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735 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
(1)is essentaial for life
meaning
What does meaning mean?
something that has value and purpose
NAME
means something has value and purpose
meaning
Give examples of somethings that have meaning? (3)
(1)objects (2)religion (3)family and friends
Human beings are (1) and (2)
(1)relationship animals (2)spirituial beingings
NAME
are relationship animals and spiritual beings
Human beings
You cannot ingore the things that have (1)in persons life and treat them fully
meaning
Being tolerant does not mean (1)
accepting other people's views
OT's must be (1) of other people's veiws
tolerant
What are personal and social meanings?
is a continuum of context, w self defination anchoring one end and socail defs anchoring the other end
NAME
is a continum of context, w self def anchoring one end and social defs anchoring the other end
personal and social meanings
Personal and social meanings are a interplay btwn (1) and (2)
(1)individuality (2)conformity
NAME
are a interplay btwn indvidiaulity and conformity
personal and social meaning
How does a ones meaning change?
our ability to "use" meaning changes as we transform from novice to expert
People have thing that we have to (1)
conform to what people like
Everyone wants to (1) w a group of people
belong
What is critical in terms of your career?
the ability to "use" meaning changes as we transform from novice to expert. (2)this will help us to understand them, understand yourself better, and interact w them and help them in the best way
If you use/ understand (1)you can use that in therapy to bulid repor
meaning
if you use/understand meaning you can use that in therapy to build (1)
repor
T or F
meaning is different for each person
true
it is an (1) that meaning is realized in our lives
action or doing
How do we act out what is meanful to us as human beings?
through occupational performance
OTs help to heal through (1)
healing
Where does ones meaning come from? (3)
(1)ones perspective (2)our past experience (3)our prejudice
T or F
it is possible for a person to have no prejudges
false
does everyone have a prejudge ?
yes
T or F
everyone has prejudges w in human nature
true
How do we know our meaning? (3)
(1)narrative (2)self-reflection and introspection (3)purposfulness organizes our time and behavior
(1) organizes our time and behavior
purposefulness
What is narrative?
reasoning /telling a story
NAME
refers to reasoning/telling your story
narrative
OT should try to get a person to tell his or her (1)
story
Being a good Ot is being a dedicitive to find out thier (1)
meaning
What is introspection?
is self-reflecting
How can you tell if something is meaningful?
by how they spend thier time and how much they spend doing it
Who said this

"when a man does not know what harbor he is making for, no wind is the right wind"
Seneca
What does this quote mean?

"when a man does not know what harbor he is making for, no wind is the right wind"
means we cannot help others till we understand ourselves
What is the of occuapation from a "occuaptional therapy perspective"?
(1)gives meaning to life (2)is an important determinat to health/wellness (3)organizes behavior (4)devlops and changes over the lifespan (5)shapes and is shaped by our environment (6)has therapeutic effectiveness
NAME
gives meaning to life, is an important determine to health wellness, organizes behavior, develops and changes over the lifespan, shapes and is shaped our environment, and has therapeutic effectiveness
occupation
What is the occuaption of most children at school?
play and school
Describe (6) things about occupation?
(1)basic need (2)source of choice and control (3)source of balance and staisfication (4)means of generating income (5)descriptor (6)theraputic medium
NAME
this ia a basic need, source of choice and control, source of balance and satisfication, means of generating income, descriptor, and theraputic medium
occupation
Occupation is a source of (1), (2), (3), and (4)
(1)choice (2)control (3)balance (4)satisfication
How is occupation a discriptor? (5)
(1)behavior (2)competence (3)development (4)performance (5)function
Who is the person? (7)
(1)is occupational being (2) is unique (3)has intrinsic digninity and worth (4)make choices about life (5) is capable of change (6)is a social and spiritual being (7)shapes and is shaped by the environment
T or F
a person is not cable of change
false
NAME
is an occupational being, is unique, has intrinsic diginity and worth, makes choices about life, is a capable a change, is a social and spiritual being, and shapes and is shaped by the evironment
person
people are shaped and is shaped by thier (1)
environment
All patients must receive treatment as human being that has (1) and (2)
dignity (2)worth
OT is a (1) centered pratice
client
What is a client centered pratice?
means that you let the patients make choices in thier treatment plan
T or F
OT believe that all people are capable of change for the better
true
The medical proffessions are very (1)
scientfic
NAME
is about spirituality and relationships
OT
(1),(2),and (3)have been found to be linked
(1)spirituality (2)health (3)wellness
T or F
is the whole profession of medince is starting to coming back to looking as humans as being spiritual beings
True
What does the environment include?
(1)cultural (2)instituatonal (3)physical (4)social components
NAME
includes cultural, instituitanal physical, and social components
environment
What infleunces environment?
performance, (2)organization (3)choice (4)choices of occupations
NAME
this infleunces performance, organization, choice and staisfaction of occupations
environment
What is our health?
is more than the absence of disease
NAME
is more than the absence of the disease
health
T or F
our health is more than the absence of disease
true
WHat influences our health?
volition in occupation
NAME
is influenced by volition in occupation
our health
What is volitiion?
is the ability to make choices
NAME
is the ability to make choices
volition
What impacts our health? (5)
spiritual meaning,(2) life (3)satisfaction in occuapation, (4) the social dimensions of fairness (5) equal opportunity in occupations
NAME
this is impacted by spiritual meaning, life satisfication in occupation, and the social dimensions of fairness and equal opportunity in occupations
health
What does client-centered practice do?
(1)acknowledges tha clients have experience and knowledge about thier occuaptions (2)makes the client in active partner in the occupational therpay process
NAME
this acknowledges that clients have experiences and knowledge about thier occupations and makes the client in active partner in the occupational therpay process
client centered practice
What does client-centered pratice encourage?
risk taking as a means of postive change
NAME
encourages risk taking as a means of postive change
client-centered practice
What does client-centered practice?
focuses on enabling occupation
NAME
focuses on enabling occupation
client-centered practice
What is cognitive mean?
is the ability to think
According to the model of the human being according to the Candian Association of occupational therpay, what are the parts of (3)core parts of the human being?
(1)affective (2)cognitive (3)physical
Draw what the model of the human being according to the Candian Association of occupational therpay?
see notes
Describe spirituiality?
What it can do...(5)
(1)provides an innate essence of self (2)is uniquely and truly human (3)provides for experession of will, drive, and motivation (4)is a source for determination (5)is a guide for expressing choice
What is spirituality a source of?
determination and personal control
What is spirituality a guide for?
expressing choice
What are the performace components? (3)
(1)affective (2)cognitive (3)physical
NAME
it three parts are affective, cognitive, and physical
performance components
What does affective mean?
feeling
NAME
refers to ones feelings
affective
What does cognitive mean?
refers to your ability to think
NAME
refers to your ability to think
cognitive
What does physical refer to?
doing
NAME
this performance component refers to doing
physical
What does cultural mean?
refers to your ethniticty, race and finacial status
What is a simple starting place for understanding occupation?
is to list the variety of occupations that comprise your everyday life
T or F
it is unusally for some occupations to be "nested or embeded within other occupations
false
it is not unusally for some occupations be to be (1) within other occupations
embeded
Occupations can inolves (1) and (2)
habits and routines
Most of our daily life involes (1) and (2)
habits and routines
T or F
most of our daily life inolves habits and routines
daily life
What are habits?
are relatively, automatic, repetitive patterns of human behavior
NAME
this are relatively, automatic repetitive patterns of human behavior
habits
what is a ex of a habit?
driving a certain route to work or getting cofee first thing in the morning
NAME
a example of this is driving a certain route to work or getting cofee first thing in the morning
habit
T or F
biting pencils and chewing your nails is a example of occuaptional habit
false
What are routines?
are habitual, repeatable and preictable ways of acting
NAME
are habitual, repeatable and predictable ways of acting
routines
(1)occuaptions occur when people do more than one thing simultaneously
nested or embedded
T or F
habits or patterns of time use can range along of continumm
true
T or F
some occupational routines are useful
true
When can habits and routines be useful?
when they support a human behavior or though by enabling attention ir energy directed toward thoughts or actions where they best serve the interest of the indivdual
What is automaiticty?
refers to the behaviors that are done frequently and become automatic requring little or intention
NAME
this refers to the behaviors that are done frequently and become automatic requring little or intention
automaiticty
How can automaiticty be problematic?
since they may lead to errors such as getting off an elevator on the wrong floor
NAME
this can lead to problems bc they might lead to errors such as getting off an elevator on th e wrong floor
automaiticity
a person sense of self emerges largely as a result of (1)
what he or she experiences
Some researches suggest that goals are fashioned around (1)
(1)imagined selves,(2) to the extent that the occupation are chosen w/in an aim toward becoming a particular kind of person(3)to avoid the unpleasant outcome of becoming impoverished, unpopular, or clumsy, thus risking encountering socail rejection
NAME
some reasearches believe this come from the imagined selves, to the exten that the occupation are chosen w/in an aim toward becoming a particular kind of person and to avoid the unpleasant outcome of becoming clumsy, thus risking social rejection
goals
Clearly fashions and trends on modern soceity building are important factors in the (1)
selection of occuaptions and by extension how time is used
Clearly (1) and (2)on modren society building are important factors in selection of occupations and by the externsion of how time is used
fashions and trends
Why are occupations complex?
