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32 Cards in this Set

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Law of Effect
When a reward follows a behavior, that behavior is strengthened.

Myers def: Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
Overjustification Effect
Explaining one's own behavior with too much emphasis on salient situational causes and not enough emphasis on personal causes.

Myers def: the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. The person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task.
Psychology
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Prosopagnoisa
Loss of ability to recognize faces that results from brain damage.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to underestimate situational influences on behavior and assume that some personal characteristic is responsible.
Childhood Amnesia
The inability to recall events from the first years of one's life.
Obese
Being 30% or more above the weight levels that would be appropriate for a person's body structure and height.
Cathartic Effct
The hypothesized reduction of aggression that follows the vicarious expression of it.
Physiology
The study of the functions of the living organism and its parts.
Nature-Nurture Issue
Myers: the debate over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
Nature View
The view that humans enter the world with an inborn store of knowledge and understanding of reality.
Nurture View
The view that human knowledge is acquired through experience and interactions with the world.
Tabula Rasa
Blank slate. In psychology, it refers to the view that humans are born without any innate knowledge or ideas; all knowledge is acquired through learning and experience.
Associationist Psychology
The view that the mind is filled with ideas that enter by way of the senses and then become associated through principles such as similarity and contrast.
Introspection
The observation and recording of one's own perceptions, thoughts, and feelings.
Structuralism
The analysis of mental structures.
Functionalism
Studying how the mind works so that an organism can adapt to and function in its environment.
Behaviorism
Myers: the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes (John Watson).
Gestalt
Myers: "Form" or "configuration." Gestalt psychologists emphasize our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
Psychoanalysis
Method of psychology and theory of personality developed by Freud. The theory emphasizes the role of unconscious processes in personality development and in motivation.
Unconscious
The thoughts, attitudes, impulses, wishes, motivations, and emotions of which we are unaware.
Free Association
A psychoanalytic method of exploring the unconscious by saying whatever comes to mind.
Information-Processing Models
View humans as processors of information.
Psychological perspective
An approach to looking at topics within psychology.
Eclectic Approach
Spans multiple perspectives.
Biological Perspective
An approach to psychology that tries to explain behavior in terms of electrical and chemical events taking place inside the body, particularly within the brain and nervous system.
Behavioral Perspective
An approach to psychology that focuses only on observable behavior, and tries to explain it in terms of its relation to environmental events.
Cognitive Perspective
An approach to psychology that focuses on mental processes such as perceiving, remembering, reasoning, deciding, and problem solving, and tries to explain behavior in terms of these mental processes.
Psychoanalytic Perspectives
An approach to psychology that tries to explain certain kinds of behaviors in terms of unconscious beliefs, fears, and desires.
Subjectivist Perspective
An orientation toward understanding behavior and mental processes in terms of the subjective realities people actively construct.
Five Perspectives of Psychology
Biological, Behavioral, Cognitive, Psychoanalytical, Subjectivist.
Naive Realism
People's tendency to take their constructed, subjective realities to be faithful renderings of an objective world.