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72 Cards in this Set

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Zygote
Fertilized egg

Chromosomes from parents
23 each parent but 46 in all
3 stages of Prenatal Development
Germinal Period
Embryonic Period
Fetal Period
Germinal Period
First 2 weeks
Rapid Cell division
Implanted in uterin wall
Embryo
Embryonic Period
weeks 3-8 the organs and major systems, and sex organs show up. The amniotic sac cushions the baby. The umbilical cord provides nutrients, oxygen, and water. This also prevents blood from mixing.
Teratogens
The placenta cannot prevent against harmfull substances like
Raiation
Toxic industrial chemicals
Diseases
Drugs
Fetal Period
3 months to birth
Amniocentesis- gather sample of amniotic fluid. Checks abnormalities.
Fetus is able to move its:
arms
legs
mouth
head
by 5 months- regular wake and sleep periods
by 6 months- brain activity almost the same as a newborn
by 7 months- double in weight. Gain 3-4 pounds of fat
Infant and Child Development
Physical Development
Temperament
Social Development
Attachment
Language Development
Parenting
Apperance
They look all wrinkly and have a cone head till it all smooths out over time
Milestones in Infant Development
3 months-rolling over
3.5 months-hold and reach for rattle
5.5 months-sit up
6 months- stand with help
11.5 months-stand alone
12 months-walking
17 months-walk up stairs only
Depth Perception
Ellenor Gibson
she tested at 6 months and kids had a depth perception according to the test, but also tested a 2 month old and they also had it
Temperament
Predisposition to behave and react in certian way

Strong genetic basis

Parents can help
Temperament Classification
Easy-40%
Difficult-10%
Slow to warm up-15%

35% don't fit in to a group
Easy babies
40%
Adapt to new experiences
Positive moods and emotions
regular sleeping and eating patterns
Difficult Babies
10%
Intensely emotional
Irritable
Fussy
Cry a lot
Slow to warm up babies
15%
Low activity levels
Withdraw from a new situations and people
Adapt gradually
Social Development
Social smile
Self-Awareness
Separation Anxiety
Stranger Anxiety
Social smile
The smile comes out with a social stimuli
Self-Awareness
They are aware their own body
Separation Anxiety
Hits when 8-24 months
Stranger Anxiety
Feat of strangers 8-12 months
Attachment
Emotional bond formed between infant and caregiver
Harry Harlow-monkey study
Attachment Styles- Secure and Insecure
Secure Attachment Style
Parents are consistently:
Warm
Responsive
Sensitive to infant's needs
They love mom and dad
Insecure Attachment Style
Parents are:
Neglectful
Inconsistent
Insensitive to infant's needs
Don't know what kinda of parents they are getting each day
Strange Situation
Mary Ainsworth
Explain situation- MOm and baby come in room, they play around. Then stranger enters room and plays. Then mom leaves and strangers plays with child. Then mom returns and stranger leaves
Strange Situation Results
Securely attached
Secure base- mom
Shows distress- when mom leaves
Can be comforted- by stranger
greets mother- mom
Strange Situation Results continued
Insecurely attached:
anxious
inconsolable
ignores mother
Types of insecure attachment
Avoidant
Resistant
Disorganized
Avoidant
no contact with mom, sad when left and stranger didn't help
Resistant
didn't explore enviorment, had to peel of mom
Disorganized
dazed and confused
Language Development
Noam Chomsky

Biological Predisposition

Language comprehension before language production
By 3 months
cooo sound

Ahhh sound

Repetition of vowel sounds
By 5 months
babble

ba- ba- ba

Repetition fo meaningless language sounds
By 12 months
momma

Single-word stage
Between 18-20 months
Vocabulary of 50 words

Put 2 words together
By 24 months
Daddy go

Put 3 words together

Telegraphic speech

150 words
Parentese or child directed speech
speech used when talking to infants
Marked by:
Raised voice
short, simple sentences
repetition
Purposes of Parentese
Simplify
Attract and maintain
Teach
Simplfy
short and to the point only
Attract and maintain
Say loud enough to listen to
Teach
try to get them to say short phrases
Parenting Styles
Authoritarian
Authoritative
Permissive
Authoritarian
follow the rules
Do it cause I said so
Most fathers follow this type

Children have withdrawls from situtations
Authoritative
Parents are willing to explain rules and punishments

Children are resposible, reliant, high academic, and have high self-esteem
Permissive
Rules, may be strict but they are not enforced or followed through.