bc the meaning associated w different occupations have social as well as individual significance
T or F
occupations are complex
true
Human interaction create (1)
social meaning
One demenision of meaning-making occupations is (1)
spriritual in nature
What the word contemplate derive from?
the latin words refering to that which takes place within a temple
nAME
this is derived from a latin word refering to that which takes place within a temple
contemplate
People tend to understand meaning of thier lives by considering thier (1)
occupation as a part of an thier life stories
What is a narrative?
refers to the occupations that have gained meaning over time and become part of indivudals life story
NAME
this refers to the occupations that have gained meaning over time and become part of the indivduals life story
narrative
What is folk taxonomy?
refers to the different types of occupations
NAME
this refers to the different types of occuaptions
folk taxonomy
NAME
this system is used to describe occupations and to convey ways in which certain occupations are valued
folk taxonomy
Give example of a job that has a negative value in society?
homemakers
NAME
these can be classifed or grouped in many differ ways
human occupations
What are taxonamies?
are refered to as occupational categories
nAME
this are occupational categories
taxonamies
What are some ways of organizing occupaptions? (5)
(1)according to thier purpose or goal (2)by what is done, (3)how they are accomplished (4)when they are don (5)where they are done
How occupations id from approach that orgazes them based on thier purpose or goal
based on thier intended outcome
Who is Graham?
came up w a 18 social goal categories for occupations
NAME
he came up w a 18 social goal catergories for occupations
Graham
What are some of the 18 social goals catergories that Graham came up w? (18)
(1)be accepted by others (2)convey info to others (3)help look after other people (4)be in control of the situation (5)have fun (6)reduce own anxiety (7)maintian self respect or self essetem (8)id financial prospects (9)attain physcial well being (10)meet hunger and thrist eeds (11)engage in sex (12)make a favorable impression (13)seek help, advice and reassureance (14)persuade someone do something (15)obtain info, learn something new, solve problems (16)engage in pleasant social activity (17)make a favorable impression (18)make new friends, develop relationships
Graham's 18 social goal caterogires where study furthered and reduce to three main catergoies. what are those? (3)
(1)interpersonal goals (2)self-achievement goals (3)pleasure seeking goals
NAME
this was reduced to three main catergories: interpersonal goals, self-acheivment and pleasure seeking goals
Graham 18 social goal categories
What are occupational haits?
are particular kinds of occupational behavior
nAME
this are particular kinds of occupational behaviors
occupational habits
Give (2) reason why occupational claffication can be problematic?
bc what is work for one may be leisure for antoher (2)play might be unkown in one culture
What are the (4) catergories that harvey and Pentland broke down Graham 18 social goal categories?
(1)necessary (2)contracted (3)committed (4)free time
NAME
these people divided Graham 18 social goals into these 4 catergories: necessary, contracted, committed, and free time
harvey and Pentland
What forces may determine what people can do ranther than what they would like to do w thier time? (3)
(1)psychological (2)social (3)economic
Where has most of the work done in developing systematic classifcaions of occupations be done?
in the paid area
What is a example of a frequent method for classify jobs?
behaviroal requirments approach
What is the behvairoal requiremnt approach?
is a frequent method that is used for classifing jobs
What are some examples of methods used to classify jobs? (2)
(1)behavioral requirment aapproach (2)dicitonary of Occupational titles (3)Canada's national vocational qualification system
What is the ability requirement appraoch?
in this approach, tasks are described based on thier abilties required of the performer
NAME
in this approach, tasks are described based on thier abilities required of the performer
the ability requirment approach
What is the current system for organizing info about job catergories in USA?
ONET
What is oNET?
is the current system that organizes jobs in the US operated by the department of labor
NAME
this system is operated by the department of labor, and other factors to differentiate among jobs and to provide easily accessible info to employers and workers
ONET
NAME
this is one of the primary occupations of childhood
play
NAME
this is often described as self-moviated or chosen pleasureable and important from a development perspective since play offers abundant opportunites for learning
play
What is play?
is often described as self-motivated or chosen, pleasureable, and important form
What are some specfic selected occupational classifcation systems?
(1)ASCO (2)NOC (3)National vocational qualifcations system
What does the ASCO stand for?
is the Australian standard classification of occupation
What does the NOC stand for?
national occupational classification
Where does play come from?
an attidue of finding and sharing joy in requirements of everyday life, so that even seemingly serious events can reveal playful elements
NAME
this an attude of finding and sharing joy in requirements of everyday life so that even seemingly serious events can reveal playful elements
play
What aer the differ ways to classify play? (2)
(1)for younger people according to social dimensions begining w solitary play and progressing to types of cooperative play w others (2)the processes of play such as functional play or play involving creative
What if functional play?
refers to play that consists of simple repetite movements
NAME
this type of play consists of simple repetive movements
functional play
T or F
play requires differ levels of cogintive, physcial, and social skills
true
What is leisure?
is the freedom of choice in particupation and not having a particular goal other then enjoyment
NAME
is the freedom of choice in participation and not having a particular goal other then enjoyment in mind
leisure
NAME
Aristolte and plato veiwed this in terms of opportuntiy for expression and self-development
leusure
How did Aristolte and Plato veiw leisure?
they veiwed in terms of opportunity of expression and self-development
What are (2) broad categories of leisure?
(1)casual leisure (2)serious lesuire
What is casual lesisure?
are occupations that are pleasurable, of short duration, intrinsicually rewarding, and require no special training for enjoyment
NAME
these are occupations that are pleasureable, of a short duration, intrinsicually rewarding, and require no speacil training for enjoyment
casual leisure
What is serious leisure?
includes amateruism, hobbyist pursuits, self-development, and volunteering
NAME
this includes amateruism, hobbyist, pursuits, self-development, and volunteering
serious leisure
What are some key characteristics of serious leisure? (5)
(1)significant personal effort (2)perseverance (3) lasting benefit (4) strong feelings of idenitification (5)a set of beliefs and subculture
NAME
this has 5 key characteristics: significant personal effort, perseverance, lasting benefit, strong feelings of idenitification, and a set of beliefs and subculture
leisure
What are (2) subsets of serious leisure?
(1)fandom (2) hobbies
NAME
this has two subsets: fandom and hobbies
serious leisure
What are fandoms?
pertains to those those serious leisure occupations surrounding the media, personatilties, sports, science fiction, and muscians
NAME
this pertains to those serious leisure occupations surrounding the media, personatilites, sports, science fiction, and muscians
serious leisure
What are hobbies?
include engaging in various kinds of crafts
NAME
this includes engaging in various kinds of crafts
hobbies
T or F
according to more recent theories, leisure participation fulfills important psucholgical needs
leisure
T or F
histroically, wealth and the time available for leisure were related
true
T or F
in western nations, the time available for lesuire is on the rise
false
NAME
are occupations classified as care of self include eating, dressing, bathing, personal hygiene, and other other occupations that are consdiered neccessary for survival for health
care of self
What is care of self?
are occupations classified as care of self include eating, dressing, bathing, personal hygiene, and other other occupations that are consdiered neccessary for survival for health
NAME
this can somtimes be refered to as primary activites
care of self
By some care of self are considred (1)activites
primary
What are household and life maintenance occupations?
are the instrumental occupations required for everyday living, such as homework, laundry, shopping, cooking, and related chores
NAME
these are the instrumental occupations required for everyday living such as homework, laundry, shopping, cooking, and the related chores
maintenance occupations
NAME
these are somtimes called secondary activites
household and life maintenance
Household and life maintenance activites are somtimes called (1)activites
secondary
NAME
these occupations provide the foundation for social life
houshold and life maintenance
How much time do people spend sleeping?
