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121 Cards in this Set

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Define Communication.
The process of creating symbol systems that convey information and meaning.
Language, Morse Code
Define Culture.
The symbols of expression that individuals, groups, and societies use to make sense of daily life and to articulate their values; a process that delivers the values of a society through products or other meaning-making forms.
Define Blogger.
An individual who posts or publishes an ongoing personal or opinion journal or log online.
Web-log
Define Digital Communication.
Images, texts, and sounds that use pulses of electric current or flashes of laser lights and are converted into electronic signals. These signals are then reassembled as a precise reproduction of a TV picture, a magazine artical, or a telephone voice.
Define Feedback.
Responses from receivers to the senders of messages.
Define Gatekeepers.
Editors, producers, and other media managers who function as message filters, making decisions about what type of messages actually get produced for particular audiences.
Co-op Connections "Gatekeepers"
Define High Culture.
A symbolic expression that has come to mean "good taste"; often supported by the wealthy.
Fine arts (ballet, the symphony, painting)
Define Low Culture.
A symbolic expression allegedly aligned with the questionable tastes of the "masses," who enjoy the commercial "junk" circulated by the mass media.
Soap Operas, Rock music, talk radio, comic books, and monster truck pulls.
Define Mass Media.
The cultural industries--the channels of communication--that produce and distribute cultural products to a large mass of people.
Songs, movies, news.
Define Mass Communication.
The process of designing and delivering cultural messages and stories to diverse audiences through media channels as old as the book and as new as the internet.
Define Mass Media Channel.
Newspapers, books, magazines, radio, television, or the Internet.
Define Media Convergence.
The process whereby old and new media are available via the integration of personal computers and high-speed satellite-based phone or cable link.
Define Messages.
The text, images, and sound transmitted from sender to reciever.
Define Modern.
Industrial Revolution to the 19th century to the present. Its social values include celebrating the individual, believing in rational order, working efficiently, and rejecting tradition.
Define Postmodern.
A contemporary historical era spanning the 1960's to the present; its social values include opposing hierarchy, diversifying and recycling culture, questioning scientific reasoning, and embracing paradox.
Define Recievers.
The target of messages crafted by a sender.
Define Senders.
The authors, producers, agencies, and organizations that transmit messages to recievers.
Define Selectic Exposure.
The phenomenon whereby audiences remember or retain messages and meanings that correspond to their preexisting beliefs and values.
Define Newsworthiess.
The often unstated criteria that journalists use to determine which events and issues should become news reports, including timeliness, proximity, conflict, prominence, human interest, consequence, usefulness, novelty, and devience.
Define News.
The process of gathering information and making narrative reports--edited by individuals in a news organization--that create selected frames of reference and help the public make sense of prominent people, important events, and unusual happenings in everyday life.
Define Ethnocentrism.
An underlying value held by many U.S. journalists and citizens; it involves judging other countries and cultures according to how they live up to or imitate American practices and ideals.
Define Responsible Capitalism.
An underlying value held by many U.S. journalists and citizens; it assumes that businesspeople compete with one another not primarily to maximize profits but it increase prosperity for all.
Define Small-town pastoraliam.
An underlying value held by many U.S. journalists and citizens, it favors the small over the large and the rural over the urban.
Annandale Vs. Minneapolis.
Define Individualism.
An underlying value held by most U.S. journalists and citizens; it favors individual rights and responsibilites over group needs or institutional mandates.
Define Conflict of Interest.
Considered unethical, a compromising situation in which a journalist stands to benefit personally from the news report he/she produces.
Define Herd Journalism.
A situation in which reporters stake out a house or follow a story in such large groups that the entire profession comes under attack for invading people's privacy or exploiting their personal tragedies.
Define Sound Bite.
In TV journalism, the equivalent of a quote in print; the part of a news report in which an expert, celeb, a victim, or a person on the street is interviewed.
Define Authoritorean Model.
Tolerates little criticism of government or public dissent; holds that general public needs guidance from an elite and educated ruling class.
Define Communist or State Model.
Places control in the hands of an enlightened goverernment, which speaks for ordinary citizens and workers in order to serve the common goal of the state.
Define Liberatarian Model.
Encourages vigorous government criticism and supports the highest degree of freedom for individual speech and news operations.
Define Social Responsibility Model.
Influences by liberatarian model, that encourages the free flow of information to citizens so they can make wise decisions regarding political and socal issues.
Define Fourth Estate.
The notion that the press operates as an unoffical branch of government, monitoring the legislative, judicial, and executive branches for abusing of power.
Three Branches + One
Define Prior Restraint.
Legal definition of censorship in the U.S., which prohibits courts and governments from blocking any publication or speech before it actually occurs.
Define Copyright.
