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243 Cards in this Set

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Negative Feedback
something has caused a change in your system so the body moves this change in the opposite direction
Cause of change (cold), response minimizes the change(shiver)
Positive Feedback
Rare but important, a change is kept moving in the direction of the initial change
cause of change keeps changing such as heat..turn it up for more heat
The content of the interstitial fluid is maintained by
Homeostasis
Maintains environment around cells.
Cytosol
the liquid portion of the cell.
contains a lot of protein in clusters.
Metabolism
involves thousands of reactoins that are carried out by enzymes with are protein catalysts.
involve structural proteins where energy is made. carbs and fats are used for energy
Protein Synthesis
protein is made in the cytosol by the ribosomes which are attached to the ER.
There are some free ribosomes that are not attached to the ER. Proteins made on these have few or no modifications.
Ribosomes
make proteins that must be folded by the help of chaperone proteins.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
is a complex that has a lot of interconnected tubes
an organelle, a tube with branches on it.
Rough ER
ribosomes sit on a hole and new protein will enter the tube so Oxygen crosses easily.
it contains ribosomes that make protein to go to the smooth ER.
Smooth ER
mesh of interconnected tubules. It makes the new membrane and doesn't contain ribosomes.
Transfers proteins to the Golgi Apparatus
lysosomes
the ezymes convert proteins to amino acids and they reduce complex carbs to simple sugars. they digest new food.
contain digestive enzymes
Mitochondria
energy organelles or power plants of the cell. take nutrients in food and change into form for cell activity
contain inner and outer membrane.
ATP
adenosine with 3 tri phosphates attached. When this is split a lot of energy is released.
energy carrier
Glycolysis
the process of splitting sugar or glucose into pyruvic adic to produce energy.
takes place in the cytoplasm. has 10 reactions
Endocrine Disorders
arises b/c target cell responsiveness to the hormone is abnormally low and produces no response to normal hormone levels.
result from abnormal plasma concetrations of a hormone caused inappropriate rates of secretion.
Hyposecretion
low secretion of a hormone
Hypersecretion
too much hormone secreted,
related to changes in feedback receptor
Cell responsiveness is controlled by
the number of available receptors.
down regulation, permissiveness, synergism, and antagonism
Down regulation
occurs when there is desensitization of receptors due to chronic exposure of an agonist.
Processes consist of internalization of receptors or chemical modification of receptors.
works on hydrophilic agonist receptors.
Permissiveness
occurs when one hormone maximizes the effect of a second hormone.
thyroid will increase number of epinephrine receptors.
Synergism
when two hormones effect each other's activity
FSH and testosterone help each other's response during sperm production.
Antagonism
one hormone decreases the activity of a second hormone.
Progesterone decreases estrogen receptor number on uterus.
Pineal Gland
it releases melatonin to regulate circadian rhythms.
Is deep in your brain
Biological Clocks
SCN regulates protein production over a day's length. Light entraains the SCN to a 24 hour day.
Superchiasmic nucleas is the master biological clock in the hypothalamus above the visual pathways of the optic chiasm.
Melatonin
Is controlled by light and is released in high amounts in the dark and less in the light. It also controls other hormone release. It is an antioxidant that damages free radicals which are found in cancer, coronary artery disease and aging. Melatonin will slow the aging process.
is released from the pineal gland which is regulated by the SCN.
Plasma Calcium
Plasma in Calcium is about 2.5mM and is free inside the cells.
99 percent of calcium is stored as Ca protein in your bones so it makes the bones hard.
Parathyroid hormone
These are 4 spots found on the thyroid which increase Calcium reabsorption from bone then from calcium phosphate.
The final hormone discovered.
Hypocalcemia
You have this if you don't have a parathyroid hormone (no blood calcium).
Excess sodium entry causes the muscles to be byperexcitable and the diaphragm will spasm and you will die.
Vitamin D
Used as a steriod hormone and increases the effectiveness of the parathyroid hormone.
Get in dairy products or made in the skin from the sun.
Osteoporosis
A decrease in bone density
Weight bearing work or exercise will limit calcium loss from bones.
Hypothalamus
Controls homeostasis.
Is located at the base of your brain.
Pituitary
Contains the Posterior and Anterior pituitary.
Posterior Pituitary
It releases hormones made int he hypothalamus.
Is connected by axons.
Vasopressin
Increases water reabsorption by the kidneys.
A hormone released by the posterior pituitary.
Oxytocin
It causes uterin contractions during child birth and milk ejection in the breast during lactation.
A hormone released by the posterior pituitary.