1/3 of thier life
Is sleep a occupation?
this controversial bc occupations are usally equated w action and nevertheless, sleep requires actions to prepare for sleep
What does REM stand for?
rapid eye movement
Each cycle of sleep includes a stage of (1), and (2)
(1)deep sleep (2)REM
NAME
this seems to be related to restoration of the body, immune function, energy conservation, memory function, temperature regulation, and general development
sleep
How does is one surpoesd to answer the question What is your occupation? (4)
(1)requires more than a naming and listing of actions (2) one needs to also distinguish the purpose of some occupation in relation to others for instance unpaid/paid occupaitos (3)need to take into account cultural and social conditions. for example social condition can determine the value of a particular occupation such as housemaking (4)people need to include more than paid work in thier life
What do the occupations people chose influence?
their lifestylesm thier comfort, thier producitivy, thier social relationships, and thier health and well being
NAME
this influences thier lifestyle, thier comfort, thier producitivity, thier social relationships, and thier health and well being
occupations
What infleunces how people use thier time? (3)
(1)biological factors (2)psycholigcal factors (3)social or environmental factors
WHat are some biological factors that infleunce time? (3)
(1)age (2)physcial status (3)chronobiology or bodily rhythms
NAME
includes age, physical status,and chronobiology or bodily rhythms
biological factors that infleunce time
How can age age infleunce time?
for example infants spend a great deal of time sleeping where as in young adults, time spend sleeping decreases
What does the word circadian in Latin mean?
is from the Latin words cicra meaning around and dia meaning "a day"
NAME
this come from the Latin word "circa meaning around and dia meaning "a day"
circadian
WHat is chronobiology?
is a special field of biology that deals with the infleunces of the endocrine system and circadian rythms
NMAE
this is a special field of biology that deals with the infleunces of the endocrine system and circadian rythms
chronobiology
What is ciraddian desynchronization?
is the disruption of internal biological clocks often refered to as jet lag
NAME
this is the disruption of ones internal biological clocks often refered to as jet lag
circadian desynchronization
How does psycholigcal factors infleunce how we use our time?
by our peronalilty type may infleunce our career choices as working adults, as well as our preferences for how lesiure time is spent
NAME
this includes how our personalilty type may infleunce our career choices as working adults, as well as our preferences for how lesiure time is spent
psycholigcal factors
What are some physcial factors of the environmental and social factors that infleunce how we spend our time?
some physcial factors include natural conditions such as weather, landscape and the built environment, and the availability of objects such as tools and funitures
NAME
this includes natural conditions such as the weather, landscape, the built environment, and the availiability of objects such as tools and furniture
physcial factors of environmental and social factors the infleunce how we spend our time
Give a ex of how physical factors of environmental and social factors can influence how we spend our time?
for ex, ice skating is limited occupation if there is you live near the equator
What are affordances?
refers to how substances and surfaces can be shaped or manipulated to invite touch
NAME
refers to how substances and surfaces can be shaped or mainipulated to invite touch
affordances
Who is Gibson?
the father of ecological pschology
NAME
he is the father of ecological psychology
Gibson
WHat are (2) envirnomental and social factors the infleunce how we use our time?
(1)physcial factors (2)for industrial socities, it is the availiability of raw materials, finished goods, and services
NAME
these include physcal factors and for industral socities, it is the availability of raw materials, finished goods, and services
environmental and social factors that infleunce how we use our time
T or F
most types of play and leisure depend on the avilabiltiy of some type of product or services
true
In the industrailized world, people are finding that a key factor influencing occupation is the availiability of (1)
energy
People are not only citzens of states of nations, they also costiute a valuale resource known as (1)
human capital
What does human capital have value?
bc of human occupations. for ex, some occupations can produce and consume goods, or services
NAME
this has value bc human occupations. for ex, some occupations can produce and consume goods, or services
human capital
bc humans are social beings, we live in groups and both infleunce and are influenced by (1)
other people, and by the policies, laws, media, and other conditions
What is subculture?
are caterogries of resistance or deviance that result in lifestyle patterns that are unique to certain groups
NAME
are caterogries of resistance or deviance that result in lifestyle patterns that are unique to certain groups
subcultures
Can social norms have a great deal of infleunce on a persons occupations?
yes bc people do not like change and or what the approval of others
Give a ex of how social norms influence occupations?
for example employment polices, occupational classifications and market forces determine what occupations receive fincial rewards and what occupations are considered private and unpaid
WHat are some social factors that infleunce how one spends thier time?
(1)traditions (2)expetcations (3)regultaing policies (4)social norms
NAME
these include traditions, expecations, regulating policies, and social norms
social factors that infleunce how a one spends his or time
Over the last decade, the amount the western culture has spend doing for (1) has decreased
relaxation and lesuire
How can a better understanding of occupation be acheived?
if a person has an appreciation for what people did during previous eras
Work and (1) have coexisted in history
play
NAME
this has been seen as a curse on humankind
work
What does the greek word for work?
ponos meaning a sense of a heavy burdensome taks, downright drudgery
NAME
this is from the greek word meaning ponons meaning a sense of a heavy burdensome tasks, downright drudgery
work
Within culture, what is the division of labor based on?
the status w/in the culture
what was the greek's value of work, give each person's role in soceity?
(1)slaves, peasants, and craftspeople did the work of gathering preserving raw materials and of fashioning goods(2)middle class-merchants who did the bartering (3)nobility and priests- thier work was to indulge in the pleasureable occupations of life such as teaching, discovering, thinking, or composing music
What did socrates do in the greek culture?
was known to frequent the shops of Athens, observing artisans at work, doing what he thought was nonessential tasks
NAME
this greek philopsher was known to frequent the shops of Athens, observing artisans at work, and doing what he thought was nonessential tasks
Socrates
What did Aristole believe about work?
he belived well being did not come from the pursuite of pleasure
NAME
this greek philopsher belived that well being did not come from the pursuit of pleasure
Aristole
What did Plato believe about work?
he declared life must be lived as play, playing certain games, and making sacrifices
NAME
this greek pholiospher declared life must be lived as play, playing certain games, and making sacrfices
Plato
How did Ciecro feel about work?
claimed that there were but two worthty occupations: argiculture and businesss
NAME
this Roman philopsher claimed that there was but two worthy occupations:argiculture and business
Ciciero
How did hebrews feel about work?
they held an admiration for work and meditative life
NAME
they held an admiration for work and meditative life
the Hebrews
What did Alfred the Great establish about work?
he established the right of each englishgentelman to have the three-eight divisions of work-- rest, and leisure
NAME
he established the right of each english gentleman to have the three-eight divisions of work, rest, and leisure.
Alfred the Great
How did Martin Luther feel about work?
he felt one was called to one's work since all daily occupations were divinely inspired
NAME
he felt one was called to one's work since all daily occupations were divenly inspired
Martin Luther
How did John Calvin feel about work?
(1)declared there was no room for idleness. luxary, or an activty that softened the soul (2)meditation was not acceptable bc Calvin beleved that God was not in the habit of revealing "himself" to humans throug thinking
NAME
he declared there was no room, for idleness, luxary, or an activity that softened the soul and meditation was not acceptable bc Calvin believed that God was not in the habit of revealing "himself" to human through thinking
John Calvin
What is the protestant work ethic?
is belive that there was a link btwn work and wealth
NAME
this is the belive that there is a link btwn work and wealth
protestant work ethic
How did the Agrarian age influence work?
by it brought the tools necessary to produce the goods required by the world bc most occupations were seasonal
NAME
this brought the tools necessary to produce the goods required by the world bc most occupations were seasonal
Agaraian age
How did the industrual revolution infleunce occupations?
leisure occupations departed from the home and become centered in the community
NAME
during this era, leisure occuptions departed from the home and become centered in the community
leisure occupations
Give a ex of how during the industrail revolution, how occupations departed from the home and become centered in the community
in the 1880s the Pullman co of south Chicago, the made sure the town included parks for its workers
What does the WPA stand for?
works progress administration
HOw did the great depression infleunce occupations?
the us Gov established the WPA
NAME
during this era the US gov established the WPA
great depression
How has the postindustrial or information age influenced occupations? (3)
(1)the new wealth is based on change from the know how (2)there is now a stressed leisure class not exists along w great inqequailties btwn men and women (3)women in the worklace return home to have to take care of the kids and housework--thus not getting the same after-work leisure time enjoyed by men
NAME
during this era,the new wealth is based on change from the know how, there is a stressed leisure class not exists along with great inequalites btwn men and women, and women in the workplace are returning home to have to take care of the kids and house work, thus not getting the same after work leisure time enjoyed by men
postindustrial or information age
The engagement in occupations can infleunce (1),(2),and (3)
(1)happiness and life satisfaction (2)health and well being
We each engage in numerous (1) every day
occupations
Each of us a great deal of (1) and (2) with occupations
(1)familiarity (2)personal
What does an understanding of occupation require? (3)
a careful examination of the context of the doing,(2) the perspective of the doer,(3) and the framework of the knower
NAME
this requires a careful examination of the context of the doing, the perspective of the doer, and the framework of the knower
an understanding of occupation
What are some questions that one needs to ask to reach an understanding of occupation? (5)
(1)Who (2)What (3)Where (4)How (5)why
What are the methods of inquiry?
are the methods of invetigative journalism such as personal experience and observation that is applied to the study of occupation
NAME
are the methods of investigative journalism such as personal experience and observation that is applied to the study of occupation
methods of inquiry
Occupations requires a (1)approach
multivariate
NAME
this requires a multivariate approach
occupations
How we understand something depends on?(4)
(1)what we want to understand and who are are (2)our age and eduaction (3)our social and economic advantage and our persepective on the nature of the world (4)where we are male or female
NAME
this is determined by what we want to understand and who we are, our age and education, our social and economic advantage and our persepective on the nature of the world, and where we are male or female
how we understand something
What are epistemoligcal postions?
ways of knowning
NAME
this refers to the various ways of knowing
epistemoligcal postions
What is epistemolgical perspective?
(1)states that men and women hve differ ways of understanding (2)personal eperience and observation were the ways of knowing used by the youngest and most disadvantaged womon in the study
NAME
(1)states that men and women hve differ ways of understanding and personal eperience and observation were the ways of knowing used by the youngest and most disadvantaged womon in the study
the epistomolgical perspective
What are epistemologies?
refers to the modes of understanding
NAME
this refers to the modes of understanding
epistemologies
What are (4) epistemologies?
