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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Any relatively permanent change in behavior that can be attributed to experience.
Any event that increases the probability that a particular response will occur.
Any identifiable behavior.
Events that precede a response
Effects that follow a response.
An innate, automatic response to a stimulus; for example, an eye blink.
A form of learning in which reflex responses are associated with new stimuli.
Classical conditioning
Learning based on the consequences of responding.
Operant conditioning
A stimulus that does not evoke a response.
Neutral stimulus
A stimulus that evokes a response because it has been repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned stimulus
A stimulus innately capable of eliciting a response.
Unconditioned stimulus
A learned response elicited by a conditioned stimulus.
Conditioned response
The period in conditioning during which a response is reinforced.
Reinforcement that occurs when an unconditioned stimulus closely follows a conditioned stimulus.
Respondent reinforcement
Classical conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus is used to reinforce further learning; that is, a CS (conditioned stimulus)is used as if it were a US.(unconditioned stimulus)
Higher order conditioning
Perspective that explains learning in terms of information imparted by events in the environment.
Informational view
An anticipation concerning future events or relationships.
The weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcement.
The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction.
Spontaneous recovery
The tendency to respond to stimuli similar to, but not identical to, a conditioned stimulus.
Stimulus generalization
The learned ability to respond differently to similar stimuli.
Stimulus discrimination
An intense and unrealistic fear of some specific objection or situation.
An emotional response that has been linked to a previously nonemotional stimulus by classical conditioning.
Conditioned emotional response
Reducing fear or anxiety by repeatedly exposing a person to emotional stimuli while the person is deeply relaxed.
Classical conditioning brought about by observing another person react to a particular stimulus.
Vicarious classical conditioning
Learning based on the consequences of responding.
Operant conditioning
Responses that lead to desirable effects are repeated; those that produce undesirable results are not.
Law of effect
Any event that reliably increases the probability or frequency of responses it follows.
Operant reinforcer
Any event that reliably increases the probability or frequency of responses it follows.
Operant reinforcer
An apparatus designed for the study of operant conditioning in animals; a Skinner box.
Conditioning chamber
Applying reinforcement, punishment, or other consequences only when a certain response is made.
Response-contingent reinforcement
The assembly of a series of responses into a chain of actions leading to reinforcement
Response chaining
In conditioning, a behavior repeated because it seems to produce reinforcement, even though it is actually unnecessary.
Superstitious behavior
Gradually molding responses to a final desired pattern.
A series of steps or ever-closer matches to a desired response pattern.
Successive approximations
The weakening or disappearance of a non-reinforced operant response.
Operant extinction
Using misbehavior to gain attention.
Negative attention seeking
Occurs when a response is followed with a reward or other positive event.
Positive reinforcement
Occurs when a response is followed by an end to discomfort or by the removal of an unpleasant event.
Negative reinforcement
Occurs when a response is followed with pain or an otherwise negative event or when a response is followed with the removal of a positive reinforcer (response cost).
Punishment that occurs when a response leads to the removal of a positive reinforcer.
Response cost
Unlearned reinforcers; usually those that satisfy physiological needs.
Primary reinforcers
Direct electrical stimulation and activation of brain tissue.
Intracranial stimulation
A learned reinforcer; often one that gains reinforcing properties through association with a primary reinforcer.
Secondary reinforcer
Reinforcers, such as attention and approval, provided by other people.
Social reinforcer
Symbolic rewards, or secondary reinforcers (such as plastic chips, gold stars, or points), that can be exchanged for real reinforcers.
Token reinforcer
Reinforcement based on receiving attention, approval, or affection from another person.
Social Reinforcer
Information on the effects a response has had that is returned to the person performing the response (also known as knowledge of results).
During learning, feedback or information provided about the correctness of responses or other aspects of performance.
Knowledge of results
Any learning format that presents information in small amounts, gives immediate practice, and provides continuous feedback to learners.
Programmed instruction
Learning aided by computer-presented information and exercises.
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
A basic Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)format, typically consisting of questions and answers.
Drill and practice
Educational computer programs designed to resemble games to motivate learning.
Instructional games
Computer programs that stimulate real-world settings or situations to promote learning.
Educational simulations
Computerized instruction that combines text, sounds, videos, and interactive exercises.
Interactive multimedia instruction.
A rule or plan for determining which responses will be reinforced.
Schedule of reinforcement
A schedule in which every correct response is followed by a reinforcer.
Continuous reinforcement
A pattern in which only a portion of all responses are reinforced.
Partial reinforcement
Responses acquired with partial reinforcement are more resistant to extinction.
Partial reinforcement effect
A pattern in which a set number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer. For example, a reinforcer is given for every four correct responses.
Fixed ratio schedule
A pattern in which a varied number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer. For example, a reinforcer is given after three to seven correct responses; the actual number changes randomly.
Variable ratio schedule
A pattern in which a reinforcer is given only when a correct response is made after a set amount of time has passed since the last reinforced response. Responses made before the time interval has ended are not reinforced.
Fixed interval schedule
A schedule in which a reinforcer is given for the first correct response made after a varied amount of time has passed (measured from the previous reinforced response). Responses made before the time interval has ended are not reinforced.
Variable interval schedule
The tendency of stimuli present when an operant response is acquired to subsequently control when and where the response is made.
Stimulus control
The tendency to respond to stimuli similar to those present when an operant response was acquired.
Operant stimulus generalization
The tendency to make a response when stimuli previously associated with reward are present and to withhold the response when stimuli associated with non-reward are present.
Operant stimulus discrimination
Stimuli that precede rewarded and non-rewarded responses in operant conditioning and that come to exert some control over whether the response is made.
Discriminative stimuli
Occurs when a response is followed with pain or an otherwise negative event or when a response is followed with the removal of a positive reinforcer (response cost).
Any event that decreases the probability or frequency of responses it follows.
Intense punishment; punishment capable of suppressing a response for long periods.
Severe punishment
Punishment that has a relatively weak effect, especially punishment that only temporarily slows responding.
Mild punishment
Any stimulus that produces discomfort or displeasure.
Aversive stimulus
Learning to make a response in order to end an aversive (painful or uncomfortable) stimulus.
Escape learning
Learning that occurs when making a particular response delays or prevents the onset of a painful or unpleasant stimulus.
Avoidance learning
Higher level learning involving thinking, knowing, understanding, and anticipation.
Cognitive learning
A mental image of an area (building, city, country) that guides movement from one location to another.
Cognitive map
Learning that occurs without obvious reinforcement and that remains unexpressed until reinforcement is provided.
Latent learning
Learning that takes place mechanically, through repetition and memorization, or by learning rules.
Rote learning
Learning based on insight or understanding rather than on mechanical application of rules.
Discovery learning
Learning achieved by watching and imitating the actions of another or noting the consequences of those actions.
Observational learning
A person who serves as an example in observational learning.
Any high-frequency response can be used to reinforce a low-frequency response.
Premack principle
Self-management based on keeping records of response frequencies.
A formal agreement stating behaviors to be changed and consequences that apply.
Behavioral contract
Inborn, unlearned behavior.
Innate behavior
Behavior patterns that occur with little variation in almost all members of a species.
Species-specific behavior
Behavior patterns that are typical of a species, but not automatic.
Species-typical behavior
Biological limits on what an animal or person can easily learn.
Biological constraints
Holds that people and animals are prepared by evolution to readily learn fears of certain stimuli.
Prepared fear theory
The tendency of learned responses to shift toward innate response patterns.
Instinctive drift