Hypothalamic Releasing and Inhibiting Hormones
The hypothalamus produces reales hormones and inhibiting hormones that are released in small amounts in the anterior pituitary.
Portal System
It carries releasing and inhibiting hormones to the anterior pituitary.
Connects capillaries of the hypothalamus to capillaries of the anterior pituitary.
Anterior Pituitary Hormone Release
amounts released are controlled by the balance of the releasing and inhibiting hormones.
Very fine control of anterior pituitary release.
Negative Feedback
A product of target cell and will inhibit the anterior pituitary.
Ant. Pituitary will release tropic hormone which will increase the 2nd hormone or target cell.
Growth Control
Genetic and nutrition must have sufficiant amino acids and vitamins to maximize growth.
Growth Hormone
it activates 2nd messengers in many tissues and circulates for 15 mins. and metabolizes the liver.
comes from the anterior pituitary.
Non-Growth Related Effects
it increases liver glucose production and increases fatyy acid release from adipose tissue.
uses fats to spare glucose for the brain.
Growth-Promoting Actions
GH promotes soft tissues by Hyperplasia-increase the number of cells or mitosis and hypertrophy- increase the size of the cells or protein synthesis.
Bone Growth
contains growth hormone that will stimulate the bone thickness and length.
Bones grow with stress.
Bone Composition
Outer layer contains compact bone containing calcium phosphate. Inner layers are spongy bone containing lighten bones.
calcium phosphate is load bearing with a lot of collagen to make the bones flexible.
Osteoblasts
cells that form bone and secrete calcium phosphate and make collagen.
Osteroclasts
creates space in the bone that is digested hard bone.
Bone Length Growth
osteoclasts eat away epiphyseal plates and osteoblasts will add bone to the diaphysis.
Lengthen at epiphyseal plates.
Hormones limit length but not thickness.
Control of GH release
the hypothalamus gets multiple inputs and produces GHRA which will increase GH release and GHIH which will decrease GH release
GH Deficiency in children and adults
Children-produces dwarfism by a decrease in bone growth.
Adults there is no effect.
GH Excess before puberty and after puberty
Before puberty there is increased but proportional growth.
After puberty there is acromegaly or and increase in facial bone growth and extremities such as the hands and feet.
Thyroid Hormone
Increase results in poor mental health, poor physical funtion, less cold resistance, and mental retardation. Increase in TH results in wasting, nervousness and increase in heat production.
Increases metabolic activity in most tissue.
TH hormone synthesis
Iodine is added to tyrosine in thyroglobulin which moves by exocytosis into a colloid or liquid. Then with these added it moves by endocytosis to follicular cells which digest TGB and T3 and T4 number of iodines.
TH made by follicular cells in the thyroid.
TH secretion
Occurs when T3 and T4 are secreeted into the blood. They are not stored.
Most secretion is T4.
TH transport
T3 and 4 are bound to protien in plasma. Most T4 is converted to T3 in plasma.
TH buffering
As TH is lost in urine or enters cells the bound TH will release some TH to become free TH and replace the lost TH.
T3 is more active than T4.
TH effects
Maximizes GH effects on bone and protein synthesis.
All effects will increase metabolic activity.
Calorogenic TH Effect
Increase in heat production. TH will bind to nuclear receptors and increase gene activity, cell activity, fatty acid metabolism, and Sodium pump activity by making more pumps.
TH Effects: Sympathomimetic Function
TH is required for a full sympathetic response b/c TH increases the production of adrenergic receptors.
TH Effects on the Heart
Increase in beta and adrenergic receptor number so and increase in heart rate and the increase on the force of contraction takes place.
TH Effects on Neural Tissue
TH is nessecary for CNS development in children. It maximizes RAS activity or a switch in the brain that keeps you awake.
Both the cortex and the basil ganglia need TH.
Regulation of TH secretion
Regulation is by Thyroid Stimulating Hormone from the anterior pituitary.
TSH regulation (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)
An increase in blood TH causes the release of TSH from the anterior pituitary which will increase TSH production. An increase in blood TH will cause a decrease in TSH production
A steady state due to buffer.
Hypothytroidism
Results in Thyroid gland disease, low TSH production, and a lack of iodine. The symptoms are a decrease in BMR and in mental and physical functions.
Low
Graves Disease
Produces hyperthyroidism b/c you produce TSI or T. S. Immunoglobulin. Symptoms are increase in BMR, nervousness, wasting, and bulging eyes.
TSI activates thyroid to make TH with no negative feedback
GH Excess before puberty and after puberty
Before puberty there is increased but proportional growth.
After puberty there is acromegaly or and increase in facial bone growth and extremities such as the hands and feet.