(1)knowledge may be accepted from authorites at face value and w/out question (2)is prevalent reliance on intuititon that preceded scientific thought and is considered central to many eastern philosohies (3)to recognize that neither knowledge from authority no intuitive knowledge are adequate ways of knowing (4)to recognize knowledge as constructed and changing, subject to the stiuation and the perspective of the knower (5)
NAME
includes the knowledge may be accepted from authorites as face value and w.out question, is prevalent reliance on intuitition that preceded scientific thought and is considered central to many estern philsophies, to recognize that neither knowledge from authority no intuitive knowledge are adequate ways of knowing, and to recoginze knowledge as constructed and changing subject to the situation and the perspective of the knower
epistemologies
What are paradigms?
are disciplinary ways of knowing
NAME
these are disciplinary ways of knowing
paradigms
are paradigms fixed or static?
no
What are (2) epistemolfial perspectives that paradigms have come from?
(1)natrualistic paradigms (2)postivistic paradigm
NAME
this comes the naturalistic paradigm and the postivistic paradigm
the epistoemolfial perspective
the naturalistic paradigms is also refered to as (1)
qualtive research
(1) is also refered to as qualitive research
naturalistic paradigms
Postivistic paradigms is also called (1)
reductionistic approach
(1) is also called the reductionistic approach
postivistic paradigms
What is the naturalistic paradigms?
is based on the assumption that the world is made up of multiple, overlaping realtites that are subjectively expereinced, socially constructed complex, and constantly changing
NAME
this is based on the assumption that the world is made up of multiple, overlapping realities that are subjectivly experienced, socially constructed complex, and constantly changing
naturalistic paradigms
What is qualtive research?
is understood to be a subjective one w the reseacher being the main instrument of data collections
NAME
this is understood to be a subjective one w the researcher being the main instrument of data collections
qualtive research
What is postivistic paradigms?
is based on the assumption that the world is made up of observable , measureable facts
NAME
this is based on the assumption that the world is made up of observable, measureable facts
postivistic paradigms
In the postivitistic paradigm, what is the role of the quantive researcher?
is to uncover the facts and to discern laws that govern the relationships btwn cause and effect by conducting carfully planned studies that control as many variable as necessary
NAME
the role of the quantive reseracher in this perespective is to uncover the facts and to discern the laws that govern the relationships bwtn cause and effect by conducting carefully planned studies that control as many variables as necessary
postivitisic paradigm
What is the role of the qualtitaive researcher in the naturalistic paradigm?
is to come in in depth understanding of these realtites and how they are constructed
NAME
the role of the qualtitive researcher in this perspective is to come in depth understanding of these realtites and how they are constructed
the naturalistic paradigm
in the western world the predominont western perspective on understanding became firmly based in (1)
positivism
T or F
interst in occupation as a phenomenon worthy of study in its own right, is becoming fairly new
true
T or F
no one disciple has claimed the study of occupation as a central domain of concern
true
What is occupational science?
is a basic science that can support such as professions as architecture, career counselling, environmental engineering, industrial phscyhology, leisure studies, and occupational therpay
NAME
this is a basic science that can support such as professions as architecture, career counselling, environmental engineering, industrial phscyhology, leisure studies, and occupational therpay
occupational science
The study of occupation remains in its (1)
infancy
What are three sources that understanding occupation comes from?
(1)personal experience (2)existing data sources (3)new investigations
NAME
this comes from three main sources: personal experiences, existing data sources, and new investigations
understanding occupationa
What are the steps of inquiry? (5)
()question (2)design and data collection (3)data anaylisis (4)data interpretation (5)conclusion
What does the question asked depend on?
the aspect of occupation that is of interest to the knower and hte paradigm of inquiry
Why have design and methods of data collection been distiniguished? (2)
(1)clarify (2)to make it obvious that some methods of data collection span the quatntitive/quatitative divide
what are descriptive studie?
info is gathered for the purpose of documeting the nature and meaning of the phenoemon at a specfic point
NAME
this is info gathered for the purpose of documetning the nature and meaning of the phenomeon
descriptive studies
What are experimental studies?
are hypotheses regarding the cause and effect are tested by the manipulation of certain variables and the control of others
NAME
these are hyoitheses regarding the cause and effect are tested by the maipulation of certain variables and the control of others
experimental studies
What some common research methods that quantitive researchers use for study designs?
(1)desrciptive studies (2)experimental studies
NAME PARADIGM
for study designs, they like to use descriptive studies and experimental studies
quantitative
NAME PARADIGM
for data collection, they like to use the following methods, observation, interview, questionaire, measurement, instrumentation, document and record collection, and audiovisual materials
quanitative
What are some methods for reserach do quantative researchers use? (7)
(1)observation (2)interview (3)questionaire (4)measurement (5)instrumentation (6)document and record collection (7)audiovisual materials
What are some methods of reserach do qualitative research use for study designs?
(1)ethnorgaphy (2)case study (3)phenomenology (4)grounded theory
NAME PARADIGMS
for study designs, they like to use ethnogrpahy, case studies, phenomoenology, and grounded theory
qualitative
NAME PARADIGMS
for data collections, they like to use observation, interview, document and record collection, and audovisual materials
qualitative
What are ethnographic studies?
is a process of long term immesrion about the attidues and beleifs of a culture for the purpose of understanding the forces of that shape those behaviors and feelings
NAME
is a process of a long term immersion about the attiudes and beliefs of a culture for the purpose of understanding the forces that shape those behaviors and feelings
ethnographic studies
What are case studies?
is when the reseracher uses a variety of data collections methods over a sustained period of time, for the purpose of understanding a particular activty or phenomenon
NAME
is when the reseracher uses a variety of data collections methods over a sustained period of time, for the purpose of understanding a particular activity or phenomeon
case studies
What are phenomenolgical studies?
is a process of entensive and prolonged engagement using observations and interviews, and examines the meaning of the indivuals lived realites
NAME
this is a process of entensive and prolonged enagement using observations and interveiws and examins the meaning of the indivduals lived realites
phenomenological studies
What are grounded theory studies?
during this the reseracher uses multiple stages of data collection, collects, codes, and anaylzes observational and interview data until the data being collected becomes redudant
NAME
during this the reseracher uses multiple stages of data collection, collects, codes, and anaylzes observational and interview data until the data being collected becomes redudant
grounded theory studies
When do people engage in occuapations?
always
The expression of (1) through activity reveals typical patterns of daily occupations
circadian rhythm
T or F
the indivudal does determine the occupational patterns alone,and is not in concert with the environemnt
false
Where do occupation ocur?
everywhere-- you can tell this by personal experiences, popular literature, and the arts
is a lot known about how occupations are peformed?
no
What can of occupations are the only kind of occupations that can be observed for how they are performed?
those w megacognition
how does the media, answer the question, why do people engage in occupations?
survial
Why is survial not a good answer to the question, why do people enage in occupations?
bc the survial premise does not exlpain who do not have to work work or why people do what they do w/out pay
Why do people engage in occupations?
(1)a means of expressing and managing personal idetnity (2)a means of staying connected to people assocaited w thier past (3)contriubtes to a sesne of well being and quality of existaence
NAME
people do this so bc as a means of expressing and managing personal idetnity, a means of staying connected to people assocaited w thier past, and contriubtes to a sesne of well being and quality of existaence
enaging occupations
Where does meaning come from?
w/ in the person
What are the differ types of meaning things can have?
(1)personal (2)social
NAME
this is personally and social derived
meaning
What are humans always searching for?
meaning
What does meaning arise from?
an interplay btwn conformity and individuality
NAME
this aries from an interplay btwn conformty and indivuality
meaning
Meaning aries from an interplay btwn (1) and (2) across the lifespan
(1)conformity (2)individuality
What is theortical knowledge?
describes the knowledge system of a novice nurse clinician w book knowledge
NAME
this describes a the the knowledge system of a novice nurse clinician w book knowledge
theortical knowledge
What is practical knowledge?
describes a experienced nurse clinician who has both book and applied knowledge
NAME
this describes a experienced nurse cliniican who has both book and applied knowledge
practical knowlegde
When a OT first starts, he or she goes from (1) to (2)
(1)novice (2)expert
A person who is (1)relies heavily on social definitions of meaning in the situation
inexperienced
A person who is inexperienced relies (1)
heavily on social definitions of meaning in the situation
A person who is (1)relies more on his or her personal history to create meaning in the situation, to understand the whole, to become invovled
experienced
A person who is experienced relies (1)
more on his or her personal history to create meaning int he situation, to understand the whole, to become involved
Who makes meaning?
people
NAME
this is the meaning - making context
people
How do people show meaning in thier life?
through actions or performance
NAME
we show this through actions and prerformance
meaning
What does OT focus on?
