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75 Cards in this Set

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Psychology
The study of behavior and mental processes.
Behavior
The way one acts on thoughts, beliefs, etc.
Introspection
Study of one's self. Tool used to study thought.
Observation
Learning about behavior/mental processes by watching.
Description
To describe a behavior or mental process.
Explanation
To unveil a cause for behavior
Prediction
To forecast an outcome.
Control
To inspire a subject to change or modify a behavior.
Naturalistic Observation
Observing the behavior of others w/o their knowledge.
Hypothesis
An educated guess about a subject matter or about the relationship between two variables.
Independent Variables
The variable the psychologist changes or manipulates.
Dependent Variables
The variable the psychologist measures.
Extraneous Variables
Variable that can effect dependent variable but is not of interest to the experiment.
Population
Everyone who is of interest to a study.
Sample
The subset; smaller group from the bigger population.
Generalization
To apply results from the sample population tp the overall population
Representatives
Does the sample resemble the population
Neuron
The building block of the nervous system -aka- nerve cells.
Dendrites
Wirey endigs that p/u msgs
Cell Body
Turns msg into an electrical impulse.
Myelin Sheath
Fatty covering (insulation) that surrounds the axon.
Axon
Tube that carries electrical impulses.
Terminal Nodes
Turns electrical msg into chemical msg.
Neurotransmitter
The actual chemical msg
Frontal Lobes
Part of brain that is developed last, controls speech, reasoning and logic.
Brain Stem
Connects the brain to the spinal cord. Part of brain that is developed first. Controls breathing and consciousness.
Phrenology
Measuring the bumps on a persons head to draw conclusions about spec. subjects.
Retrograde Memory Loss
Loose memories that occur b4 an accident.
*Anteriograde Memory Loss


*most common
Loose memories that occur after an accident.
Psychosurgery
Cutting up the brain
Lobotomy
Cutting out a small portion of the frontal lobes.
Split Brain Surgery
Brain hemispheres are split down the corpus collosum.
Corpus Collosum
Thick band of neuronsthat connect the two hemispheres of the brain.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Controls brain and spinal cord neurons.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Controls neurons other that the brain and spinal cord.
Epilepsy
All neurons in the brain "fire up" at the same time.
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Studies brain activity electrically.
Computerized Tomography (Cat Scan)
3-D measurement of the brain.
Pet Scan (Positronic Emissions Tomography)
Radio-active sugar injected to stimulate neurons. Places where there is brain activity light up.
Somatic Nervous System
Neurons that control voluntary nerve behavior.
*Autonomic Nervous System


*controls allot of human behavior
Neurons that control involutary nerve behavior.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Arousal; when arousal occurs how do you respond? Flight or Fight Response
Para-Sympathetic Nervous System
Calming; slows down body function.
Sensory Adaptation
Gradually adapting to a sensation; allows you to pay attn to new things.
Sensation
Msgs sent to the brain.
Sensory Neurons
Pick up msgs from outside world and start process of neurons firing.
Ex:taste->taste bud->chemical
Hypnosis
Heightened state of suggestability; vulnerable state.
Circadian Rythms
Regular fluxuation in certain body functions; from a high point to a low point.
Ex: body temp
Circadian Theory
Sleep has evolved to keep us inactive when we do not need to be.
-humans evolve behaviorly
Cycle
Something that occurs repeatedly and predictably.

Ex: menstruation
REM
Rapid eye movement; extremely restful sleep.
Conditioning
Learning
Conditioned
Learned
Unconditioned
Un-learned (a natural behavior/response)
Stimulus
Msg from the outside world.
Response
Behavior
Nature
Biologically predisposed (genetics).
Nurture
Learning from an environment.
Tabula Rasa
Clean Slate
Extinction
The gradual unpairing of
Stimulus
Anything that elicits or evokes action in a person or creates a physiological response.
Extinction
The gradual unpairing of an unconditioned and conditioned stimulus.
the boy that cried wolf synd.
Spontaneous Recovery
Repairing of an unconditioned and conditioned stimulus only after one instance.
Classical Conditioning
Learn through pairing or association.
Operant Conditioning
Learn through experiencing consequences.

response->stimulus
Law of Effect
If you engage in a behavior and the stimulus you get back is positive, you will probably repea behavior and vice-versa.
Positive
Give something.
Negative
Take something away.
Reinforcement
Increases behavior.
Punishment
Decreases behavior.
Positive Reinforcement
Reward for good behavior.
Negative Punishment
To take something away in order to lower the probability of a negative response.
Positive Punishment
To give something in order to increase the probability of a positive response.
Garcia Effect
Use of vomitting and nausea to effectively evoke punishment.
Cognitive Learning
Observational/Social Learning
Learning by watching and then immitating /adopting the principles of people we respect or admire.