for taboo subjects

Experiments: controlled, manipulate variables, replicable. But variables are unknown and artificial
The research process: What is the importance of reflexivity in research?
reflexivity: knowledge and experience always affect each other.

Our thinking and behavior are affected by sociological knowledge in complex subtle ways, thus reshaping the very field of sociological investigation. Sociology stands in a reflexive relation to the behavior whose behavior is being studied.
How do culture and society relate?
One can't exist without the other. A society is a system of interrelationships that connects individuals together. Culture is society's glue because it provides a sources of conformity. Social control enforces social norms in society by punishing rulebreaking.
Nature vs. Nature: significance of identical twin studies (?)
separated, came back together and have a lot alike.
Nature vs. Nurture: 4 cultural universals
language, partnership, religion, property
4 stages of pre-modern societies
1. Hunter/gatherers: age and sex determine the leader of the group. Consists of a small number of people gaining their livelihood from hunting, fishing and gathering of edible plants. Few inequalities.

2. pastoral: have livestock, have a chief. size ranges from a few hundred to many thousands. Marked by distinct inequalities

3. agrarian: have farm/agriculture, has chief/king. Based on small rural communities. Stronger inequalities among hunters and gatherers.

4. Early civilization: has a king/emperor. Very large in size, sometimes millions. Some cities exist with trade and manufacturing. Based mostly on agriculture. Major inequalities between classes. Distinct government headed by king/emperor.
4 stages of pre-modern societies: Hunter/gatherers
1. age and sex determine the leader of the group. Consists of a small number of people gaining their livelihood from hunting, fishing and gathering of edible plants. Few inequalities.
4 stages of pre-modern societies: pastoral
2. have livestock, have a chief. size ranges from a few hundred to many thousands. Marked by distinct inequalities
4 stages of pre-modern societies: agrarian
3. have farm/agriculture, has chief/king. Based on small rural communities. Stronger inequalities among hunters and gatherers.
4 stages of pre-modern societies: Early civilization
4. has a king/emperor. Very large in size, sometimes millions. Some cities exist with trade and manufacturing. Based mostly on agriculture. Major inequalities between classes. Distinct government headed by king/emperor.
3 stages of industrialized societies
1. Developing: rural, some cities developing, agriculture, crops produced for sale, lots of poverty (at its worse in rural areas)

2. Industrializing: began in 18th century, rapid tech increase, complex politics, highly developed community based on technology, urban centers, factories.

3. Industrialized: strongly developed nation-states. Majority of the population work in factories/offices rather than in agriculture. Most people live in urban areas.
4 childhood development stages: Piaget
Infant: sensorimotor, learn through touch and physical exploration. Infants can't differentiate themselves from their environment until about four months. Children then understand their environment to have distinct and stable properties.

3-5 years, young childhood: pre-operational, playing (roles). Children are egocentric, interpret world in terms of their own position. Have no sense of quantity/measurement. Use words to represent objects symbolically.

6-11 years, later childhood: concrete operational, children master abstract notions. Much less egocentric. They like board games and magic tricks.

11-18 years, Adolescent: formal operational. Understand morals and philosophy, can solve problems with theoretical thinking. Development in this stage is dependent on education.
(?) 4 stages of development: Freud
infant: oral/anal stage

young childhood: interested in gender, penis envy, power

later childhood: latency

adolescents: (genital) self-identity and intimacy
5 agents of socialization
-The family
-mass media (printed and electronic sources)
Goffman's 3 stages of focused interactions
1. "Opening" = facial. Lots of risks at this stage. Civil inattention is disregarded.
2. "Encounter" = verbal or more obvious. Small talk, seminar discussions, routine contacts with staff (waiters).
3. "Reciprocal communication"
What is meant by "intersections of power"?
equal but different types of power in different categories.

men vs. women, women vs. homeless men (Duneir study).
Which social group is usually the victims of violent crimes?
Black young men
How has the prison system changed since 1965?
More people in favor of the death penalty, increase in people on death row, Rise in imprisonment, more expensive to keep people behind bars
(?) How does the American Dream obscure the significance of socio-economic status?
Because people believe the myth that one can raise themselves up by the bootstraps. One's chance for success is heavily influenced by their social status. Structured inequalities are built into the social system.