(1)possiblites for improvement and recovery (2)independence and health maintenacne
NAME
this field tries to find the possiblites for improvement and recovery and independence and health maintence
OT
The US health care system is oriented towards (1)
diagnosing patholgical and prescribing care
NAME
this is oriented toward diagnosing pathilogy and prescribing a care
US health care system
What would happen w/ out occupational engagement?
the ability to develop understanding is constrained
Meaning is related to how we(1)
see things
NAME
this is related to how we see things
meanings
What is aspect-dawning?
is the human experience of perceiving not only the outer, informational aspects in a situation or setting but also suddenly perceiving the situation in a different way that is beyond the info by visual observation alone
NAME
is the human experience of perceiving not only the outerm info aspects in a situation or setting but also suddenly perceiving the situation in a differeny way taht is beyond the info by visual observation alone
aspect-dawning
t or F
everyone is able to experience aspect-dawning
false
Can everyone one expereince aspect-dawning?
no
What is aspect-blindness?
means that the person cannot see the object in more than one way and he or she does not feel or experience the shift in perception
NAME
this means that the person cannot see the object in more than one way and he or she does not feel experience the shift in perception
aspect-blindness
What is mindfulness?
`is when people welcome and create new info and new categories in thier lifeworld are aware of many points of view, and focus on the process more than outcome in thier approach to the routines of the day
NAME
this is when people welcome and create new info and new categories in thier lifeworld are aware of many points of veiw and focus on the processes more than outcome in thier approach to the routines of the day
mindfulness
NAME
this is when people operate w more automaticity, act from a single persepctive, focus on outcome rather than process, and are limited to preset views and labels
a state of mindfulness
We might think of the student therpist as having a form of (1)or (2)in the clinical setting
(1)aspect blindness (2)mindlessness
WHat is meaning making?
is an organizational process by which people "weighh thier experiences and expectations and thereby construct personal meaning of events and ohenomans
NAME
is an organizational process by which people wieght thier eperiences and expectations and thereby construct personal meaning of events and phneomons
meaning making
Where does the meaning come from (be specfic) ?
out of a person's expereinces
By (1), people find and create meaning
narrativization
What is moire?
refers to a new pattern that is created when two previously separate patterns are superimposed on each other
NAME
refers to a new pattern that is created when two preveiously separate patterns are superimposed on each other
moire
NAME
this can be viewed not only as an event in which the therapists the enters the story of the client and one in which the client enters the story of the therpaist
therpay
What can happen if a therpaist does not recognize the need to understand personal meanings?
he or she can be percieved as distant, brusque, and discouraging
What is interpretive research?
is a research approach that approaches the discovery and understanding of meaning in our lives are richly varied
NAME
this reserach approaches to discovry and understanding of meaning in our lives are richly varied
interpretive research
What is objectified reserach?
is another tradition of research on meaning and occupation which is represented by the use of quantitative aproaches to the study the meaning
NAME
this is another tradition of research on meaning and occupation which is represented by the use of quantitive aproaches to the study of the meaning
objectifed research
What is occupational form?
is an objective set of circumstances external to the prson that elicts, guides, and stuctures human performance
NAME
is an objective set of circumstances external to the person that elicts, guides, and structures human performance,
occupational form
What happens after the person experiences meaning?
he or she experiences purpose or the desire to dosomething about the situation
What does ESM stand for?
experience sampling method
What is the ESM?
is a data collection to study the meaning of daily activity
NAME
this is a data collection to study the meaning of daily activity
ESM
WHat is flow?
is a term used describe the subjective quality of engagement in daily occupations
NAME
this is a term used to describe the subjective quality of engagement in daily occupations
ESM
What are two modes of thought according to Bruner?
(1)logico scientific mode (2)narrative mode
nAME
this includes logico sceintfiic mode and narrative mode
the two modes of thought
What is the logico scientific mode?
this represents our formal, mathematical system description and explanation
NAME
this represents our formal, mathematical system description and explanation
logico scientific mode
What is the narrative mode?
houses the imagination, consciousness, the particulars of experience, and concern for the human conidtion
What are Heidagger consider where the (2) modes of human thought?
(1)calculative (2)meditative
NAME
this two modes include:calculative and meditative
Heidagger two modes of though
What are the differ btwn heidagger and bruner 's modes of thoughts?
(1)Bruners- logico-scienfic and narrative (2)heideggar- calculative and meditative
What is meditative thinking?
is that which contemplates the meaning which regins in everything is ok
NAME
is that which cintemplates the meaning which regins in everything is ok
meditative thinking
What are the (2) modes of meaning?
(1)thematic meaning (2)expressive meaning
NAME
this includes thematic meaning and expressive meaning
the (2) modes of meaning
WHat is thematic meaning?
is meaning that is drawn from the info content of the phenomenun
NAME
this is meaning that is drawn from the info content of the phenomenum
thematic meaning
What is expressive meaning?
is a more of an "inner" grapsing of the poetic, the situational , the nontheroetical aspects of the phenomenon
NAME
is a more of an "inner" grasping of the poetic, the situational and the nontheroetical aspects of the phenomeon
expressive meaning
What is an intgrative way of knowing?
is way of knowing in which intuitive knowledge is integrated w knowledge gained from the external world
NAME
is way of knowing in which intuitive knowledge is integrated w knowledge gained from the external world
the intergrative way of knowing
NAME
this is a powerful source of meaning
occupation
Occupation is a powerful source of (1)
meaning
Therapists are (1)
mean givers
NAME
this are mean givers
therapists
What greek word does therapy come from?
the greek word for "wooing or courting"
NAME
this word is derived from the greek word meaning "wooing or courting"
therapy
NAME
this is the vechilce for creating meaning in the occupational therapy context of care
occupation
NAME
this becomes the custodians of meaning
OT
Describe occupation, be specfic?
(1)engagement in self-initiated, self directed, adaptive, purposeful, culturally, relevant, organized activity
NAME
this is an engagement is self initiated, self-directed, adaptive, purposeful, culturally, relevant, and organized activity
occupation
What is the differ btwn occupation and acitivty?
(1)occupation-- is the subjective experience of an indivdual, w meaning that is personally contructed (2)activity- is a culturally defined class of human actions, shared in the minds and cultural language of persons
NAMe
this is a culturally defined class of human actions, shared in the minds and cultural language of the persons
acitivity
What is activity?
is a culturally defined class of human actions, shared in the minds and cultural language of the persons
What are the elements of occupational therpay according to Wilcocks?
doing, being, and becoming
NAME
this involves doing, being, and becoming
occupational therapy
What is being?
refers to who the person is. for example, the man in the story his being was one that low self estem
What does it mean to know ones self? (2)
to both know the world and to know ones authentic path w/in the world (2)or to know ones being
NAME
this is to both know the world and to know ones authentic path w/ in the world or to know ones being
knowing ones self
What is selfing?
is the shaping one's identity by occupation and experience
NAME
this is the shaping one's idenity by occupation and experience
selfing
What is idenitity the product of?
the selfing process
NAME
this is identiy of the product of selfing
identity
What is identity?
is the product of selfing
NAME
this is the product of selfing
identity
What did Palmer beleive about goals?
he belived that we are born into a this life with a inner being that is ready to let your life speak and/or set goals
NAME
he believed that we are born into this life w a inner being that is ready to let your life speak and/or set goals
Palmer
What is Christiansen persepctive say about goals? (2)
goal directed activity and the self are bound to each other (2)states that goals help define our selves in that they generate images of our possible selves
NAME
he said that goals directed activity and the self are bound to each other and states that goals help define our selves in that they generate images of our possible selves
Christiansen perseptive
OT should think as there work as (1)
enabling people as best as they can
What is the specfic def of becoming?
is a term that holds the notions of potential and growth, of transforming and self-actualization
NAME
this is a term that holds the notions of potential and growth, of transforming and self-actualization
becoming
What is the main differ btwn palmer and christiansen persepctives?
(1)Palmer-- is for the helping the unfolding process through occupation and therapy (2)Christiansen-- is one of watching and listening to see what unfolds
NAME
this persepctives is for helping the unfolding process through occupation and therapy
Palmer
NAME
this persepctives is one of watching and listening to see what unfolds
Christiansen
What are the (2) major views of becoming?
(1)the philosophy that the development of human beings across the life span is like the unfolding of a flower (2)human development is the result of a dynamic interplay btwn the human oragnism and the environment
NAME
these include the philopsophy that the development of human beins across the life span is like the unfolding of a flower and human development is the result of a dynamic interplay btwn the human oragnism and the environment
views of becoming
The two perspective of development of human beings or being reflect (1)
the nature/nurture
What is the third perspective of human development or being?
in one which the environment plays by far the strongest role in brining about human development, with the organism's inborn potential having a only a weak infleunce on the process
NAME
in one which the environment plays by far the strongest role in brining about human development, with the organism's inborn potential having a only a weak infleunce on the process
is the (3rd) persepctive of human development or being
If the therpaist approaches the interactions from a model of therapist as expert, the therapist cleint relationship will reflect (1)
a behviorist theory of development
If the therapist approaches the interactions from a model of (1)the therpaist cleint relationship will reflect a behaviorist theory of development
therapist as expert
if the therapist approaches the interaction from a model of therapist as partner, the relationship may reflect (1)
a more dialectic theory of becoming, w therpaist and cleint contributing more equally to the process of change fthat is brought about during therapy
if the therapist approaches the interaction from a model of therapist as a (1), the relationship may reflect a more dialectic theory of becoming, w therapist and client contributing more equally to the process of cahnge that is brought about during therapy
partner
If the therapist approches the interaction from a client centered perspective, then the outcomes of therapy will reflect (1)
an unfolding process w the change evolving strongly from the client's inner potential
If the therpaist approaches, the interaction from a (1), then the outcomes oftherapy will reflect an unfolding process w the change evolving strongly from the client's inner potential
a client centered persepctive
What kind of therpaist client interaction should a therpaist use?
all three
What kind of therapist-cleint interacitons can a therpaist use?
