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63 Cards in this Set

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Humanity has acquired a ______ ____ _______ __ _______ ____________; numerous techniques for gaining greater _________ and ________ have been developed.
Humanity has acquired a _GREAT_ _NEW_ _POWER_ _IN_ _SCIENCE_ _AND_ _TECHNOLOGY_; numerous techniques for gaining greater _SECURITY_ and _COMFORT_ have been developed.
What is Aesthetics?
Aesthetics concerns itself with the theory of art and beauty.
What is the etymological breakdown of the word "Philosophy"?
philia -- love
sophia -- wisdom
Philosophy -- The Love of Wisdom
A definition of philosophy may be offered from a number of perspectives. The book shows 5 definitions. What is the Third?
Philosophy is a rational attempt to look at the world as a whole.
A definition of philosophy may be offered from a number of
perspectives. The book shows 5 definitions. What is the Fourth?
Philosophy is the logical analysis of the language and the clarification of the meaning of words and concepts.

(note : some philosophers see this as the main task of philosophy, some would argue that this is philosophy's only legitimate task.)
A definition of philosophy may be offered from a number of perspectives. The book shows 5 definitions. What is the Fifth?
Philosophy is a group of perennial problems that interest people and for which philosophers have always sought answers.
Reflection (thinking things over) is the beginning of ______________.
Reflection (thinking things over) is the beginning of _PHILOSOPHY_.
A genuine philosophical attitude is :
__________ and __________,
__________ and __________.
a genuine philosophical attitude is :
_SEARCHING_ and _CRITICAL_,
_OPEN-MINDED_ and _TOLERANT_.
It is possible to have great power without _________.
It is possible to have great power without _INSIGHT_.
Basically, an argument is simply the reasons (called the ___________) for or against a position (called the ___________).
Basically, an argument is simply the reasons (called the _PREMISES_) for or against a position (called the _CONCLUSION_).
What is an inference?
An inference is a conclusion derived either from general premises (deduction) or from factual evidence (induction).
What is deduction?
Deduction is the process by which we draw a conclusion from one or more premises.
For Example if we say :
"All men are mortal" (Premise)
"Socrates is a man" (Premise)
"Socrates is mortal" (Conclusion based upon deduction)
Here the premises are all the is relevant to the conclusion.
The accumulation of knowledge does not by itself lead to understanding, because it does not necessarily teach the mind to make a _________ __________ of facts that entail consistent and coherent judgment.
The accumulation of knowledge does not by itself lead to understanding, because it does not necessarily teach the mind to make a _CRITICAL_ _EVALUATION_ of facts that entail consistent and coherent judgment.
Traditionally, Epistemologists have been categorically placed into two schools of thought, _____________ and _______________.
Traditionally, Epistemologists have been categorically placed into two schools of thought, _RATIONALISTS_ and _EMPIRICISTS_.
What is Epistemology?
Epistemology in general, is the branch of philosophy that studies the source, nature, and validity of knowledge.
What is Logic?
Logic is the systematic study of the rules for the correct use of supporting reasons.

Rules we can use to distinguish valid arguments from specious ones.
Philosophy, in conjunction with other disciplines, plays a central role in guiding us toward new _________ and ________.
Philosophy, in conjunction with other disciplines, plays a central role in guiding us toward new _DESIRES_ and _ASPIRATIONS_.
our concepts of beauty may differ, not because of __________________________________, but because of varying degrees of _____________ in discerning beauty.

Therefore, if we do not find beauty in objects that others find beauty in, we should withhold judgement, until we are capable ourselves of making a __________ __________ of asthetic experience.
our concepts of beauty may differ, not because of _THE NATURE OF BEAUTY ITSELF_, but because of varying degrees of _PREPARTION (OR TRAINING)_ in discerning beauty.

Therefore, if we do not find beauty in objects that others find beauty in, we should withhold judgement, until we are capable ourselves of making a _COMPETENT_ _ANALYSIS_ of asthetic experience.
What is Social and Political Philosophy?
Social and Political Philosophy investigates value judgments concerning society, the state, and the individual's relation to these institutions.

