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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Hazard table
1. solubility
2. hazards
3. molecular weight
4. melting point
5. boiling point
6. density
7. name
8. structure
Good writing is...
1. technically accurate
2. useful
3. concise
4. clear
5. complete
6. uses visuals
7. consistent
8. targeted for audience
9. well-organized
Formats for organizing technical material (order)
1. location
2. increasing difficulty
3. sequential
4. alphabetical
5. chronological
6. problem/solution
7. inverted pyramid (lead paragraph summarized; presents facts in decreasing order)
8. deductive order (start with generalization, support with facts)
9. inductive order (start with 1 or more example, then move to conclusion)
10. list (divide into plans)
Separate compounds (chemically)
1. fractional distillation
2. chromatography
3. solvent separation
4. mass spectometry
F*ing CheMiStry

separate compounds (biologically)
1. centrifugation
2. chromatography
3. polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
4. electrophoresis (gels)
guys biologically have pecs - PECC
separate compounds (math/physics)
program to isolate parameters
Chromatography involves passing a mixture which contains the analyte through a stationary phase, which separates it from other molecules in the mixture and allows it to be isolated.
1. gas (GC)
2. thin layer (TLC) - silicon, aluminum
3. high pressure liquid (HPLC)
5. must have mobile phase/carrier
UV Visible
Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons and spectrophotometry; absorptions and emissions
Infrared (IR)
Infrared radiation spectroscopy is the study of the composition of (usually) organic compounds, finding out a compound's structure and composition based on the percentage transmittance of IR radiation through a sample. Different frequencies are absorbed by different stretches and bends in the molecular bonds occurring inside the sample; info about functional groups: OH-, CH3-, C=C, O=C (!); fingerprint region particular to each compound
-H20 is horrific; compounds should be absolutely dry
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR Spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of nuclei.
-info about environment
-analyze up to 2 atoms away
X-Ray diffraction
X-ray crystallography is a technique in crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of X-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice.
-powder diffraction does not give as much information
Melting point
too high=impurities
-sometimes need isotopically labeled compound
Elemental analysis
Elemental analysis is a process where a sample of some material (e.g., soil, waste or drinking water, bodily fluids, minerals, chemical compounds) is analyzed for its elemental composition and sometimes isotopic composition; have idea of components
Laser spectroscopy
-what is bound to what
-things which fluoresce
-get fluorescent info
Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which utilises a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source. Because all elements emit light when excited to sufficiently high temperatures, LIBS can detect all elements, limited only by the power of the laser as well as the sensitivity and wavelength range of the spectrograph & detector.
Analysis tools
couple techniques to get complete picture
1. chromatography
2. UV Visible
3. InfraRed (IR)
4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
5. Mass spectometry
6. X-Ray diffraction
7. Ultrasound
8. Elemental Analysis
9. Laser spectroscopy
Anti-bacterial drugs (general types)
1. analgesics (pain deadening)
2. sedatives and tranquilizers (reduce anxiety)
3. stimulants, anti-depressants, hallucinogens, etc
Anti-bacterials (specific)
Sulfonamides - effective against cocci infections
Analgesics and Opiates
1. morphene
2. codeine
3. heroine
4. methadone
5. pethidine
6. aspirine
7. methyl salicylate (oil of winter green; eases pain)
-used to treat obesity
-also was used for depression and narcolepsy (still for children)
-developed by military
-weak bases
-ionized easily in mildly acidic urine
Tranquilizers (description)
-induce sleep: dopamine blockers in brain
-cross blood brain barrier
Tranquilizers (types)
Common antihistamine
Seven Steps to Recrystallization
1. choose solvent and solvent pairs
2. dissolve the solute
3. decolorize solution
4. filter
5. recrystallization
6. collect and wash crystals/product
7. purification of unknown (same steps 1-6)
Common solvent pairs
*acetic acid-water
*ethyl acetate-ligroin
Carboxyl containing compounds
flow chart
pie chart
bar chart
structured diagram
Fractional Distillation
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate.
Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. It is most generally used to find the composition of a physical sample by generating a mass spectrum representing the masses of sample components.
-fractionate molecule
Centrifugation is a process that involves the use of the centrifugal force for the separation of mixtures.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a molecular biology technique, [1] for enzymatically replicating DNA without using a living organism, such as E. coli or yeast.
Gel electrophoresis
Gel electrophoresis is a group of techniques used by scientists to separate molecules based on physical characteristics such as size, shape, or isoelectric point.