Thyroid Hormone
Increase results in poor mental health, poor physical funtion, less cold resistance, and mental retardation. Increase in TH results in wasting, nervousness and increase in heat production.
Increases metabolic activity in most tissue.
TH hormone synthesis
Iodine is added to tyrosine in thyroglobulin which moves by exocytosis into a colloid or liquid. Then with these added it moves by endocytosis to follicular cells which digest TGB and T3 and T4 number of iodines.
TH made by follicular cells in the thyroid.
TH secretion
Occurs when T3 and T4 are secreeted into the blood. They are not stored.
Most secretion is T4.
TH transport
T3 and 4 are bound to protien in plasma. Most T4 is converted to T3 in plasma.
TH buffering
As TH is lost in urine or enters cells the bound TH will release some TH to become free TH and replace the lost TH.
T3 is more active than T4.
TH effects
Maximizes GH effects on bone and protein synthesis.
All effects will increase metabolic activity.
Calorogenic TH Effect
Increase in heat production. TH will bind to nuclear receptors and increase gene activity, cell activity, fatty acid metabolism, and Sodium pump activity by making more pumps.
TH Effects: Sympathomimetic Function
TH is required for a full sympathetic response b/c TH increases the production of adrenergic receptors.
TH Effects on the Heart
Increase in beta and adrenergic receptor number so and increase in heart rate and the increase on the force of contraction takes place.
TH Effects on Neural Tissue
TH is nessecary for CNS development in children. It maximizes RAS activity or a switch in the brain that keeps you awake.
Both the cortex and the basil ganglia need TH.
Regulation of TH secretion
Regulation is by Thyroid Stimulating Hormone from the anterior pituitary.
TSH regulation (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)
An increase in blood TH causes the release of TSH from the anterior pituitary which will increase TSH production. An increase in blood TH will cause a decrease in TSH production
A steady state due to buffer.
Hypothytroidism
Results in Thyroid gland disease, low TSH production, and a lack of iodine. The symptoms are a decrease in BMR and in mental and physical functions.
Low
Graves Disease
Produces hyperthyroidism b/c you produce TSI or T. S. Immunoglobulin. Symptoms are increase in BMR, nervousness, wasting, and bulging eyes.
TSI activates thyroid to make TH with no negative feedback
Hashimoto's Syndrome
An autoimmune attack on the thyroid gland which produces hypothyroidism.
Treated with Synthetic Th orally.
Goiter
An enlarged thyroid that occurs due to excess TSH or TSI.
Low iodine leads to low TH to high TSH to a goiter to no TH or hypothyroidism.
TSH leads to high TH production to no negative feedback or hyperthyroidism.
Adrenal Medulla
is the inner layer of hte adrenal gland
Is similar to a post ganglionic sympathetic nerve ending.
AD Secretions
Consist of epinephrine and norepinephrine that are stored in granules 4:1.
Vit. C is stored with E. and N.E. in granules.
AD Effects of Catecholamines
E. release causes an increasse in HR, a decrease in total peripheral resistance and increase in cardiac output. N.E. causes vasoconstriction except in heart and skeletal muscles. A large increase in BP and Metabolic Rate.
AD on Neural Control
Decrease in E. and N.E. release to increase BP. and Increase these to decrease BP.
Is determined by baroreceptor activity.
Adrenal Cortex
The outer layer has many endocrine secretions.
AC Secretions
are all steriods or derivatives of cholesterol-Mineralcorticoids or aldosterone, glucocorticoids or cortisol a stress hormone, and androgens or male hormones which produce DHEA similar to testosterone.
Released as they are made. There is no storage.
ACTH Effects and Control (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)
Increase in ACTH causes a release of all adrenal cortex hormones. Decrease on ACTH causes negative feedback by cortisol.
Affects the Adrenal Cortex
Circulation of Glucocorticoids
most circulate bound to globulin proteins and only the free form are active for about an hour.
Glucocorticoid Effects
Cortisol is a stress hormone which is necessary for survival it binds to nuclear receptors to increase synthesis.
Anabolism
The buildup of large macromolecules (proteins and glycogen)
The balance b/w Anabolism and Catabolism is controlled by activity and by energy intake.
Catabolism
Is the breakdown of large macromolecules
Essential Nutrients
these are ones the body can't make but must have. You must also have enough calories.
need 8 amino acids, all vitamins, and all minerals
Nutrient Storage
Glycogen is stored in muscle and in liver.
Fats in adipose tissue/ carbs can be converted to fats to go into adipose tissue.
Amino Acids made in proteins used for energy during starvation.