Stratification: structured inequalities between different groupings of people
What are the 6 Socio-Economic Status classes in the U.S.?
1. Upper: yearly income of at least 200k, 5% of the U.S., often own 2 homes

2. Upper-middle: Professionals, higher education, savings accounts, about 100k yearly income, 15% of the U.S.

3. Lower-middle: largest number of people, skilled service workers, 40% of the U.S.

4. Working: "blue-collar", 20-40k, less job service, often manual labor

5. Lower: Hourly wage workers, disproportionately immigrants, rarely have healthcare, often live in poverty

6. Under: People who are disenfranchised, urban poor. Mostly African-American. hard to get out of poverty (more than one generation). Increased because of globalization, government programs providing assistance were cut back, underclass perpetuate their own inequality.
"Blame the victim" vs. "Blame the system"
Blame the victim: Individualizes poverty. Lack of motivation, not working hard enough, lack of skill/ability. Existence of winners and losers was a fact of life. Dependent on welfare (dependency culture), culture of poverty (socialized into a poor attitude/outlook).

Blame the system: Examining institutions, education is critical for success. Reducing poverty requires policy changes Emphasizes factors like class, gender, occupational position, etc.
What are some problems with how the poverty line is determined?
Poverty line = a line that tries to gauge where poverty falls. Based on three times the cost of nutritionally adequate diet.

Overestimates poverty: Poverty line doesn't take into account non-cash and other forms of aid. Underestimates poverty: misconception of the "average" family
2 main causes of downward social mobility in the U.S.
downward social mobility = decrease in class position. Causes:
1. health, especially mental
2. burden of single-motherhood
Name 3 types of social exclusion
Prison, homelessness, welfare
Describe the 5 perspectives as to why people are deviant
1. Biological: could people be born that way? i.e. born with inclinations towards aggression.

2. Psychological: is deviance related to psychopathology? Some deviants may be psychos, but there are few psychos and lots of deviance.

3. Sociological: Deviance is arbitrary
a. functionalism (macro). Innovation - music is deviant at first, then improves society.
Social control - we know who's bad based on who's good.
b. Conflict theorists (Marxism, macro): about money, class and power.
Corporate crimes, crimes committed by an organization.
c. Symbolic interactionists: based on values, meanings, symbols, comm.
sociological imagination
thinking about situations from a perspective slightly removed from our everyday routines.
sociological perspective
a perspective regarding human life that focuses on identifying social patterns and grappling with social problems rather than on analyzing individual behavior and finding solutions for personal troubles.
Values held by a given group, the norms they follow and the material goods they create.
abstract ideals. Example: monogamy.
Definite principles or rules that people are expected to observe, they represent the do's and dont's of social life.
argues that our genetic makeup account for most aspects of social life.
The judging of other cultures by our own standards. Sociologists try to avoid this.
cultural relativism
the practice of judging a society by its own standards
The process by which new cultures are absorbed into a single mainstream culture.
Cultural diversity. Respecting cultural diversity and promoting equality of different cultures.
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
The language we use influences our perception of the world, because we're more likely to be aware of things in the world if we have words for them.
Technological advances in the 18th century that resulted in new mechines. Resulted in a rapid increase in industrialized societies.
the process of becoming a member of a group
Social Reproduction
How a group develops a society that lasts over generations. Pre-existing groups, like a sorority.
Gender roles: Age grade
We age with our peers, lack of rites of passage poses a problem.
Roles are socially-defined expectations that a person in a given status, or social position, follows.

example: a teacher's role is acting in a specified way towards her students.
Social constructionism
What individuals and society perceive and understand as reality is itself a creation of the social interaction of individuals and groups. Essentially, social reality.
two people. Unstable, fragile, intense, can develop more closeness.
Three people, more stable than dyads. Two can form an "alliance" against one member, or one can be a moderator when two are fighting.
Those we belong to. Not about popularity or prestige.
the "others", the groups towards which we feel antagonism or contempt.
Transactional leaders
Leaders who are simply concerned with "getting a job done", focused on accomplishing a task, routine leadership.
Transformational leaders
leaders who instill a higher purpose, trying to change something. Example: Nelson Mandela influenced social change as president.
Bureaucratic ritualism
A dysfunction in bureaucracy, because rules are upheld at any cost. Leads to moral and efficiency issues.
Iron law of oligarchy
power and resources flow to the top, rules go to the bottom. Term coined by Robert Michels
Surveillance society
our personal lives are monitored by organizations and structures of power. Part of Foucault's theory of surveillance.
A round building with a watch tower in the middle to monitor workers. Leads to maximum efficiency because people feel like they're being watched.
Cultural capital
knowledge, education, high culture, etiquette
International Governmental Organization: international organization established by treaties between governments for purposes of conducting business between the nations that make up its membership.
International NonGovernmental Organization (INGO) consists of int'l. organizations established by agreements between the individuals or private organizations making up their membership.
Definition of deviance
Actions that defy social norms
rewards/punishments, informal/formal.
formal sanctions for upholding norms, backed by political powers.
Any behavior that breaks the law
White-collar crimes
Crimes carried out by the more affluent sector of society. Examples: tax fraud, antitrust violations, embezzlement.
Corporate crime
Offenses committed by large corporations in society. example: pollution, product mislabelling.
Criminal acts committed with the help of information technology. Examples: pornography, telemarketing fraud.
A large group of people who occupy a similar economic position. They structure our life chances for success. relates to income, wealth, occupation, education, and lifestyle. Most people identify with middle class.
money from wages, salaries and investments.
All savings, assets and property. Divorce decreases wealth, marriage increases wealth.
Social mobility
Children reach higher standards than their parents, through their parents sacrifice. This is the case for most people.

