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54 Cards in this Set

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Catastrophism
Idea that the succession of layers seen in the Earth's crust was the result of a series of catastrophes (Ex. universal floods).
Uniformitarianism
View of Earth's geological history that states that the geological processes that operated in the past were similar in nature to those observable in nature today.
Artifact
Any object made, modified, or utilized by humans.
Ecofact
Natural remains that, while not made or manufactured by humans, become incorporated into archaeological deposits and can provide information about past environments and/or human behavior.
Feature
Immovable products of human activities that are affixed to or embedded in the landscape (Ex. buildings, earthwork, pits, ditches, burials, hearths, and post holes).
Ethnoarchaeology
Study of the behavior of modern peoples and of the material remains of that behavior.
Taphonomy
Things that happen to archaeological sites after people leave.
Relative Dating
Dating methods that do not provide dates in calendar years but that can be used to determine whether two sites are the same age or whether one site is older or younger than another.
Absolute Dating
-Dating methods that provide dates in calendar years, usually expressed as years before present.
-Most are chronometric dating techniques
Thermoluminescence Dating
An absolute dating method related to electron spin resonance dating, based upon the measurement of energy trapped in the mineral crystals of the sample. The energy is measured as light, which is released when the sample is heated. The method is suitable for dating sites of the Lower Paleolithic period or later.
Typology
Systematic classification of artifacts according to their shape or form.
Core
Stone from which flakes are detached. Either the core itself or the flakes removed may be used as tools.
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
-6 to 7 million years old
-One of the closet ancestors between humans and chimps
-Not bipedal
-Brain size similar to chimps
Australopithecus afarensis
-"Lucy", Footprints, First Family
-3.2-2.9 million years
-Similar to gracile A. africanus, but shares some characteristics of robusts
Australopithecus africanus
-3-2.3 million years old
-Brain size: 440 cc
-Very large molars
-Small body size
-Low levels of sexual dimorphism
-Thought to be highly generalist
Paranthropus robustus
-Robust form of australopiths
-Large teeth
-Well adapted to the consumption of tough plant material
Australopithecus garhi
-3.5-2.5 million years
-Brain size: 600-700 cc
-More gracile
-Found with stone tools
-Might be beginning of Homo
Homo habilis
-2.5-1.8 million years
-Brain size: 800 cc
-Associated with stone tools
-Found in East Africa
-"Handy Man"
Homo ergaster
-Turkonidian Boy
-1.9-0.5 million years
-Brain size: 650-1250 cc
-Modern limb proportions very much like humans
-Found in Africa
Homo erectus
-Very much like Homo ergaster but more robust
-Found in Asia
Homo heidelbergensis
-800-400 ky
-Shares modern human body plan and modern brain size
-Very large body size and more robust than later humans
-Africa, Europe, and Asia
-Example of chronospecies
Homo neanderthalensis
-400-30 ky
-Europe
-Adaptations to cold conditions
-First hominid to bury their dead
Osteodontokeratic
-Dart needed to make Australopithecines seem more human-like
-Thought humans were toolmakers/hunters
-Interpreted broken animal bones as bone tools
-Saw dead animals as hunted prey
Oldowan
-H. habilis, H. ergaster, H. erectus
-2.5-1.8 million years
-Eastern and Southern Africa
-Choppers, discloids, spheroids
-NO handaxes
Acheulean
-H. erectus, H. ergaster, H. hiedelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis, Archaic H. sapiens
-1.8 my-200 ky
-Africa, S. Europe, and W. Asia...but not SE Asia
-Oldowan tools + handaxes
Developed Oldowan
-H. erectus, H. ergaster, H. hiedelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis, Archaic H. sapiens
-1.8-1.0 million years
-Africa
-Tools similar to Oldowan but come later in time
Zhoukoudianian
-H. erectus
-No handaxes
-Located in China
-Bipolar percussion (Uses an anvil, hammer-like stone, and core)
Mousterian
-H. hiedelbergensis?, H. neanderthalensis
-Term used to describe the Middle Paleolithic industries of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East.
Chopper
Pebble tool with only a few flakes removed from each side.
Hand Axe
Large stone tool, usually bifacially worked and ovoid in shape, with a flattened cross-section. Characteristic of the Acheulian industry, but are found in later industries as well.
Levallois Technique
Stone core was specially shaped so that a flake or series of flakes could be struck from it that would be essentially preformed to the desired shape.
Movius Line
Line that seperated parts of the Old World with handaxes (Africa, western Europe, the Near East, and India) and those areas with Oldowan-like industries without handaxes (eastern Europe, China, Southeast Asia, and Indonesia).
Sterkfontein
-Mature skull was found here
-Skull was not from an ape
Olduvai
-1.6 million years old
-Circular stone features
-Hominid stone tools
-Animal bones from large animals
-NOT from hominid behavior, but was instead natural causes
Zhoukoudian
-400 ky
-Found remains of H. erectus
-Ash bed features
-Lost hominid features during WWII
Dmanisi
-1.7 million years
-Republic of Georgia
-H. erectus-like remains
-Stone tools but no handaxes
Combe-Grenal
-Neanderthalensis were found here
Archaeological Context
Artifacts are useless without context.
Survey
Used in archaeology to map the area.
Excavation
Method of archeaology that involves digging up and mapping artifacts.
Stratigraphy
Analyzing the sequence of events that created the site.
Seriation
-Putting objects into a series, ranging from older to younger
-Depends on change in styles over time (Ex. ceramics)
Carbon-14
-As an organism decays the amount of C-14 decreases
-Dates organics from before industrial revolution to around 40,000 years
Dendrochronology
-Counting tree rings
-Absolute dating method
Faunal Seriation
Geologists use type fossils to establish the age of one layer relative to other layers.
Flake
-More useful than cores
Cutmarks/Toothmarks on Animal Bones
-Explained by the scavenger model
What are the major research problems?
-Origins of the genus Homo
-Origin of modern humans
-Origin of agriculture
-Origins of state-level societies
Robust Australopithecines
-2.5-1.2 my
-Bipedal
-Brain size: 400-500 cc
-Large body size
-Specialist feeders
Humankind is defined by...
-Hunting
-Sharing home bases
-Food sharing
Early hominid behavior...
Much different that modern human behavior
Middle Pleistocene
-H. ergaster/erectus became dominant species of hominid
-No strong evidence for hunting, fire, home bases, or food sharing
Chronospecies
Species that is distinguished from others by when it appeared in time.
Archaic Homo sapiens
-Name persists because of differences in behavior