Brain Glucose Supply
B/w meals glycogen from the liver maintains plasma glucos for the brain. Proteins can be made into glucose but fats can't.
The brain only uses glucose for energy.
Apsorptive State
Post meal time lasts about 4 hours.
Many nutrients are immediately available.
Post-Abosorptive State
Fasting b/w meals
use stored energy to supply tissues energy needs.
Islet Cells
They secrete hormones into the blood.
Alpha cells secrete glucagon and beta cells secrete insulin which is more important.
In pancreas
Insulin Effects
All are aimed at storing energy for future use
Insulin Effects on Carbs
In seconds it will increase number of glucose transporters in cell membranes and causes an increase in glucose entry.
Brain and working muscle don't need insulin to increase glucose.
Insulin Effects on Fats
Takes hours for insulin to increase lipid storage.
Insulin Effects on Proteins
Within seconds you increas amino acid entry and over the course of minutes you increase protein synthesis.
Regulation of Insulin Secretion
is by plasma glucose which is increase and causes insulin release for 1 hour.
Sugar rapidly increases plasma glucose and causes increase in insulin. There is hyperglycemia.
Starch slowly increases plasma glucose and insulin there is no hypoglycemia.
Decrease in plasma glucose results in hypoglycemia.
Glucagon
Does the opposite of insulin. It decreases plasma glucose which causes glucagon release and glucose increases plasma glucose.
Diabetes Mellitus
Is characterized by the presences of glucose in urine. There are two types: Type 1: 10% is autoimmune attack on B cells of pancreas and Type 2: 90% due to obesity and age-down regulate the number of insulin receptor.
Hyperglycemia
High plasma glucose. Increase plasma osmolarity which exceeds the transport maximum for glucose in kidneys.
Dehydration
Increase in glucose excretion causes an increase in water excretion. Water follows glucose osmotically.
A loss of sodium and potassium will decrease BP leads to shock then death.
Protein Metabolism
Amino Acids are used for energy and to make glucose in your liver. Negative protein balance leads to muscle wasting.
Fat Utilization
Use fats in most cells when glucose is not present. Increase fat use in body leads to increase in plasma fatty acids and cholesterol which leads to atherosclerosis and a decreaes in blood flow.
Acidosis
You use 2 carbon segments each time for energy and are left with 4c remnants which are ketoacids which produce acidosis and a decrease in neural function in the CNS which leads to coma.
Fats come normally in 14c, 16c and 18c forms of carbon.
Coma
Occurs b/c of acidosis, dehydration, and hyperosmolarity.
All of these induce coma and lead to death.
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Juvenille diabetes-the most prominent onset in early teens but can occur at other ages.
An autoimmune disease that is uncurable and treated withinsulin injections
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Occurs b/c the loss of insulin receptors due to excess caloric intake. A prolonged increase in insulin causes down regulation of insulin receptors which causes lots of insulin and no glucose entry.
Obesity
Type 2 diabetes occurs under 40 years old has the same symptoms as type 1.
Reducing weight and exercise helps.
Age
Type 2 diabetes occurs in the elderly. They lose insulin receptors but the reason why is unknown.
Insulin injections are sometimes used to maximize the available receptors.
Not associated with obesity.
Muscle Effects
Taking heavy loads will disrupt your muscle filaments and causes an increase in free myosin leads to hypertrophy and more filaments.
Carbohydrate Loading
Exercise decreases glycogen in muscle and enzymes will replace the glycogen when at rest.
About 3 days before a competition you have a large increase of carb. intake-10-20% increase in glycogen. About 10 days before you have low carb and high exercise regimen. it increases the number of enzymes so when 3 days before come before with increase in carb intake, you increase 30-40% glycogen.
Cardiovascular Effects
Cardio and Respiratory Effects occur together.
Muscle Blood Flow
this will increase depending on the kind of exercise.
10%-decrease MBF
70%-stop MBF
Rhythmic contraction increases MBF 30 fold
Cardiac Changes
the thought of exercise with decrease parasympathetic activity and increase your HR.
Isometric exercise (try to lift very heavy weights) you get a huge increase in systolic pressure and increase in diastolic pressure.
Isotonic exercise causes an increase in systolic and diastolic pressure.
Training
increases stroke volume and decreases HR, increases extraction of oxygen from blood by muscle, increases mitochondrial oxygen use when you're fit.
Effects on Pathology
Isotonic or rhythmic exercise is better than isometric for health. It produces fewer and less severe heart attacks. There's more blood flow to the heart and increase in heart attack risk 30 mins after heavy exercise by sedentary people.
START SLOW!