The legal right of authors and producers to own and control the use of their published or unpublished writing, music, and lyrics.
Define Slander.
In law, spoken language that defames a person's character.
Define Libel.
In media law, the defamation of character in written expression.
Define Actual Malice.
In libel law, a reckless disregard for the truth, such as when a reporter or an editor knows that a statement is false and prints it anyways.
Define Invasion of Privacy.
The violation of a person's right to be left alone, without his or her name, image, or daily activities becoming public property.
Define Obscenity.
Expression that is not protected as speech if these three legal tests are not all met: (1) the average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find that the material as a whole appeals to prurient interest (2) The material depicts or describes sexual conduct in a patently offensive way (3) The material, as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
Define Gag Orders.
Legal restrictions prohibiting the press from releasing preliminary information that might prejudice jury selection.
Define Shield Laws.
Laws protecting the confidentiality of key interview subjects and reporters' right not to reveal the sources of controversial information used in news stories.
Define the Internet.
The vast central network of high-speed telephone lines designed to link and carry computer information worldwide.
What is APRAnet?
Original Internet, designed by the U.S. Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency
What are servers?
Individual "host" computer centers run by universities, corportations, and government agencies, all of which are connected to the Internet by special high-speed phone lines.
What is a newsgroup?
Organized computer conferences consisting of bulletin boards and individual messages, or postings, that are circulated twenty-four hours a day via the Internet and cover a range of topics.
Define Digital Communication.
Images, texts, and sounds that use pulses of electric current or flashes of laser lights and are converted into electronic signals represented as varied combinations of binary numbers (1's and 0's)
What are microprocessors?
Miniature circuts that process and store electronic signals, integrating thousands of electronic components into thin strands of silicon along which binary codes travel
What is a fiber-optic cable?
Thin glass bundles of fiber capable of transmitting thousands of messages converted to shooting pulses of light along cable wires
What is an Internet service provider?
(ISP) A company that provides Internet access to homes and businesses for a fee
What is the World Wide Web?
A free and open date-linking system for organizing and standardizing information on the Internet
What are browsers?
Information search services that offer detailed organization maps to the World Wide Web
Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer
What are directories?
Review and cataloguing services that group Web sites under particular categories
What are search engines?
Computer programs that allow users to enter key words or queries to find related sites on the World Wide Web
Who developed email?
Ray Tomlinson
What are portals?
An entry point to the Internet, such as a search engine
What does HTML stand for?
HyperText Markup Language
Define the Telecommunication Act of 1996.
The sweeping update of telecommunication laws that led to a wave of media consolidation
What was the Internet2?
The next generation of online technology deployed on an experimental basis in 1999, expecting to be faster than today's Internet
What is open-source software?
Noncommercial software shared freely and developed collectively on the Internet
Define e-commerse.
Electronic commerse, or commercial activity, on the Web
What are cookies?
Information profiles about a user that are usually automatically accepted by the Web browser and stored on the user's own computer hard drive
What is spyware?
Software with secretive codes that enable commercial firms to "spy" on users and gain access to their computer
What is opt-in/opt-out policies?
Opt-in means Web sites must gain explicit permission from online consumers before the site can collect their personal date
Opt-out means that Web sites can automatically collect personal date unless the consumer goes to the trouble of filling out a specific form to restrict the practice
What is digital divide?
The divide between those that do and dont have access to digital technology or media, such as the Internet
Whats the difference between analog recording and digital recording?
One is recorded with magnatism (analog), the other with a laser beam (digital.
Define the stereo.
The recording of two seperate channels or tracks of sound.
What are compact disks (CDs)?
Playback-only storage discs for music that incorporate pure and very precise digital techniques, thus eliminating noise during recoring and editing sessions
What is cover music?
Songs recorded or performed by musicians who did not originally write or perform the music
What are A&R agents?
These talent scouts of the music business discover, develop, and sometimes manage performers
Define bootlegging.
The illegal counterfeiting or pirating of CDs, cassettes, and videos that are produced and/or sold without official permission from the original songwriter, performer, or copyright holder
Define counterfeiting.
The unauthorized copying of CDs, cassettes, and their packaging
Define piracy.
The illegal uploading, downloading, or streaming of copyrighted material, such as music
What is the telegraph?
Sent electric impulses through a cable from a transmitter to a reception point, transmitting Morse Code
What is electromagnetic waves?
Invisible electronic impulses similar to visible light
What are radio waves?
A portion of the electromagnetic wave spectrum that has harnessed so that signals could be sent from a transmission point and obtained at a reception point
What is wireless telegraphy?
Forerunner of radio, a form of voiceless point-to-point communication
What is wireless telephony?
Early experiment in wireless voice and music transmission, which later developed into modern radio
What is broadcasting?