(1)therapist as a expert (2)therpaist as partner (3)client centered therapy
NAME
these include therapist as a expert, therpiast as partner, and client centered therapy
the differ kinds of therapist-cleint interactions a therapist can use
Through the (1), the cleints becoming has been facilated
therapy process
W occupation as the core concept of proffesions, we are by defualt (1) and (2)
(1)custodians of meaning and meaning givers
NAME
these people are custodains of meaning and meaning givers
OT
NAME
is used to refer to physcial surrounding or environment that are either natural or produced through human labor
place
What is sense of place?
is the symbolic meaning of that is conveyed by a place
NAME
this refers to the symbolic meaning that is conveyed from a place
the sense of place
T or F
place only has one meaning
false
What is the first place all humans experience?
the uterus
What are archetypal places?
are 13 types of places that evoke and support behvaors that meet basic needs
NAME
are 13 types of places that evoke and support behaviors that meet basic needs
archetypal places
What is an archetype?
is any object that is deeply routed in human history and serves a symbolic or model for other objects
NAME
is any object that is deeply routed in human history and serves a symbolic or model for other objects
archetype
NAME
this meet humankind's needs for shelther, territory, and the routes that link places to sleep, mating, grooming, feeding, excereting, playing, and competing.
archetypal places
NAME
this is found to be a container of culture
archetypal places
NAME
design of places and objects provide this which signify thier use
affordance
What does affordance mean?
was evented by the Gibson to refer to the actionable properties btwn the world and a person
NAME
this word was evented by Gibson to refer to the actionable properties btwn the world and a person
affordance
Do affordacnes have to be visible?
no
Places also can have (1)constructed meaning
socially
NAME
these can ahve socially constructed meaning
place
What are social constructed meaning?
refers to the expereinces, that places becomes associated w events and actions that give them both indivdual and collective meaning
NAME
refers to the experiences, that places becomes associated w events and actions that give them both indivdual and collective meaning
social constructed meaning
the meaning attrubted to a place can be infleunced by (1)
familiarity
What are insiders?
are people who are familiar with places and locations
NAME
this refers to people who are familiar w places and locations
insiders
What are semiotics?
it refers to the study of anything in social life that stands for something else
NAME
it refers to the study of anything in social life that stands for something else
semiotics
the idea of life as a journey is a (1)
archetype
How does time influence place, give 3 examples? (3)
(1)A farm is a excellent example of a place where daily and seasonal rhythms infleunce the occupations that are done there (2)the movement of occupations was an example of a seasonal adaption related to the changes in temp and light in the sun moved through daily and yearly cycle (3)cathedral in medival europe infleunced daily life through the tolling of its bells for reg worship and social meeting, and as a place for baptism, weddings, funerals, and other ceremonies.
How does movement from place to place affect occupation? (2)
(1)lack of transportion options can limit acess to certain occupations (2)commuting has a negative effect on a traveler
What are some negative effects of commuting?
(1)increases the stress and contrubtes to insomnia (2)reduces the time avaible for socilization (3)costs money
NAME
some negative effects of this are increases stresses and contrubtes to insomnia, reduces the time avaible for socilization, and costs money
negative effects of commuting
What is life world?
is the routine patterns and interactions of everyday life
NAME
this refers to the routine patterns and interactions of everyday life
life world
When people are interacting w other people or object w/in thier life world, thier experiences can be described as (1)
embodied
What is habitus?
is a term used to describe the unconscious patterns of doing, thinking, speaking, and perceiving that people exhibit in thier cicumstances
NAME
this is a term used to describe the unconscious patterns of doing, thinking, speaking, and perceiving what people exhibit in thier circumstances
habitus
Occupations ocur w/in the context of (1) and (2)
place and time
How does place infleunce occupation? (4)
(1)people invite certain types of occupations and prohibit or restrict others (2)the element and rules inherent to a place may combine and build on each other and infleuce behaviors in certian places(3)physcial infleunces (4)geographical varations
How can physcial infleunce how places infleunce occupation?
by it can affect how frequently, or effectively people are able to acheive thier purposes there
NAME
this can affect how frequently or effectively people are able to acheive thier purposes there
the physcial infleunces of a place
Give a example of how physcial infleunces how places influence occupation?
by the physcial aspects of the outdoors and the playground equipment challenge children by offering opportunites for swinging, climbing, running, or playing coperative games
What is the environmental press?
are the traditions associated w behavioral expectations in the places
NAME
are the traditions associated w behavioral expectations in the places
environmental press
What are ergonomics?
is the science of human factors
NAME
this is the science of human factors
ergonomics
How has ergonomic evolved?
it has evolved as means of determing how the psychological, physcial, and social characteristics of people and environments infleunce task performance in work settings
NAME
it has evolved as means of determing how the psychological, physcial, and social characteristics of people and environments infleunce task performance in work settings
ergonomics
What is the goal of ergonomics?
is to improve the fit btwn people and thier working conditions while improving safety, producitivity, comfort, and effciency
NAME
the goal of this is to improve the fit btwn people and thier working conditions while improving safety, producivity, comfort, and effciency
ergonomics
How can geographical varations infleunce occupations in a place?
by people in differ places often do things differently
Give some examples of how geographical variations can infleunce occupations in a place? (2)
(1)a places climate and avialble materials can infleunce how mothers carry thier babies. for instance, babies around the globe can be carries in slings, hammocks, leather pouches, nets, or baskets supported by the mothers back, neck, hip, or forehead (2)People can bath small children in bath tubs, buckets, or small tubs, and/or in a fire as a ritual
How can places be environments for learning and play? (2)
(1)new places can stimulate the childs increased ability to move and explore (2)w increased monility, the child ventures further from the secuirty of tje parent and as the child remembers a reassuring hug, it gives them more independence
Places can be envinroments for (1) and (2)
(1)learning (2)play
How does place infleunces play in neighborhoods? (2)
(1)children in hilly places and sparesly populated tend to spend more time planning social interaction than other children (2)Children who live in flat nieghborhoods w many children spent more time in spontaneous soical interactions and have more casual less struictured friendships
children in (1) to spend more time planning social interaction than other children
hilly places and sparesly populated tend
Children who live (1) spent more time in spontaneous soical interactions and have more casual less struictured friendships
in flat nieghborhoods w many children
children in hilly places and sparesly populated tend to spend more time (1)
planning social interaction than other children
Children who live in flat nieghborhoods w many children spent more time (1)
in spontaneous soical interactions and have more casual less struictured friendships
What are some constraints in a neighborhoods that can infleunce how children play? (5)
(1)the terrain (2)the number of and acess to other children (3)ages of the children (4)the relationships of major streets to designated play areas (5)availiabilty of undeveloped , unstrucutred play space
NAME
this is a place that ideally offers the scuirty to meet these needs, the opportunity to interact w loved ones, and the freedom to be ourselves
home
What can home do ideally? (3)
(1)secuirty to meet needs such as shelter, storage, and territory (2)the opportunity to interact w loved ones (3)freedom to be ourselves
Does a home have to fit all "ideal" needs?
no
How do occupations influence places?
(1)people who like to cook and entertain often select homes w large well equiped kitchens (2)on the other hand, others might be satifsyed w microwave and a small oven (3)families w adult children who have long since left home might convert the extra living space into storage area, home offices, and craft rooms
What are (2) aspects of place as a community?