Heat Disspation
Lose heat through skin and lungs when you exercise
Skin Blood Flow
There is an icrease in dermal heat gradient and in heat transfer thru the skin by convection and radiation.
There's no increase in dermal blood flow during exercise.
Sweat
Convert liquid water to vapor, exercise will decrease sodium content of sweat so it's easier to vaporize.
You burn up to 900 kcals per hour at high work rates.
Respiratory Effects from Exercise
increase in delivery of oxygen to the blood, increase in removal of carbon dioxide, and increase in heat loss.
Changes in Ventilation
When exercising you increase oxygen delivery so you must have more oxygen transfer at alveoli into the blood.
Lung blood flow will increase from about 5L to 30L
Oxygen Debt
When exercising you increase lactate and most is remade into glucose the rest goes to pyruvate then to mitochondria and is used to make ATP to use oxygen.
Fatigue
The sensation of fatigue is dyspnea or difficulty in breathing, neural pain, acidosis or decrease in neural function, and an increase in temperature.
Most is psychological.
Connective Tissue
Collagen-strong linear protein polymer. An important component of cartilage-squishy material which cushions your joints.
Tendons connect bone to muscle.
Ligaments connect bone to bone.
Collagen, Tendons, and Ligaments
Arthritis
Osteoartheritis is caused by repetitive motion with medium to heaby weights.
Not related to obesity.
Cancer Incidence
In males: prostate>lung>colon>bladder
In females: breast>lung>colon>uterine
Death:
Males: lung-100 prostate 16 colon 45 pancreas 100
Females: lung 90 breast 22 colon 45 pancreas 100
Benign Cancer
Growth is localized and can be treated with surgery. Causes problems if a decrease in blood flow or space of adjacent healthy tissues.
Malignant Cancer
need surgery to remove primary tumor and treat it with radiation or chemo.
Metastasizes or spreads through the lymph system.
Diagnosis of Cancer
Need a biopsy- increase use of MRI
Tumors often produce unique hormones or proteins.
Genetics
A single cell will generate a tumor.
Cancer is NOT inherited from parents.
Surgery for Cancer
Remove the tumor with extra tissue and look for clear edges.
Radiation
Kill fast growing cells.
Side Effects: bone marrow decrease (RBC, WBC, and platelets) and small intestine mucosa and decrease absorption.
Damage DNA or make oxygen radicals which is poisoous.
Chemotherapy
A poison with multiple targets such as DNA and a mitotic spindle.
Supress or prevent cancer development.
Biologic Therapy
Shift balance of host and tumor toward the host. Increase cell activity, antibody activity and cytokines.
Mutation of Cancer
Usually need 5 to 10 mutations to become malignant. DNA alterations
Tumor Viruses
RNA virus is linked to luekemia.
DNA virus is linked to cervical cancer, liver, and some lymphomas.
Few cancers are linked to viruses.
Cell Biology
Uncontrolled mitosis, cell division. Cells are non functional and immature that are produced.
p53 Mutations
Controls normal mitosis and acts as a tumor suppressant.
Mutation leads to genomic instability and resistance to apetosis
Environmental Signals
Cytokines and paracrines can alter G proteins and other enzymes. These increase or decrease mitosis rate.
Loss of cell to cell connection and increases metastasis.
Effect cancer cell after mutation.
Transcription Factors
Alter tumor growth in positive or negative way. Targets of new cancer research.
control gene activation
Apoptosis Regulation
a decrease in tumor cells and its not eliminated.
Targets of new therapies for cancer.
Caspaces are enzymes control apaptosis. They attack the cytoskeleton and DNA.
Angiogenesis
Tumors get high blood flow and starve healthy tissues. Therapy is to decrease tumor blood flow to starve the tumor.
Growth of new blood vessels.
Prevention of Cancer
Prevent multiple mutations necessary to get cancer such as smoking, diet, and sun avoidance.
Smoking Cessation
nearly 500,000 premature deaths per year. Linked to lung, larynx, esophagus, bladder, and pancreatic cancers.
Smoking increases cadiovascular and colonary disease.
To stop smoking is the most posity health activity. 90% who quit do it alone and total quit works best.
Diet
If you decrease fat intake you will decrease your risk for cancer.
Eat fiber to decrease risk for colon cancer.
There are anti carcinogens in vegetables, fruits, and nuts.
Sun Avoidance
UV Rays can break DNA and cause mutations.
Acute sunburns, even in children, increase the risk of melanoma.
Chemoprevention
Try to decrease mutation risk in susceptible people. Tomoxifen decreases the risk of breast cancer in high risk women.
This is a new field.