The transmission of radio waves or TV signals to a broad public audience
What is narrowcasting?
Any specialized electronic programming or media channel aimed at a target audience
Define the Radio Act of 1912.
Addressed the problem of amateur radio operators increasingly cramming the airwaves
What is the RCA?
Radio Corporation of American--Designed to pool radio patents
What is a network?
A broadcast process that links, through special phone lines or satellite transmissions, groups of radio or TV stations that share programming produced at a central location
What is option time?
Now considered illegal, a procedure whereby a radio network paid an affiliate station a set fee per hour for an option to control programming and advertising on that station
Define the Radio Act of 1927.
Attempt to restore order to the airwaves, it stated that licenses did not own their channels but could license them as long as they operated in order to serve the "public interest, convience, or necessity."
What is the Federal Communication Act of 1934?
Established the FCC and the federal regulatory structure for U.S. broadcasting
What is the FRC?
Federal Radio Commission--established to oversee radio licenses and negotiate channel problems
What is the FCC?
Federal Communications Commission--Charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable
What are transistors?
Tiny technology which recieves and amplifies radio signals, made portable radios possible
Define FM.
Frequency modulation; a type of radio and sound transmission that offers static-less reception and greater fidelity and clarity than AM radio by accentuating the pitch or distance between radio waves
Define AM.
Amplitude modulaton; a type of radio and sound transmission that stresses the volumn of height of radio waves
What is the National Public Radio (NPR)?
Noncommercial radio established by US Congress to provide an alternative to commercial radio
Define rotation.
Practice of playing the most popular or best-selling songs many times throughout the day
What is pay-for-play?
Upfront payments from record companies to radio stations to play a song a specific number of times
What is drive time?
When people are commuting to and from work or school
What is news/talk format?
Fastest growing radio format in the 1990's
Define the Telecommunications Act of 1996
Sweeping update of telecommunications law that led to a wave of media consolidation
Define Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)?
Noncommercial television network established in 1967 as an alternative to commercial television
Define Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB)?
A private, nonprofit corporation created by Congress in 1967 to funnel federal funds to nonprofit radio and public television
What is VHF?
Very high frequency; in broadcasting , the band in the electromagnetic spectrum that the FCC allocated for TV channels 2-13
What is lower power FM?
Give voice to local groups lacking access to public airwaves
What is the Internet Radio?
Online radio stations that either "stream" simulcast versions of on-air radio broadcasts over the Web
What is UHF?
Ultrahigh frequency; in broadcasting, the band in the electromagnetic spectrum that the FCC allocated for TV channels 14-69
What is podcasting?
Enables listeners to download audio program files from the Internet for playback on computers or digital music players
What is the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967?
Established the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, which oversees the Public Broadcasting Service and National Public Radio
What is an affiliate station?
Independently owned, but sign a contract to be part of a network and recieve money to carry the networks programs
What are TV newsmagazines?
Features multiple segments
What is CATV?
Community Antenna Television--An early cable system that originated where mountains or tall buildings blocked TV signals
Define geosynchronous orbit?
Orbit in space where communication satellites traveling can maintain the same position above the Earth as the planet rotates on its axis
What are transponders?
Relay points on a communication satellite that recieve and transmit telephone and TV signals
What are must-carry rules?
Rules established by FCC requiring all cable operators to assign channels to and carry all local TV broadcasts on their systems, benefiting in a clearer image
What are access channels?
A tier of nonbroadcast channels dedicated to local education, government, and the public
What are leased channels?
Channels that allow citizens to buy time for producing programs or presenting their own viewpoint
Define an electronic publisher?
A communication business, such as a broadcaster or cable TV company, that is entitled to choose what channels or content to carry
What are common carriers?
A communication or transportation business that is required by law to offer service on a first-come-first-serve basis to whoever can pay the rate
What is retransmission consent?
Consent periodically given by commercial broadcast stations permitting cable companies to retransmit their signal on cable, usually exchange for monetary compensation from cable companies
What is basic cable?
A tier of channels compused of local broadcast signals, nonbroadcast access channels, a few regional PBS stations, and a variety of popular channels downlinked from a communication satellite
What are superstations?
Local indepentent TV stations that have uplinked their signal onto a communication satellite to make themselves available nationwide
Define premium channels?
A tier of channels that subscribers can order at an additional monthly fee over their basic cable service
What is interactive cable televison?
Two-way cable channels that enable users to connect to their local services, such as banks and the fire department, and also offer two-way entertainment, such as play-along versions of game shows and the ability to guess the next play during the football game
What is direct broadcast satellites?
(DBS) Satellite based services that for monthly fee downlink hundreds of satellite channels and services
What is multiple-system operators?
(MSOs) Large corporations tha own numerous cable television systems