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19 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
This is when two or more drugs are given at the same time to produce an effect equal to the sums of the original effect
additive effect
this is when two or more drugs given simultaneously produce an effect greater than the sums of the individual effects
synergistic effect
tolerance after single exposure to a drug is known as...
this is increased responsitivity to the drug after prior or repeated exposure
how does affinity relate to Kd?
it is the reciprocal of Kd:

how are partial agonists related to partial antagonists?
they are the same thing
what is an inverse agonist?
an agonist with opposite effects to that of another agonist
competitive antagonists do what to the dose response curve for the agonist? How is max efficacy changed? How about affinity and Kd?
it shifts the curve to the right for the agonist (thus you need more agonist to overcome the effects of the antagonist). The max efficacy is not changed, but the affinity decreases which means Kd increases.
How do noncompetitive antagonists change the dose response curve, efficacy, and affinity?
there is a slight dextral shift in agonist dose response curve at low concentrations (not very important). The affinity for the agonist is the same, but the maximum efficacy is decreased.
what is the therapeutic index?
what is the certain safety factor and why do pharmacists prefer its use to the therapeutic index?
It is TD1/ED99. It tells us the toxicity in the minimal amount of people not half. (the TI can be high but the CSF can be low, indicating toxicity for some people at lower doses)
rosenthal scatchard plots can tell us...
how many receptors sites there are for a drug
hill plots can tell us...
the number of subunits in a receptor
In terms of Ach receptor numbers, supersensitivity is... while subsensitivity is...
supersensitivity is an increase in receptor # while subsensitivity is a decrease
can ionotropic receptors use a G protein?
yes they can if they need it to open an ion channel.
Besides nucleotide used, what is a big difference in guanylyl cyclase and adenylyl cyclase
guanylyly cyclase has no inhibitory pathways, only stimulatory.
arachodonic acid uses this enzyme (#1) to make leukotrienes and this enzyme (#2) to make prostaglandins and thromboxanes.
1. lipoxygenase
2. COX
Describe the NO signalling pathway in endothelial cells.
Ach $'s endothelial cells to release NO thus causing vessel dilation. NO then bings guanylyl cyclase to make cGMP which causes vascular smooth muscle relaxation.
Besides vasodilation what are two other uses of NO?
Mac's make NO in response to IFN-y abd LPS. NO diffuses into tumor cells thus decreasing energy metabolism and DNA synthesis.