Chromosomes
23 pairs, 22 are somatic
XX-Females
XY-Males
X and Y Chromosomes
X is large with many genes on it
Y is small with relatively few genes and has SRY gene which starts reproduction.
Chromosomes code for proteins.
Gonads in Embryo
Testes and ovaries. In the 7th week of development the gonadal medulla develops into the testes and the cortex will regress. Develops into ovaries and the medulla will regress.
Puberty
Maturation of the reproductive system.
Females: hair pattern, breast development, and mensturation.
Males: hair pattern, erectile function, sperm production, and increase musculature.
GnRH and Leptins
GnRH is Gonadotropin Releasing Hormones produced by the hypothalamus which travel to the anterior pituitary to release of FSH and LSH.
Leptins might be necessary for menarchy the onset of mensturation.
Menopause
400 cycles in lifetime
7 million oo cytes at birth. 1/400 start to develop at each cycle and 1 cell is released at ovulation.
Only in females
Osteoporosis
A decrease in bone density. Weight bearing work and exercise will increase bone density.
Strongly linked to the decline in estrogen
Cardiovascular Effects
Estrogen increases cardiovascular health.
Increase in cardio disease in women after menopause.
Decrease in HDL and increase in vascular reactivity and increase in BP.
Hormone Replacement
Decrease menopause symptomes
Increase risk of Heart disease, stroke, breast cancer.
Increasing caution in trying to balance risk with benefit.
Pituitary Gonadotropins
Controlled by neg. feedback of testosterone, estrogen and progesterone.
Need GnRH from hypothalamus for release.
FSH
Females: causes growth and development of ovarian follicles.
Males: causes development and maturation of sperm cells by activating sertolli cells.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
LH
Females: responsible for ovulation, causes estrogen secretion and ovarian maturation
Males: causes testosterone secretion from the laydig cells.
Luteinizing Hormone
Diet
If you decrease fat intake you will decrease your risk for cancer.
Eat fiber to decrease risk for colon cancer.
There are anti carcinogens in vegetables, fruits, and nuts.
Sun Avoidance
UV Rays can break DNA and cause mutations.
Acute sunburns, even in children, increase the risk of melanoma.
Chemoprevention
Try to decrease mutation risk in susceptible people. Tomoxifen decreases the risk of breast cancer in high risk women.
This is a new field.
Chromosomes
23 pairs, 22 are somatic
XX-Females
XY-Males
X and Y Chromosomes
X is large with many genes on it
Y is small with relatively few genes and has SRY gene which starts reproduction.
Chromosomes code for proteins.
Gonads in Embryo
Testes and ovaries. In the 7th week of development the gonadal medulla develops into the testes and the cortex will regress. Develops into ovaries and the medulla will regress.
Puberty
Maturation of the reproductive system.
Females: hair pattern, breast development, and mensturation.
Males: hair pattern, erectile function, sperm production, and increase musculature.
GnRH and Leptins
GnRH is Gonadotropin Releasing Hormones produced by the hypothalamus which travel to the anterior pituitary to release of FSH and LSH.
Leptins might be necessary for menarchy the onset of mensturation.
Menopause
400 cycles in lifetime
7 million oo cytes at birth. 1/400 start to develop at each cycle and 1 cell is released at ovulation.
Only in females
Osteoporosis
A decrease in bone density. Weight bearing work and exercise will increase bone density.
Strongly linked to the decline in estrogen
Cardiovascular Effects
Estrogen increases cardiovascular health.
Increase in cardio disease in women after menopause.
Decrease in HDL and increase in vascular reactivity and increase in BP.
Hormone Replacement
Decrease menopause symptomes
Increase risk of Heart disease, stroke, breast cancer.
Increasing caution in trying to balance risk with benefit.
Pituitary Gonadotropins
Controlled by neg. feedback of testosterone, estrogen and progesterone.
Need GnRH from hypothalamus for release.
FSH
Females: causes growth and development of ovarian follicles.
Males: causes development and maturation of sperm cells by activating sertolli cells.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
LH
Females: responsible for ovulation, causes estrogen secretion and ovarian maturation
Males: causes testosterone secretion from the laydig cells.
Luteinizing Hormone
Prolacin
Females: Responsible for milk secretion
Secretion will peak at parturition or child birth.
PRL
Testes
Seminiferous tubules are the site of sperm production
Sortoli cells assist sperm production
Laydig cells produce testosterone.
Spermatogenesis
Formation of sperm cells from spermatocytes
100 million/day
Sperm Formation
Spermatocyte mitosis one stays and one migrates to seminiferous tubule lumen.
