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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
BCE
Before the Common Era
B'rit
covenant
CE
Common Era
Challah
braided loaf of bread ritually baked and eaten on Shabbat and holidays
Cheder
Jewish elementary school
Israel
the Jewish people

(means "one who wrestles with God") name given to Jacob after he wrestles and angel;

homeland of Jewish people
Israelite
name given to Jews after they settled in land of Israel
Kaddish
prayer of sanctification and praise of God recited at cerrtain points in liturgy

including a memorial prayer for the dead
Kashrut
Jewish dietary laws
Kedushah
Holiness
Kiddush
sanctification prayer proclaiming holiness of Sabbath or holidays; recited over a cup of wine
Kohen
Jew from priestly descent (from the house of Aaron)
Lashon Hara
gossip
Lulav
palm branch, willow, and myrtle waved as a part of celebration of Sukkot
Mechitzah
the divider set up between men and women in Orthodox synagogues
Mezuzah
ritual object placed on door posts of Jewish homes (contains scroll with lines from Deuteronomy)
Midrash
interpretation or explication of Biblical texts

helps explain gaps in text
Mishnah
earliest corpus of Jewish law

forms the basis for the Talmud
Mitzvah
commandment

can also be understood as a blessing
Rabbi
teacher and interpreter of Jewish law
Rosh Hashanah
Jewish New Year; "head of the year"
Sephardi (Sephardic) Jews
Jews whose ancestors came from Spain, Portugal, or another Mediterranean European country

Also used to refer to Mizrachi Jews (from Asia and Africa)
Shabbat
the Sabbath
Shofar
ram's horn sounded on New Year and New Moon
Simchat Torah
"rejoicing in the Torah" festival in which yearly cycle of Torah reading ends and begins

Jews dance w/ the torah
Sukkah
Booth erected in celebration of fall week-long festival of Sukkot
Talmud
Mishnah and Gemara

2 different kinds: Jerusalem (400 CE) and Babylonian (500 CE)

Babylonian more complete and more authoritative
Tanach
The Hebrew Bible

T- torah
N- Nevi'im (Prophets)
K- Ketuvim (writings)
Tashlich
ritual on afternoon of first day of Rosh Hashanah; symbolically cast sins (bread crumbs) into water (stream)
Teshuvah
repentance
Tikkun Olam
repair of the world

working w/ God to make the world a better place in which all of us can live
Torah
God's revelation to Moses at Sinai.

First 5 books of Hebrew Bible

"Jewish Teachings" in general
Tzedakah
approximates concept of charity (not just money but giving of time and energy)

Relates to concept of justice

obligation to all jews
Tzelem Elohim
image of God
Yeshiva
Academy of higher Jewish learning
Yom Kippur
Day of Atonement

10 days after Rosh Hash.

Holiest day of the year
Conservative Judaism
(U.S. late 19th century) emphasizes both tradition and change
Covenant
an agreement or contract between God and the Jewish people that binds each party ot adhere to certain promises
Diaspora
Jews living outside of the land of Israel
Etrog
citron, used in celebration of sukkot
Galut
Exile
Gemara
commentary on Mishnah
Halakhah
traditional Jewish law
Ha Shem
"The Name" reffering to God out of respect for His holiness
Havdalah
ceremony marking the end of Sabbath (or Yom Kippur) and the beginning of the ordinary work week
Hebrew
holy language of Jewish people and native language of the State of Israel today

Name given to Abraham and his descendants up until they settled in Israel (means "wanderers")
Mikveh
ritual bath of running (fresh) water

one of women's 3 special mitzvot (other 2: lighting Sabbath candles and baking challah)
K'vod HaMet
principle of honoring the dead

(not desecrating the body; burial within 48 hours after death etc.)
Piyyutim
prayers used in the synagogue liturgy
Modern Orthodoxy
19th century Jewish religious movement founded in Germany by Hirsch

Rejects view that cannot be a traditionally religious Jew and participate in the modern world

Belief: take advantage of all that modernity offered as long as the Torah remained the eternal yardstick by which such participation is measured
Rabbinic Judaism
The Judaism formed in the first 6 centuries of the common era that believed that Moses revealed the Torah in 2 media-written and oral- and that the sages at any given time are those who are masters of that dual Torah and hence are to define the holy life of Israel
Reform Judaism
19th century religious movement founded in Germany that attempted to adapt Judaism to perceived spirit of the modern age

Greatest emphasis on teachings of prophets and social justice

Ethical monotheism as essence of Judaism
Charoset
Mixture of apples, wine, and nuts. One of the ritual foods eaten during the Passover seder symbolizing mortar used in making bricks
Chanukah
dedication; refers to the 8 day holiday celebrating victory of the Maccabees and their rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem to God
Aliyah
"to go up"; honor of being called to the Torah to recite a blessing

(today, also refers to the Jewish immigration to Israel)
synagogue
Jewish house of assembly, study and prayer
Zionism
modern Jewish nationalism, movement founded at the end of the 19th century by Theodor Herzl to create Jewish state in land of Israel
Torah l'ishmah
studying Torah for its own sake
Chuppah
bridal canopy
Chevra Kaddisha
Jewish burial society; help clean and prepare body for burial
Berit (B'rit) Milah
Ritual of circumcision marking the covenant between GOd and the Jewish people
Bar/Bat Mitzvah
a boy/girl becomes responsible for keeping religious duties

Responsible for observing the commandments
Sheva berakhot
7 blessings recited under the marriage canopy in celebration of a wedding
Chametz
leavened products removed from home in preparation for Passover
Reconstructionist Judaism
20th century American Jewish movement founded by Rabbi Mordecai Kaplan that views God as a transnatural pwer or process

Rejects belief in Jews as chosen people
Ketubah
Jewish marriage contract

document providing support for a woman if her husband divorces her or dies
Purim
joyous celebration of victory of Biblical Esther and Mordecai over Haman, who tried to destroy the Jews
Afikoman
"dessert" in Greek

Matzah hidden and found during Passover seder; later eaten

Introduced as device to keep children's attention
siddur
the term for the Hebrew prayer book, derived from the Hebrew word for "order"
Seder
"Order". Refers to the Passover ritual meal
Shavuot
Pentacost. Jewish holiday commemorating giving of Torah at Sinai
Haggadah
The narrative of the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt; Recited at Passover seder
Chazzan
The cantor or prayer leader of the synagogue services
Erusin
Betrothal.

Though originally separate from the wedding, has, since the middle ages been part of the wedding ceremony
Maror
bitter herb; one of the ritual foods eaten at Passover
Get
Jewish bill of divorcement
Minyan
Quorum of 10 adult Jews (traditionally only men) necessary for public worship
kiddushin
sanctification; refers to Jewish marriage ceremony
Passover (Pesach)
The spring festival commemorating and reenacting the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt
Menorah
candelabra; the special candelabra used on Chanukah is called a Chanukiyah
Maccabees
"hammers". The Jewish family that fought against Syrian-Greek rule in 167 BCE and restored the Jewish state in Jerusalem
Mohel
someone qualified to perform ritual circumcisions
Maariv
Evening liturgical service
Minchah
Second of three daily prayer srevices, recited in later afternoon at twilight
Shacharit
first of three daily services; morning liturgy
Shemoneh esre
18 benedictions; the silent prayer, recited while standing, morning, noon and night, in traditional Jewish liturgy which consists of 19 paragraphs, each ending with a blessing
Simchat Bat/Brit Bat
contemporary Jewish ceremnoy celebrating birth of daughter and her entrance in God's covenant with Jewish people