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65 Cards in this Set

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Activated Charcoal
Reduces drug absorbtion in toxic ingestions
Adenosine
SUPRAVENTRICULAR
TACHYCARDIA
ATROPINE SULFATE
TREATS SYMPTOMATIC BRADYCARDIA
BRETYLIUM TOSYLATE
TREATS VENTRICULAR
TACHYCARDIA AND VENTRICULAR
FIBRILLATION PROPHYLAXIS
CALICUM CHLORIDE
TREATS HYPOCALCEMIA,
HYPOMAGNESIUMA, HYPERKALEMIA,
CALIUM CHANNEL BLOCKER OVERDOSE
DEXTROSE
TREATS HYPOGLYCEMIA- CAUSE OF DEHYRDATION
INOTROPIC AGENTS
Treats hypotension or hypoperfusion, CHF, or cardiovascular shock
Epinephrine
Treats bradycardia or asystolic arrest
Lidocaine
Treats recurrent ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or ventricular ectopy
Naloxone Hydrochloride
Reverses effects of some narcotics
Sodium Bicarbonate
Treats severe acidosis associated with cardiac arrest, unstable hemodynamic status, hyperkalemia, or certain toxic ingestions
Infants and children up to the age of 18 months can show signs of what kind of anxiety?
Separation and stranger anxiety
Toddlers do not respond well to what?
Restrictions and they tend to push any limits imposed
Pre-School age is the stage of?
Fear and Fantasy
Teach school age children ....
Coping techiniques that work for them
Most common emotions expierenced by parents of children cared for in emergencies is?
Fear and Anxiety
Parents are afriad of the following possibilities...
Their child might die,
Their child might experience pain, and that their child may be permenantly altered.
Developmental Guidelines for Infants
allow use of pacifier, use quiet soothing voice, touch rock or cuddle, keep warm, try to relieve parents fears so they are not communicated with child
Developemental Guidelines for toddlers
Keep toddler up when giving procedure, perform most distressing procedure last, allow familiar objects, keep away frightening objects, give praise and use distraction
Developmental Guidelines for Pre-Schoolers
explain procedures right before performing, talk threwout whole procedure discribing how it will feel, distract child with noises or objects, avoid criticism, encourage talk
Guidelines for School Age Children
Offer simple choices whenever possible, ask child about level of understanding, address fears and concerns directly, give rewards
Guidelines for Adolescents
Preserve modesty, give choice about parents in or out of room, provide opportunity for questions, listen to concerns nonjudmentally, don't tease them, explain procedures carefully and allow choices.
First Impression Assessment without touch
Respiratory Rate and Effort, Skin Color, and Response to the Environment.
You assess the ABCDE's during
the primary assessment
2 Most common ways of death in children
Respiratory Failure and Shock
Signs of serious breathing disorders
Substernal, intercoastal subclavicular retractions, nasal flaring, head bobbing, grunting, stridor, upright positioning, prolonged expirations, slow respiratory rate
Abnormal Skin Coloring
Cyanosis, Mottled, or Pale
Children are more at risk for what than adults
Airway Problems
When assessing airway pay particular attention to these airway sounds
Snoring, stridor, wheezing, and grunting
Snoring is
caused by an obstruction in the upper airway and can be heard in children with decreased mental status
Stridor is
High pitched sound heard on inspiration or both inspiration and expiration
Wheezing is
high pitched musical sound heard primarily on expiration, signals obstruction of the lower airway
Crackles or Rales are
fine popping noises heard on inspiration and usually indicate that fluid is in the lungs signaling pneumonia
Nasal Secretion can cause
respiratory compromise
A child airway is _____________ than an adult
narrower
Cartiage of the larnyx is relatively __________ and trachea is __________ and more _________ than an adult
Soft
Thinner
Flexible
Infants and children have a higher ___________ rate and increased __________ demand
Metabolic
Oxygen
Hypoxia occurs more of less rapidly in children
More
A rapid repiratory rate and shallow breathing indicate
Respiratory Distress
Very slow breathing in an ill child is an ominous sign indicting
Respiratory Failure
Increased work of sounds breathing with quiet breath sounds indicate
An absence of breathing with quiet sounds indicating an absence of air entry into the lung fields
Abdominal breathing is normal in an infant of young child so nurses observe for the rise and fall of the _______ instead of the chest
Abdomen
Normal respiratory rate for children vary by range and are faster than adults, but any rate over ___ breaths per minute is abnormal
60
Cardiovascular assessment includes
skin color and temp, capillary refill, assessing central and peripheral pulse rate and quality
Tachacardia and decreased peripheral perfusion are early signs of
cardiovascular compromise in a child and require immediate intervention
Alteration in level of consciousness can be the first sign in
respiratory distress
Rapid neurologic assessment consists of 2 components
pupillary reactivity and size
and a brief mental status assessment
AVPU stand for
Alert, responds to Voice, responds to Pain, Unresponsive
Progressive loss of consciousness may be a result of
Hypoxemia, Hypoglycemia, Increased intercranial pressure
Exposure is
removing the childs clothing to identify additional injuries or indicators of illness
Components of secondary assessment
Vital Signs, assessing for pain, history and head to toe assessement and inspection
For Vitals of children take _________ first, than _________. ___________ and ________ should be taken last
Respiratory Rate
Pulse

Temp and BP
A
M
P
L
E
Allergies, Medications taking and immunizations, Prior illness or injury, Last meal and eating habits, Events leading to injury or illness
Sign of hematuria suggest
Urinary/Genital injury or infection
Estimate Child Weights
1 year
5 years
10 years
1= 10kg
5= 20kg
10= 30kg
1 breath for every in cpr
3 seconds or 20 a minute
Most common type of shock is hypovolemic shock, and it is caused from
Hemorrhage, burns and dehydration.
Distributive Shock is the result of an abnormality in the distribution of
Blood flow or inability of the body to maintain vascular tone through vasoconstriction.
Septic shock is most common form of distributive shock and it occurs when
Microbial toxins are present in blood
Anaphylaxis, central nervous system or spinal injury and drug intoxication are other forms of _________ shock
Distributive Shock
Signs of Hypovolemic Shock
Dry mucous membranes, depressed fontanel, cold clammy skin, oliguria, poor skin turgor, reduced capillary refill
Signs of Distributive Shock (Septic) Early
Vasodilation, extermities that are warm to touch, purpuric skin lesions, tachypnea
Signs of Septic Shock Late
Rapid, thready pulse, cyanosis, cold clammy skin, narrow pulse pressure, oliguria or anuria
Signs of Cardiogenic Shock
Hepatomegaly, Cardiomegaly, increased central venous pressure, periorbital edema, crackles, diaphoresis, oliguria, reduced capillary refill, reduced peripheral pulses
Cardiogenic shock occurs when
Myocardial function is impaired so that cardiac output is not sufficient to meet the body's metabolic demands