Sertoli cells absorb most of spermatocyte cytoplasm.
Sperm Structure
Head-tip is a chromosome that contains digestive enzyme which will allow sperm penetration of the ovary.
Midpiece-mitochondria-ATO-Fructose
Tail-contains microtubules involved in propulsion into the ovary.
Chromosome 23
Temperature of scrotum
In cold testes ascend closer to body.
In warm testes will descend.
Undescended testicles are normally infertile.
Scrotum is the sac which contains testes 32 degrees maximum sperm production
Semen
a liquid that mixes with the sperm during emission.
Male with less than 20,000 sperm/ejaculate is infertile
2 mL/day ejaculate contain 400 million sperm.
Erection
Arteriolar dialation and venous compression result in engorgment.
An increase in blood flow in the penis mediated by parasympathetic nerves.
Emission
The mixing of sperm with semen from the accessory organs. Controlled by sympathetic nerves.
Immediately will preceed ejaculation.
Ejaculation
Requires skeletal muscle contractionActive delivery of sperm into the vagina.
Testosterone
steriod hormone that increases protein production and is released 1st before birth in utero. This allows development of male reproductive structures.
A steriod hormone that stops after birst and restarts at puberty.
Testosterone Secretion
Is from the laydig cells in the testes. Released as it is made continuously.
98% us bound to protein in plasma. 2% is free and active
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Male hair pattern, penile/genitalia enlargment, thickening fo the vocal chords, increase in mental aquity, increase in sex drive, and increase in growth.
Anabolic Effects
Growth spurt the epiphyseal closure and increase in musculature and increase in kidney size.
Control of Testicular Function
Negative feedback to the anterior piruitary and the hypothalamus
Teste FSH
Increase in GnRH from the hypothalamus which causes the FSH release from the anterior pituitary.
FSH will activate sertoli cells to remodel sperm and release fructose.
GnRH, FSH, LH, testosterone, and inhibin are all tonic or constant contractions and are stable after puberty.
Teste LH
Increase GnRH causes LH Testosterone release from laydig cells, testosterone inhibits LH and GnRH
released from anterior pituitary.
Teste Inhibin
It inhibits FSH released.
Released by sertoli cells
Menstrual Cycle
Ovum is prepared for release from the follicle. Uterus is prepard for implantation of the embryo.
21-35 days, variable. On average it's 28 days.
Ovarian Cycle
Ovum growth, release, and follicular changes.
Follicular Phase
Dominated by FSH release. Multiple follicles will enlarge and form the antrum. One follicle will outgrow the others. The otehrs regress or die out called atresia.
Estrogen released from granulosa and fecal cells surround ovum.
Occurs on days 1-14
Ovulation
LH surge from anterior pituitary causes the antrum to rupture. Ovum is released into the abdomen. The fimbria will sweep the ovum into the oviduck and takes 5 days to migrate to the uterus.
14 day
Luteal Phase
Corpus Luteum forms from cells left in the follicle. It will secrete progesterone and estrogen. Progesterone prepares the uterus for embryp implantation.
14-28 ovary enters this phase
Uterine Cycle
It's changes will supply implanted embryp with energy until the placenta forms.
Site of fetal growth.
Proliferative Phase
Estrogen dominated, repair of the uterine surface after menstration. Increase in uterine lining thickness and increase in blood supply.
5-14 most vulnerable part of the cycle.
Secretory Phase
Great increase in vascularization and thickness. Progesterone dominates increased growth. It also decreases uterine contractions, uters secretes glycogen.
14-28
Menstruation
Sloughing off of uterine lining if there's no implantaino. If there in implantation, there will be hormonal changes that signal that pregnancy has occured.
Days 1-5
Cervix
Opening b/w the vagina and the uterus, usually blocked with mucus. Estrogen thin mucus at ovulation. Pregnancy increases mucus production.
Indicators of Ovulation
Pregnancy -increase in body temperature, thinning of mucus.
Fertilization-3 days, 2 days before sperm lifetime, 1 day after fertilizable ovum.
Ovarian Hormones
Estrogen and progesterone have multiple effects.
Estrogens
Formed from testosterone and androstenedione.
Produced in granules, thecal cells surround ovum.
Effects of Estrogens
Increase follicle development and inhibit FSH.
Increase ciliary motion in the oviducts and increases uterin size and causes the LH surge that produces ovulation. Increase in neural plasticity.
Progesterone
Increase size and secretions of the uters and cervical mucus and inhibits LH. It decreases contractions of the uterus during pregnancy and increases heat production.