Social and Political Philosophy investigates value judgments
concerning the individual(s) in [a] society.
What is emperical data?
data of fact. Emperical means dealing only with matters of fact.
A definition of philosophy may be offered from a number of perspectives. The book shows 5 definitions. What is the Second?
Philosophy is a process of reflecting on and criticizing our most deeply held conceptions and beliefs.
What is induction?
Induction attempts to draw conclusions concerning an unexamined class or unexamined member of a class, based upon emperical data relevant to the class.
A definition of philosophy may be offered from a number of perspectives. The book shows 5 definitions. What is the First?
Philosophy is a set of views or beliefs about life and the universe, which are often held uncritically.
Critical evaluations often differ. Philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others disagree for many reasons. The books lists three. Describe/List in your own words, these three reasons.
1. They view things from different points of view, and with different assumptions. Their personal experiences, cultural backgrounds, and training may vary widely. This is especially true of people living at different times and in different places. (Difference of Environment)

2. They live in a changing universe. People change, society changes, and nature changes. Some people are responsive and sensitive to change; others cling to tradition and the status quo, to systems that were formulated some time ago and that were declared to be authoritative and final.
(Change)

3. They deal with an area of human experience in which the evidence is not complete. The evidence we do have maybe interpreted in various ways by different people.
(Lack of Evidence)

Despite these difference, their goal seems to be the same; to probe, examine, and evaluate the material with the hope of presenting consistent principles by which we can live.
Give three logical essentials for "doing" philosophy.
The ability to test arguments for logical consistency.

The ability to understand the logical consequences of certain assumptions.

The ability to distinguish the kind of evidence a philosopher is using.

These are all essential for "doing" philosophy.
Logic is the systemic study of rules for the correct use of __________ _________, or premises.
Logic is the systemic study of rules for the correct use of _SUPPORTING_ _REASONS_, or premises.
Logic is a group of rules we can use to distinguish between _________ and _________ arguments.
Logic is a group of rules we can use to distinguish between _VALID_ and _INVALID_ arguments.

[(Valid, Good) and
(Invalid, Bad, Specious) arguments.]
What are the 4 branches of Philosophy?
Logic, Metaphysics, Epistemology, and Value Theory.
What is Metaphysics?
Metaphysics, traditionally has been concerned with the ultimate nature of things.
The ability to;
test arguments for _________ _____________,
understand the _________ _____________ for certain assumptions,
and distinguish the kind of evidence a philosopher is using, are all essential for "doing" philosophy.
The ability to;
test arguments for _LOGICAL_ _CONSISTENCY_,
understand the _LOGICAL_ _CONSEQUENCES_ for certain assumptions,
and distinguish the kind of evidence a philosopher is using, are all essential for "doing" philosophy.
Logic endeavors to understand the nature of correct __________, and to discover what is valid ___________.
Logic endeavors to understand the nature of correct _THINKING_, and to discover what is valid _REASONING_.
Logic plays the main role in clarifying the meaning of _______ and _________.
Logic plays the main role in clarifying the meaning of _WORDS_ and _CONCEPTS_.
Metaphysics is "Comprehensive thinking about the __________ nature of things.
Metaphysics is "Comprehensive thinking about the _ULTIMATE_ nature of things.
What is a rationalist?
a rationalist holds that human reason alone can discover the basic principles of the universe.
What is an empiricist?
An empiricist claims that all knowledge is ultimately derived from sense experience, and thus our knowledge is limited to what can be experienced.
Ethics can be subdivided into (3) :
Ethics can be subdivided into (3) :