(1)the naturally occuring geographic features such as mountains, or ocean beaches (2)is the constructed or built place such as entertainment centers, hiking paths, and meusums
T or F
one's house, community, and the habits of neighbors helps the redidenst over come the lossed caused by normal aging, poor health, and deal w thier limitations
true
What is displacement?
refers to the loss of place
NAME
this refers to the loss of place
displacement
What is temporal ?
are patterns of everday occupation
NAME
these are patterns of everyday occupation
temporal
What are some things that can cause displacement (3)
(1)hospitlization (2)progressive aging (3)ilness
What are some consquences of displacement for homeless people? (4)
(1)are less mentally and phycially healthy (2)more likely to do drugs (3)inovled in crime (4)efforts center around sufficeint food, clothing, and shelther
NAME
these can reconfigue the time, place, and pattern of everyday experinces
virtual places
Virtual places can reconfigure the (1)
the time, place, and pattern of everyday experiences
What is the virtual reaility?
refers to any simulation of a real or imaginary environment in which it is possible for a user to interact w objects and people w in a environment
NAME
this refers to any stimulation of a real or imaginary environment in which it is possible for a user to interact w objects and people w in a environment
virtual reality
What is avatar?
refers to a represenation of the self that can be used in a virtual environment
NAME
refers to a represenation of the self that can be used in a virtual environment
avatar
What is tele-immersion?
is used to describe the networked appliaction of virtual reality that enables immersive 3d interactions from multiple sites
NAME
this is used to dsecribe the networked application of virtual reality that enables immersive 3d interactions from multople sites
tele-immersion
(1) and (2) have occured in naturalistc settings through enthographic approaches
socail and cultural geogprahy
Social and cultural geography have occured in naturalistic setting through (1)
enthographic approaches
What is ethnography?
this refers to studies in which an investigator observres behaviors and places to provide a written description of a social group focusing on cultural characteristics based on concrete experiences
NAME
this refers to studies in which an investigator observres behaviors and places to provide a written description of a social group focusing on cultural characteristics based on concrete experiences
ethngraphy
How can place infleunce health and well being? (2)
can have a postive and/or negative impact on the person
the health and well being of people depend greatly on the (1) in which they (2)
(1)places (2)work, sleep, play, and care for themselves
It is important for places to have (1)but more imporatant is the infleunce of (2)on the place that have the greatest impact on quality of life and health and well being
(1)natural and physcial resources (2)social interaction and social dimensions
What is spirtuiality?
is the sense of harmony and interconnections of the self, others, nature, and the ultimate other. the source of inspiration, energy, motivation, and the natural tendency toward the healing and growth"
NAME
this is the sense of harmony and interconnections of the self, others, nature, and the ultimate other. the source of inspiration, energy, motivation, and the natural tendency toward the healing and growth"
sprituiality
Spirtuality is infleunced by (1)and vice versa
occupation
Many people act out (1)through relilgion
spirituality
Many people act out spirituality through (1)
relgion
Spirtuliaty comes from (1)and religion is from (2)
(1)God/w in (2)man
What is a health assesment?
is a report to measure someone' sprirituality
nAMe
this is a report to measure someone's spirtuiatliy
health assesment
What are (8)performance in areas of occupation?
(1)activites of daily living (2)instrumental activites (ones that require thinking)(3)daily living (4)education (5)work (6)pay (7)lesiure (8)social particpation
What is one thing you might notice about the (8)peformance areas of occupation according to the framework?
does not list spirtuality
What are some trends that caused the begning of oT? (6)
(1)the increasing pop of people w chronic impairments which impeded thier particpation in daily life of thier culture (2)public policy debates about both the needs and rights of such people including thier desire for equality of capability (3)the decreasing role of the gov in providing natural resources for people w handicaps w cost-curtailing attempts to circumstance the practice of all health proffesionals (4)cutting edge new approaches to the study of acting human beings in real life contexts(5)mind boggling growth in the complexity of daily life with resultant problems in organizing and using one time, ocrhestrating one's activites, balancing roles and acheiving competence and satisfaction through occupation (6)a readiness for occupational therapists to leap into the unkown waters of concepts and ideas bc of the worldwide maturation of our profession
NAME
this was caused by the following trends:
(1)the increasing pop of people w chronic impairments which impeded thier particpation in daily life of thier culture (2)public policy debates about both the needs and rights of such people including thier desire for equality of capability (3)the decreasing role of the gov in providing natural resources for people w handicaps w cost-curtailing attempts to circumstance the practice of all health proffesionals (4)cutting edge new approaches to the study of acting human beings in real life contexts(5)mind boggling growth in the complexity of daily life with resultant problems in organizing and using one time, ocrhestrating one's activites, balancing roles and acheiving competence and satisfaction through occupation (6)a readiness for occupational therapists to leap into the unkown waters of concepts and ideas bc of the worldwide maturation of our profession
OT
people with disabling conditions are not sick but (1)
have impairments
NAME
this serves as the resository for our research and teaching materials where we made vaible to the entire community to foster our scholorship
Center for study of occupation
T or F
everything in OT can be explained by a sceinftic methods
false
Why does OT need to rely on science?
bc OTs have to be able to explain to docs why this treatment would beinfit thier patients
Occupation is (1), (2)acitivty which is (3)directed
(1)self-initated (2)self-organized (3)goal directed
NAME
this is a self-initated, self organized activity that is goal directed
occupation
OT take into account the (1)person
whole
What does it mean treating the whole person?
it means treating the spirit, body, and mind
What word does the word occupation come from?
the latin word occupacio meaning to seize or take possession
NAME
this comes from the latin word meaning to seize or take possession
occupation
What is adapative mind?
is a flexible and can learn things in multiple ways
NAME
this means a person is flexible and can learn things in multiple ways
adaptive minds
Does being health just mean having a disease?
no
T or F
being healthy means not having a disease
false
Humans can (1)
adpat
What does a OT look for?
differ ways to adpot someone environment
for ex, might put a ramp in so someone w a wheelchair can get into the house
OT need to remember to understand a person's (1)
culture
T or F
people w impairments can have a well rounded life but have to learn to adapt
true
What are the compants of a occupational performace?
(1)person (2)the occupation (3)the environment
NAME
includes the person, the occupation and the environment
occupational performance
What is cleint centered practice based on?
values, meanings, and choices
NAME
this type of practice is based on values, meanings, and choices
client centered pratice
What does client centered practice support?
the cleints sucess but allows for failure
NAME
this supports the cleints sucess but allows for failure
client centered practice
How does client-centered pratice guide a clients?
guides clients to id thier own needs and choose acceptable outcomes
NAME
this guides clients to id thier own needs and choose acceptable outcomes
client-centered pratice
NAME
this encourages active participation and decision making by the client
client centered pratice
What does client centered practice encourage?
active particpation and decision making by the client
NAME
this is a container of experiences or memories of experiences
place
How does a place become more than just some spcae?
we have memories of experiences there
What role does therpay play in space?
we interact w people's life spaces to make their environment more optimally as possible. for example we might add grab bars to the shower or ramp to the front of house
What is placelessness?
is the absence of place except from a superfical level
nAME
this refers tothe absence of place
placelessness
What can lead to placelessness?
(1)tourism (2)skyscrappers (3)commerical developments and strip malls that offer only uniformity of place
Tourism, skyscrappers, commerical developments and strip malls that offer only uniformity can lead to (1)
placelessness
What does Rowle's "a place to call home" talk about?
says home have multiple meaningss such as a extensions of self, secuitry, belonging, order, control, independence, and social status
NAME
this said home can have multiple meanings such as a extensions of self, secuitrty, belonging, order, control, independence, and social status
Rowle's paper entiled a "place to call home"
A autobiographical insidness stems from (1)
memories of home
What are three processes that link people to thier home?
(1)socail-centered process (2)person-centered (3)body-centered process
NAME
these include social centered process, person centered, and body centered process
processes that connect people to thier homes
What is the social centered process?
states that the way each of use makes our homes is cuturally based
NAME
this states that the way each of us makes our home is cuturally based
social centered process
What is a person centered process?
this process encompases the expression of our life course through the features of our home
NAME
this process encompases the expression of our life course through the features of our home
person centered process
What is the body-centered process?
this process is considred w the relationship of the body to the evironment features of the home i
Body centered process, person-centered process, and social centered process all contriubte to (1)
homeyness
In America what are (3) things that contrubte to homeyness?
(1)physcial (2)symbolic (3)pragmatic
NAME
these all contrubte to this, in N america: physical, symbolic, and pragmatic.
Homeyness
WHat are pragmatic properties of a home?
include whether a home is a status corrector, a marketplace corrector, or a modernity corrector
NAME
this includes whether a home is a status corrector, a marketplace corrector, or a modernity corrector
pragmatic properties
to many (1) reflect the opposite homeylness
instituitions
To many institutions reflects the oppostie of (1)
homeyllness
T or F
bc of article by Goffman, instiuitions have been on the decrease
true
Give examples of some types of speacils places? (3)
(1)back to homeland (2)in a room of one's own (3)children's experience of place
NAME
some examples are back to homeland, in a room of one's own, and children;s experience of place
speacil places
Who wrote "a room of one's own"?
Virgnia Wolf
What did Virgnia Wolf write?
a room of ones own
What does the paper a room of ones own say?
says that ones home can be both symbolic and have a place of personal meaning
NAME
says that ones home can be both symbolic and have a place of personal meaning
A room of ones own
What are (4) ways that children move around neighborhhods?
(1)free range (2)farthest distance of free range (3)farthest distance of "w permission ranges (4)farthest distances of ranges "w permission and w other children
NAME
this includes (1)free range (2)farthest distance of free range (3)farthest distance of "w permission ranges (4)farthest distances of ranges "w permission and w other children
movement ranges of children in a neighborhood
What is Good fengshui?
means that a place has good chemistry for us and suits us and we really like being there
NAME
this means that a place has good chemistry for us and suits us and we are really like being there
good fengshui
What is medical geography?
is when the emphasis amoung those factors is on the relationship btwn health, space, and place
NAME
is when the emphasis amoung those factors is one the relationship btwn health, space, and place
medical geography
Medical geography can also be called (10
geography of health
(1) can also be called geography of health
medical geography
Give ex of the realtionship in medical geography?
some pregant people are healther giving birth at home than in a hospital which they view as cold and contrubtes to displacement
What ways did a study find helped to improve peoples health in a community?