Children have drinking problems, low self esteem, low academics
Effective Parenting
Have a stable rules of conduct that are consistent.
Show mutual respect, love, encouragement, and shared enjoyment.
I messagae tells the child the effect it had on the parent.
You messages are threats
Differences in Parenting
Mothers are nurturing

Fathers are the playful types
Theories of Development
Cognitive
Psychosocial
Cognitive Development
Most influential theory

Jean Piage

Child actively make sense of enviornment

Children are blank slates
More Cognitive Development
Continuous, and gradual
Biological programmed
Hereditary and environmental
4 distinct stages:
Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concert Operational
Formal Operational
Sensorimotor
Birth to 2 years
Acquire knowledge through senses
Out of sight out of mind
By end object permanence
Preoperational Stage
ages 2-7
Symbolic thought
Words,images,and symbols for representations
Language acquistions
Fantasy and imagination
Egocentrism
Irreversibility
Centration
Consevation
2 equal physical quanitites remain equal even if the appearance is changed
Egocentrism
the lack of ability to see it from someone elses view
Irrevesibility
can not mentally reverse a sequence of events
Centration
Tendency to focus on one aspect ove conversation
Concrete Operational Stage
around the age of 7
Capable of true logical thought
Understand conservation
Hypothetical or abstract
Formal Operational Stage
Around adulthood
Think logically
Deal with hypothetical situtations
Psychosocial Develpment
Erikson's Theory
Erikson's Theory
8 stages

Each contain conflict

Must be resolved for healthy development
8 Stages
Trust vs. mistrust
Autonomy vs. shame/doubt
Initative vs. guilt
Industry vs. inferiority
Identity vs. role confusion
Intimacy vs. isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Ego integrity vs. despair
Adolescence
Transitional stage between childhood and beginning of adulthood

Ends with adult roles and responsibilities
Job and pay bills
Puberty
Attaining reproductive capacity
Begins in early teens- girls 11-12yrs, guys-12-13yrs
Proceeds unevenly
Sex Characteristics
Primary Sex Characteristics
Sex organs directly involved with reproduciton (Vagina, Penis)
Secondary Sex Characteristics
not directly related to reproducion, and they signal sexual maturity (breast, pubic hair, facial hair)
Physical Development
Girls-Menarche
Female's first menstrual period
Age 12(10-15)
Boys-Testicular enlargement
Age 12 and 13
Sexual Development
As physical development increases so does interest in sex.
Social Development
Gerally positive
If good before adolescence you will be the same way in adolescence
Friciotn inevitable
Peers
Adult and Late Development

Physical Changes
Examples of changes- menopause
Genetics and environment- tanning will increase the number of wrinkles

Menopause
Adult and Late Development

Social Relations
Adults have fewer friends
Females disclose more
Males do more
Adult and Late Development

Having Children
Marring at a later age (30)
Waiting later to have children
Being a parent at an older age
eases adjustments
more physically demanding
Martial satisfaciont decreases with birth of child
Increases when children leave home
No empty nest syndrome
Audlt and Late Development

careers
1/3 of people switch occupations
Late adulthood and Aging
Average lif expectancy is
Men = 74
Women = 79
Old age is often associated with
Poor health
Inactivity
Social isolation
Mental and Physical incompetence

This is all inaccurate!!!!!
Nursing Home Rates
Only 5% of people over age 65 live in nursing homes

Fewer then 20% after age 85 live in a nursing home
Declines
Small number
Fluid Abilities-ability at speed, and learning
Crystalized Abilities- ability at skills and knowledge
Can minimize declines- athletics