Relaxin
Increases digestion of connective tissue in the cervix so the baby can squeeze through. It softens the pelvis for delivery.
placenta
Control of Ovarian Funcion
Negative feedback to the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus. GnRH
Pituitary Controls in the Follicular Phase
Increases estrogen release and decreases FSH release. FSH stimulates granulosa cells and LH stimulates both granulosa and fecal cells.
At ovulation estrogen causes a very large increase in LH release which causes rupturing of the follicle.
Pituitary Controls in the Luteal Phase
Increases in progesterone that inhibits GnRH and FSH and LH release.
When there's a breakdown of corpus luteum, a decrease in progesterone starts teh menstrual flow.
Embryo Development
Cells surround the embryo and invade the uterine wall and become the placenta. Folice acid is important b/c it helps mitosis occur and prevents birth defects.
Ovum starts mitosis after fertilization and becomes blastocyst or an embryo and cells.
Corpus Luteum
hCG is released from the uterus and maintains the CL. Progesterone stays high and the uterus stays quiet.
Placental Hormones
Function to maintain pregnancy.
Placental Hormones: hCG
Maintains Corpus Luteum and is used for pregnancy tests.
Human Chorionic Gernadotropin
Placental Hormones: Progesterone
Is released by placenta in large amounts within weeks after implantation. A decrease in progesterone release starts uterine contractions at parturition or child birth.
Placental Hormones: Relaxin
Softens the pelvis and increases digestion of connective tissue in the cervix.
Placental Functions
Supplies steroids for fetal cortisol. It's involved in the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products. There's increase in maternal respiration and renal output.
Parturition
Exact initiator is unknown. Increase in estrogen leads to an increase in uterine excitability leads to an increase in the number of gap junctions and an increase in the number of oxytocin receptors.
Childbirth
Fertilization
Cepacitation is the increase in sperm motility, which occurs in the female reproductive tract. Sperm break through granulosa cells, fecal cels, and zoma pollucida (a gell that surrounds the ovum where sperm enters) Membrane of ovum repells other sperm.
In the oviduct. The travel time is 5 days, survival time is 1 day.
Progesterone in Parturition
Decrease in progesterone which allows urerine contractions.
Few cases, other factors will overwhelm progesterone effects.
Oxytocin in Parturition
Levels are high in the blood throughout pregnancy. Increase number of uterine oxytocin receptors when near term and increase uterine contractions and cervical dialation.
Labor
Start uterine contractions increase pressure and increase prostaglandin release and increase in ocytocin release which increases contractions.
Very strong contractions lead to spiral reflexes which increase abdominal contractions-delivery head first the body then the placenta.
A positive feedback system.
Lactation
Milk production for newborn infant.
Breast Development
Estrogen increases mammory duct size. Progesterone increases mamory lobule size and prolactin completes structural changes.
Milk Secretion
1st 2 weeks is colostrum which contains nutriets, lactoferrin and antibiotic, and antibodies.
Primarily by prolactin
Milk Ejection
Sucking will increase oxytocin release. Oxytocin will contract mammory lobules and contract the uterus. Milk at the nipple is not sucked out. It is secreted and lapped up.
GnRH Effects
Prolactin (PRL) decreases GnRH release and decreases FSH and LH and there is no ovulation during breast feeding.
Glucocorticoid Effects: Metabolism
Increase protein metabolism leads to free amino acids for protein repair in damaged areas. Cortisol causes increase in plasma glucose and increase plasma fatty acides. Liverates energy for repair.
Glucocorticoid Effects: Permissive Actions
Cortisol assists glucagon in increase plasma glucose and it increases activity of calcium echolomines-Epi and N.E. Increase vasoconstriction and Bronchoconstriction.
Glucocorticoid Effects: Stress
Increase in ACTH release and cortisol release.
Short Term increases energy availability and amino acids and catecholamine and cortisol to the breakdown of protein which causes pain (slow).
Physical and Mental
Glucocorticoid Effects: Anti-Inflammatory Effects
Only at high glucocorticoid levels. Decrease swelling and histamine to work in the CNS. Cortisol will block the immune system. Apoptosis of WBC's must use antibiotics to block infection. Not for routine use.
Cortisol/Cortisone
Mineralcorticoids
Aldosterone increase. Sodium reabsorption in the kindney.
Adrenal Androgens
DHRA is swamped by effects of testosterone.
DHEA and Androstenedione
Major effects in females.
No or minor effects in males.
Adrenal Androgens: DHEA
It causes the growth spurt that occurs at puberty Estrogen caps the growth spurt in females.
Responsible for sex drive in females.
Adrenal Androgens: Androstenedione
No effects, 1 reaction into testosterone in females is converted into estradial.