(1)by faciliating the maintenance of pratical and social support from neighboers (2)by providing an ongoing source of environment particpation (3)by suporting a sense of id for the old person
NAME
what does the following help to do?
1)by faciliating the maintenance of pratical and social support from neighboers (2)by providing an ongoing source of environment particpation (3)by suporting a sense of id for the old person
improve the health of the people in the community
NAME
this has been veiwed as the patterns of values, beliefs, symbols, perceptions, and learned behaviors of shared group members
culture
When does our own culture become visible?
in the face of a differ culture
NAME
this happens when we face a differ culture
our own culture becomes visible
T or F
the better we understand other cultures, the better we will understand ours
true
What is ethenocentrism?
ist he lack of understanding and apprecation of other cultures and veiwing them from our own experiences
NAME
this is the lack of understanding and apprecation for other cultures and means veiwing them from our own experiences
ethnocentrism
Language are vivid representations of (1)
culture
Culture can be (1)
restritive
T or F
culture can be restrictive
true
How can culture be restrictive?
its stops some people from seing and doing other things in the world
Culture is represented in (1)
occupation
(1) is represented in occupation
culture
What is socioculture occupation?
is an engagement that both shapes and is shaped by beleifs, symbols, rituals, routines, expections, attidues, instiutiional forces, and personal perceptions
NAME
is an engagement that both shapes and is shaped by beleifs, symbols, rituals, routines, expections, attidues, instiutiional forces, and personal perceptions
socioculture occupation
When does the experience of culture start?
when we are in a situation that is differ to our own culture
Each situation has its own specfic (1) for human conduct
guidlines
T or F
each situation or occupatin does not have specfic guidlines for human conduct and behaviors
false
What bad about the effort to comform?
can stiffle and extinguis indivuality and creative behavior
What do routines, habits, and rituals help us to do?
enable us to id and recognize our selves and selves and to suitate ourselves w our culture
NAME
these enable us to id and recognize our selves and selves and to suitate ourselves w our culture
routines, habits and rituals
(1) are more outcome drive than habits
routines
which one is more out come drive, habits or routines?
habits
What are rituals?
these are charcertized by repeition and orderness but have symbolic meaning
NAME
these are charcertized by repeition and orderness but have symbolic meaning
rituals
NAME
these are liberating by they enrich our lives in a postive way
habits and routines
Habits and routines are (1)
liberating by the enrich our lives in a postive way
How can habits and routines be liberating and enriching?
by ex if went to anther country the effort of re-learning those habits can waste a lot of energy such a where the microwave is. how to use it.
NAME
these have symbolic meaning
rituals
What is ritual behavior in the health proffesional field?
includes the routine and patterns of interation amoung the psychairtic team memembers
NAME
this inclues the routine and patterns of the interaction amoung the psycharitric team memebers
ritual behavior in the health professions
What are some examples of ritual behavior in the health proffesions?
there is herichoy in the system, docotors are at the top. for instance, if a nures where to intrupet the doc when he is talking to a patient after they have had major surgury
NAME
a example of this is there is herichoy in the system, docotors are at the top. for instance, if a nures where to intrupet the doc when he is talking to a patient after they have had major surgury
ritual behavior in the health proffesion
What is "abled gaze"
a terms used to refer to the culturally determined perspective that people w/out disablites have of those w disablites in our society
NAME
a terms used to refer to the culturally determined perspective that people w/out disablites have of those w disablites in our society
"abled gaze"
What is the paradox of rehabilitation?
we tell others to view people w diabilites as not the "other" but different yet the nature of our treatment is to call attention to those disabilties and make them more idtenical
What is the paradox of disability?
people w disabilites are caught btwn the need to regonize and accept thier disabilites as part of themselves and thier desire to see themselves as "normaL"
What are affiliation cycles?
refers to how people w disabilites are caught btwn the need to regonize and accept thier disabilites as part of themselves and thier desire to see themselves as "normaL"
NAME
this refers to how people w disabilites are caught btwn the need to regonize and accept thier disabilites as part of themselves and thier desire to see themselves as "normaL"
affilation cycles
What is the humanistic veiw of a good life? (4)
(1)our physical setting (2)the activies we particpate in (3)our philospohical understanding of human activites (4)social harmony
NAME
thier view of this includes our physcal setting, the activites we particpate in, our philospohical understanding of human activites, and social harmony
the humanistic view of a good life
Who wrote the book essays?
montaigne
NAME
he wrote the book essays
Montaigne
What are was the book essays by Montaigne about?
focues in almost playful manner on the subject of self knowledge
NAME
this focues on almsot in playful manner the subject of self knowledge
essays by montaigne
What is active learning?
is learning that involves the whole participation of the whole person
NAME
this is learning that involves the whole participation of the whole person
active learning
What is postive human health according Ryff and Singer? (6)
involves (1)self acceptance (2)postive relations w others (3)automony (4)environmental mastery (5)purpose (6)personal growth
NAME
according to them this involves (1)self acceptance (2)postive relations w others (3)automony (4)environmental mastery (5)purpose (6)personal growth
postive human health according to Ryff and singer
Good hospitals have to be acredited by (1)
JACO
According to Antanovsky, what is well being?
is comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful
NAME
according them this is comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful
well being according to antanovsky
What did the synthesis through occupation study ("well elderly study" show?
it is cheaper to pay to keep people health or get them to engage in prevention steps and acitities
our choice of occupation (1) us
transforms us
How long does the experience of occupation last?
all life
NAME
this is a life long experince
occupation
How did people used to define a people w disabilties?
someone who was incapable, incapacitated, and incompetent
NAME
they were views as someone who was incapable, incapacitated, and incompetent
the old view of people w disabilites
How are people w disabilies now viewed?
as having a functional limitation in a personal activity and as more unverisal in scope
NAME
this people are veiw as having a functional limiation in personal activity and as more unverisal in scope
the new view of people w disabilties
is the disability the medical model normal?
this is a change of perspective more than a change in reality
What are some possiblites for this new disability culture? (3)
(1)interdependence (2)familiarty (3)empowerment
NAME
some reasons for this are interdepenence, familiarty, and empowerment
the new disability culture
How do OT treat people w disbilites? (2)
(1)try to get people to return to thier familiar habits, routines and roles (2)and show the importance of balance in ones life
NAME
during this we try to get people to return to thier familiar habits, routines and habits, and show the importance of balance in ones life
The occupational experience for people w disabilties
What is the process of coherence?
is to perceive ones world as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful
NAME
this is to perceive ones world as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful
the process of coherence
What are where concluded to be (3) befenical treatments associated w ot? (3)
(1)the program enabled people to construt daily routines (2)it was highly indivdalized (3)included specfic instrutions on how to oversome certain barriers and about community support groups
What is human development?
been used to refer to a patterned sequence of changes in the human being that occurs of length of time
NAME
this has been used to refer to as patterned sequence of changes in the human being that occurs of length of time
human development
The __________ principle of development suggests that growth begins at the center of the body and moves toward the extremes.
proximodistal
The average North American newborn is __________ inches long and weighs __________ pounds.
20; 7 ½
__________ is the part of the neuron that carries information away from the cell body to other cells.
dendrite
At birth, the newborn's brain is about ______% percent of its adult weight.
25%
The term __________ describes the specialization of the two areas of the brain.
lateralization
In which infant state does the infant's eyes open and close but have a dull, glazed look?
drowsy
T or F
One-half of the sleep cycle is REM sleep in newborns
True
T or F
Infants typically begin their sleep with REM.
True
T or F
The amount of time infants spent in REM sleep increases with age.
False
T or F
REM sleep promotes brain development in babies.
true
Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for SIDS?
A) being Hispanic.
B) socioeconomic status.
C) low birthweight.
D) being a twin.
being Hispanic
Is this a nutritional recommendation for infants?

Infants should consume approximately 500 calories per day for each pound they weigh.
no
Is this a nutritional recommendation for infants?
Parents should feed their infant a low-fat, low-calorie diet in order to establish healthy eating habits early on.
no
Is this a nutritional recommendation for infants?


Overall, breast milk is preferable to formula.
yes
Is this a nutritional recommendation for infants?

Children under age 2 should consume skim milk.
no
__________ is a wasting away of body tissues in the infant's first year, caused by severe protein–calorie deficiency.
Marasmus
When presented with a sudden, intense noise, Baby Nathan is startled, arches his back, throws back his head, and flings out his arms and legs. This is an example of which reflex?
Moro
An infant would use which of the following reflexes to obtain food?
both sucking and rooting
Which of the following is an example of a fine motor skill?
using a crayon
Tristan can scribble with a large crayon, hold a pencil and make a mark on a sheet of paper, and build a four-block tower. Given the normal progression of fine motor skills, how old would you guess Tristan to be?
A) 3 months.
15 months
__________ occurs when information interacts with sensory receptors.
sensation
The visual cliff is used to study infant __________.
depth perception
The main theme of the ecological approach of Eleanor and James J. Gibson is to discover __________.
both how perception guides action and how action guides perception.