Generally refers to the movement of individuals/groups between different class positions as a result of changes in wealth, occupation, or income.
Social exclusion
Sources of inequality that causes individuals to be cut off from society. May be seen in economic, political or social terms. Prison, homelessness and welfare are common causes.
Henslin: Internalized culture
pg. 99
Eyes: pupils dilate with attraction. types of eye contact differ across. Animal vs. human communication
Henslin: Extreme isolation
pg. 133
about Anna and Isabelle. *Social stigma = devaluing (children were illegitimate).
Learned interaction
*Isabelle had lots of 1-on-1 attention. Strong argument in support of public health and social services.
Henslin: Kindergarten Boot Camp
kindergartens and schools in general teach conformity. Become more socialized into society. The kindergartens are bureaucracies. The children learn their "student" role.

Socialization, functionalism, behavior. Is the school responsible?
Henslin: Kids and gendered sex play
Boys: bully in large groups. Use name-calling.

A lot of it is true to us.
Henslin: the pathology of imprisonment
Zimbardo's trying to emphasize that we need to reform prisons.
Assigned one group of volunteers as prison guards and the others as prisoners. Each group adapted to the role they were assigned to a shocking level.
Most people can be made to do anything when put into pyschologically compelling situations - regardless of their values or beliefs. Relates to milgram experiment.
Social interactionism: utilizes labelling theory. values, meaning internalized.

Conflict theory: issues of power
Henslin: Saints vs. Roguhnecks
Saints had a well paying jobs because of positive labels. People's reactions to the Roughnecks locked them into their bad behavior (went to prison). The saints and roguhnecks committed the same offensive behaviors, but the saints were still regarded favorably.

The reason: the saints were less visible, demeanor, bias. A lot of these causes were based on socio-economic differences
Symbolic interactionism: labelling, stigma, expectations.

Conflict theory: class conflict

Functionalism: social control, "we know who's bad by who's good"
Henslin: becoming a hitman
Conflict theory: business, power issues.
Henslin: Moving up from working class
About social mobility.

Socialization from the working class caused a culture shock when they tried to move into a higher class. Hadn't experienced high culture.
*idea of cultural capital: knowledge, education, high culture, etiquette. The working class children didn't have much capital in general.

Their success was based on their social class.
Henslin: Homeless women
*hard to get off welfare: childcare is very expensive, medicaid

*Mental illness: provoked by stress, and fear regarding finances. The women are paranoid.
Henslin: the Upper Class
*Idea of social registry
*WASP = white anglo-saxton protestant
*most prestigious colleges: Harvard (Kennedy's), Yale (Bush') and Princeton (Roosevelt's). Going to these schools creates cultural capital.
Henslin: Yanomamo tribe
*Intentional use of stereotypes
*tried to establish protected land
Henslin: cannibalism
Rules established amongst the social group. Group defied their learned social norms. Justified eating the bodies
Henslin: women/men's communication style
Men are more sraightforward. Women use apologies, compliments and thank you's in a more social fashion
Henslin: milgram's shock experiment
*When people know they're likely to conform psychologically, they're less likely to do so.
experimenter tells subject to deliver shocks to actor, actor acts as if he's hurt. Subject obeys orders although the actor seems hurt.
Part of leadership and conformity studies.

related to Nazi conformism. Ethically could not happen today (because of psych. harm, hypocrisy)
Henslin: impression management
There's a difference between expressions given and expressions given off.

A person's actions influence the current situation they're in.
Henslin: fieldwork with drug dealers
focuses on the resarch method that the author, jacobs, uses in order to conduct a study on drug dealers.

Finally uses interview methods. The interviewees were open, Jacobs found a lot of repetition in responses.

The police and crack-dealers made lots of assumptions based on appearance.
Henslin: Body rituals of the Nacirema
the nacirema have a sense of self-loathing towards their bodies, so they feel the need to purify themselves. Use shrines and magic.

They value unattainable bodily features
contribution of Mills
Invented the concept of sociological imagination
Contributions of Solomon Asch
Did the line conformity study.
Contributions of Devah Pager
Studied racial inequalities, stratification and discrimination
Contributions of Goffman
Social interaction studies: unfocused/focused interaction, impression management, response cries, and front/back regions.
Contributions of Engels
did studies on the dire conditions in Manchester. Also wrote Communist Manifesto.