Descriptive Ethics
Normative Ethics
Meta Ethics
Briefly, what are meta ethics?
Meta Ethics are critical evaluations of all ethics.
To philosophize, is not simply to read and know philosophy; there are __________________________ to be mastered, ______________________ and ______________________ to be appropriated, such the we become able to think philosophically.
and know philosophy; there are _SKILLS OF ARGUMENTATION_ to be mastered, _TECHNIQUES OF ANALYSIS_ and _A BODY OF MATERIAL_ to be appropriated, such the we become able to think philosophically.
The basic method of philosophical inquiry is ________________.
The basic method of philosophical inquiry is _DIALECTICAL_.
What is the brief definition of "The Dialectic" ?
The Dialectic is the development of thought through an interplay of ideas.
What is the goal of the Dialectical critical thinking?
Dialectical critical thinking attempts to develop a sustained pattern of argument in which the implications of different positions are drawn out and contrasted with each other.
Philosophy is _____________; issues of metaphysics, epistemology, values, and logic are part of _________________.
Philosophy is _INESCAPABLE_; issues of metaphysics, epistemology, values, and logic are part of _EVERYDAY LIVING_.
The study of ____________ nurtures the capacity for making informed choices.
The study of _PHILOSOPHY_ nurtures the capacity for making informed choices.
Specific ____________ and ____________ uses, add to the benefits of philosophical study.
Specific _PERSONAL_ and _VOCATIONAL_ uses, add to the benefits of philosophical study.
The usefulness of philosophy is well attested to by it's
____________________________________________________________________.
The usefulness of philosophy is well attested to by it's
_SEVERAL THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS TO HUMAN LIVING_.
Philosophy of Education is explored briefly as an elaboration of the discussion of ____________ and ____________ uses of philosophy.
Philosophy of Education is explored briefly as an elaboration of the discussion of _PERSONAL_ and _VOCATIONAL_ uses of philosophy.
The application of general philosophical positions to educational problems is called _________________________.
The application of general philosophical positions to educational problems is called
_PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION_.
A current educational dilemma is wether the basic objective is to provide _____________________ or ___________________________________________.
A current educational dilemma is wether the basic objective is to provide _VOCATIONAL TRAINING_ or
_"PERMANENT EDUCATION" OF THE LIBERAL ARTS_.
Briefly, what is Descriptive Ethics?
Descriptive Ethics address "what is".
Briefly, what are normative ethics?
Normative Ethics address "what ought to be".
What is Ethics?
Ethics addresses questions of morality, what is right and wrong in human relations.
Value Theory can be subdivided into these three subject matters :
Value Theory can be subdivided into these three subject matters :

Ethics, Aesthetics, and Social and Political Philosophy
To evaluate a college, course, or instructor; we must first evaluate ______________________________.
To evaluate a college, course, or instructor; we must first evaluate
_WHAT WE VALUE IN THOSE AREAS_.
What is Philosophy of Education?
Philosophy of Education is the application of general philosophical positions to educational problems.
Deduction and Induction are both __________ __ __________ that we
need to understand if we are to avoid ______________________________.
Deduction and Induction are both _PROCESSES_ _OF_ _REASONING_ that we need to understand if we are to avoid _SERIOUS FALLACIES IN OUR THINKING_.
Basically, an ___________ is simply the reasons (called the premises) for or against a position (called the conclusion).
Basically, an _ARGUMENT_ is simply
the reasons (called the premises) for or against a position (called the conclusion).
Specific personal and vocational uses, add to the ________ __
_______________ _________.
Specific personal and vocational uses, add to the _BENEFITS_ _OF_ _PHILOSOPHICAL_ _STUDY_.
The accumulation of knowledge does not by itself lead to understanding, because it does not necessarily teach the mind to make a critical evaluation of facts that entail ____________ and __________ ___________.
The accumulation of knowledge does not by itself lead to understanding, because it does not necessarily teach the mind to make a critical evaluation of facts that entail _CONSISTENT_ and _COHERENT_ _JUDGEMENT_.
The study of philosophy nurtures the capacity for making __________ _________.
The study of philosophy nurtures the capacity for making _INFORMED_ _CHOICES_.
_______ is the systemic study of rules for the correct use of supporting reasons, or premises.
_LOGIC_ is the systemic study of rules for the correct use of supporting reasons, or premises.
____________ ____ ___________ is explored briefly as an elaboration of the discussion of personal and vocational uses of philosophy.
_PHILOSOPHY_ _OF_ _EDUCATION_ is explored briefly as an elaboration of the discussion of personal and vocational uses of philosophy.
What is Value Theory?
Value Theory is the branch of philosophy concerned with values, the nature of values, and questions of morality.
___________ and ____________ are both processes of reasoning that we need to understand if we are to avoid serious fallacies in our thinking.
_DEDUCTION_ and _INDUCTION_ are both processes of reasoning that we need to understand if we are to avoid serious fallacies in our thinking.