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52 Cards in this Set

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Kinesiology
The study of human motion, motion which takes place in certain planes and about certain axes.
Anatomical Position
Position of the body, standing erect with the arms by the sides, head and palms forward
What is the purpose of Anatomical Position?
Serves as a reference point. Starting position when describing human motion.
What are the body planes?
Saggital Plane, Frontal Plane, Horizontal Plane.
Saggital Plane
A verticle plane; it extends anterior to posterior; divides the body into left and right parts.
Mid-saggital Plane
Divides the body into left and right halves.
Frontal Plane
A verticle plane; it extends from side to side; divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
Horizontal Plane
Parallel to the horizon, divides the body into superior and inferior
What are the body axes?
Anterior-Posterior Axis, Transverse Axis, Vertical Axis.
Anterior-Posterior Axis
Extends from front to back; is perpendicular to the frontal plane.
Transverse Axis
Extends from side to side; perpendicular to the sagittal plane.
Verticle Axis
Superior to inferior; is perpendicular to the horizontal plane
Anterior/Ventral
Toward the front, front of the body.
Posterior/Dorsal
Toward the back, back of the body.
Superior
Above.
Inferior
Below.
Proximal
Nearest to point of reference.
Distal
Farthest from point of reference.
Flexion
Decrease in angle of a joint (except shoulder)
Extension
Increase in angle of a joint (except shoulder)
(AB)duction
Movement away from a designated midline.
(AD)duction
Movement toward a designated midline.
Circumduction
Combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction so as to form a cone shape.
Internal (medial) Rotation
Anterior aspect of body part moved toward the midline (horizontal plane)
External (lateral) Rotation
Anterior aspect of body part moved away from the midline (horizontal plane)
Horizontal Abduction/Adduction
Abduction/Adduction along the horizontal plane
Supination
Palm up position. Elbow at 90 degrees, brought about by rotation of radius around ulna.
Pronation
Palm down position. Elbow at 90 degrees, brought about by rotation of radius around ulna.
Radial Deviation
Hand held toward thumb side (frontal plane)
Ulnar Deviation
Hand held toward little finger (frontal plane)
Dorsiflexion
Foot up position (Sagittal plane)
Plantarflexion
Foot down position (Sagittal plane)
Inversion
Foot in position (frontal plane).
Eversion
Foot out position (frontal plane)
What plane and axis is associated with Flexion and Extension?
Motion takes place in the sagittal plane, motion around the transverse axis.
What plane and axis is associated with Abduction and Adduction?
Motion takes place in the frontal plane; motion around an anterior-posterior axis.
What plane and axis is associated with Internal and External Rotation?
Motion takes place in the horizontal plane; motion around a verticle axis.
What are the freedoms of motion?
Uniaxial Freedom of Motion, Biaxial Freedom of Motion, Multi-Axial Freedom of Motion.
Uniaxial Freedom of Motion
motion which takes place in one plane and around a single axis. The elbow allows only flexion and extension in a single plane and around a single axis.
Biaxial Freedom of Motion
Motion which takes place in two planes and around two axes. The knuckle (MCP) joint allows both flexion and extension in one plane around a single axis, and abduction and adduction in a different plane and around a different axis.
Multi-Axial Freedom of Motion
Motion taking place around three axes and three planes. The hip joint allows flexion/extension, abduction, adduction, and internal/external rotation, each taking place in different planes and axes.
What are the roles that muscles play?
Agonist, Antagonist, or Synergist.
Agonist
A muscle or muscle group which by its contraction is considered to be the principal muscle producing a joint motion or maintaining a posture often called a "prime mover"
Antagonist
A muscle or muscle group that produces the opposite action of the agonist.
Synergist
A muscle which contracts at the same time as the agonist to assist in obtaining the desired motion. May neutralize unwated action of prime mover. Fixates or stabilizes proximal joints so that motion may occur at distal joints.
What are the types of muscle contractions?
Isometric Muscle Contraction, Isotonic Muscle Contraction, Isokinetic Muscle Contraction.
Isometric Muscle Contraction
Means equal length. A muscle contraction which produces force with no change in angle of the joint.
Isotonic Muscle Contraction.
Means equal tone. A contraction that causes a joint to move through some range of motion.
What are the two types of Isotonic Muscle Contraction?
Concentric and Eccentrcic
Concentric Isotonic Muscle Contraction
The muscle shortens during the movement.
Eccentric Isotonic Muscle Contraction
The muscle lengthens during the movement.
Isokinetic Muscle Contraction
Means equal moving. Contraction which occurs when the rate of movement is constant. Achieved by electromechanical device or manual resistance.