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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 Analytical Tasks of PoliSci
1. Description
2. Explanation
3. Prediction
4. Prescription
Agent-Structure Problem
People make their own history, but NOT under circumstances of their choosing.
1. Only people are endowed with the capacity to act- agency.
2. people have to act in a real world context that affects what they do and how they do it.
-choice under the condition of scarcity
-free will vs. determinism philosophy
-nature vs nurture
-political will vs. political capacity
Levels of Analysis
1. Individual
-international politics is a series of of choices by international leaders
-assumes a high degree of agency
-important for crisis management

2. Domestic
-international relations is the product of countries' policies
-internal dictates external
-Miles Law: "where you sit is where you stand"
3. International/Systemic
-the engines of politics are in the structure of the international system
-balance of power
Realism- Origins and Lineage, famous realists
Churchill, Kissinger, Condy Rice all realists

Thucydides- first realist, 5th century
Machiavelli, 16th century wrote The Prince
Hobbes, 1652 wrote "Leviathan"
-wrote in 1652 "The Prince"
-After Peace of Westphalia, which established the modern state system. wrote in the aftermath of English civil war
-theory of anarchy
"life is nasty, brutish, and short"
-one of the first translator of Thucydides
"war is an instrument of politics"
19th century
first realist of the 20th century. wrote "The 20 Years Crisis" in 1939 reacting to idealism
Morgenthau Pgs. 7-14, 104-113
classical realist
-a refugee from Nazi Germany
-wrote "Politics Among Nations" in 1948, was an elaboration and distillation of realist thought of past 2 centuries.
Waltz Pgs. 29-49, 250-260
establisher of Neo-Realism
-"Man, the State, and War" and "Theory of International Politics"
-also known as structural realism
Classical Realism vs. NeoRealism/Structural Realism
Classical = inherent evil of human kind. States are manifestation of evil human nature. Morgenthau established
Neo = origins of the engines of power are systemic, doesn't care about human nature. Waltz established

Classical seeks power
Neo seeks security
-international system is anarchic
-does NOT mean chaos
- = the absence of a sovereign to regulate relations b/w states
- domestic politics are hierarchic
State Centricity
-the state is the most important actor in international politics
-political organization with claims to monopoly over force in territory
- ONLY states can raise armies and military to develop real power
-simplification of global landscape
National Interest vs. Self Interest
self interest?
National: states pursue national interests defined as universal power and security.
-everyone wants power. "vabarian interest" - leader of a country has a moral responsibility to tend to the power and security of a country
- because of the anarchic system, states must be self reliant
- states must focus on capabilities rather than intentions b/c you can see military capabilities, but you cannot see an adversary's intentions
Relative power vs. absolute power gains
- power in relation to other countries' power
- power graph
- if two countries are growing, the one that is growing faster has the advantage
- international distribution of power affect state action
- a neo realist/structural claim
- affects likelihood of war, formation of alliances
- uni, bi, and multi polarity
bi- 1945-1991
multi- WW1
Balance of Power/Alliance Formation
- enhancing security by forming alliances OR augmenting own power to counter competing power
- natural shift over time...fluid system
- bandwagoning, which jeopardizes autonomy
Security Dilemma
- direct consequence of anarchy
- improvements in one aspect of security undermine another
- dilemma is uncertainty, which spurs an arms race
- Ex: Iranian nuclear ambitions
missile shield as a defensive effort
Prudence and Moderation
be cautious about keeping balance of power, and don't create unnecessary war under the guise of some false pretext
Neoliberal Institutionalism
modern day liberalism
ideas fully developed in 1970s
very similar to identity perspective, not big in Washington, but big in academic fields. lots of sociology. people wrongly thing it's anti-scientific/postmodern.

FOCUS: influence of "social facts"- facts that constrain individual actions.
-ways of acting, thinking and feeling that are endowed with coercion.
-collective ideas
-identities-some think of as culture, but coud be too amorphous of an identity that can't explain change with a constant.
-asks the "logically prior" question where do political interests come from?
-challenges that anarchy develops predictable global cause
-not all about states
Critiques of three approaches: Marxist
-believe IR is biasd towards powerful western countries and/or industrial nations
-we must understand how distribution of wealth affects our world
-social classes
-DEPENDENCY THEORY- Gunderfrank believed the more interaction that a developing country has w/ powerful nations, the poorer and more dependent it becomes
post-modernist critique
we can't study the social world with the same schools we use to study the natural world. there i no archimedian point from which to analyze. lack of objectivity.
feminist critique
-divided field but everyone agrees we should pay more attention to gender.
-focuses on the variability of constructing gender identities
-women represent 50% of population, but 60% are illiterate
-unequal distribution, politically and professionally
Organizational vs. psychological restraints on rationality
1. SOP's- standard operating procedures
-the rules, habits, and procedures of a political organization, which sometime lead people to irrational behavior
2. Bureaucratic politics- Miles Law determines what you want
-bureaucratic rivalries

Psychological Constraints:
8 cognitive and affective biases
a. misperception - cognitive - refers to expectations, we tend to see what we expect to see
b. wishful thinking - cognitive - calculation of probabilites and a systematic ignorance of evidence to see what they want
c. cognitive dissonance - affective - selective use of evidence, people ignore what they've seen
d.bounded rationality - cognitive - "satisficing" a quick fix, not using all info, eliminates indecisiveness
e. false analogies - cognitive - taking wrong lessons from history, simple-minded
f. prospect theory - cognitive - risk assessment, people accept risk in the face of unacceptable loss
g. fundamental attribution error - cognitive - people make dispositional attributions about others behavior and situational attributions about their own
h. sleep deprivation, emotion, stress

Belief systems
group dynamics
Sontag: "War is not the weather" - people choose to go to war

120 major wars since 1500
20th century: 1 war every 15 years

DEFINITION: the sustained and intentional use of violence b/w two or more states with a political aspect, intnentional

3 Common causes: misunderstanding, evil, greed

Realist Insight: even if we lived in a world withouth misunderstanding, evil, and greed, there would still be war. war is tragic and caused by anarchy.
Neorealists- anarchy is active cause of war, pushes actors to war.
Classical- Anarchy is a permissive condition that allows war to happen

Anarchy+Survival Needs --> self help --> security dilemma, relative gains --> war according to a realist

Liberal - failure of international institutions
Constructive - anarchy is what we make of it
Strategy, Grand Strategy, Nuclear Strategy
Strategy- link b/w means and ends
- the connection b/w the use of force and political objectives

Grand Strategy- use to describe foreign policy, national means and ends.
- must identify and prioritize goals and think about resources

Nuclear Strategy- link b/w nuclear means and political ends
Deterrence and compellence
the threat to use force against an adversary if they act unacceptably. creates fear

compellence- compel an adversary to do something
used if detterence fails Ex: Irag in Kuwait, 1990
harder to do

adversaries must be rational and must be states for deterrence to work
the spread of certain weapons to new actors
-used to refer to nuclear issues.
-includes nuclear, biological, but not conventional
spread of 4 things:
full-blown working weapons - missiles, launcher, warhead
technology - hardware and software
raw materials - either naturally occurring or chemically produced
human expertise - theoretical scientists and engineers
Proliferation - Is it problematic
Waltz - it's not so bad b/c states don't want to commit national suicide. states just have to just be weakly rational. deterrence will continue to work and maintain stability, may decrease power differentials.

Sagan: proliferation is a problem: certain organizational factors make accidental detonations likely

PAL's - launch codes, passwords, don't exist all countries, some countries don't have required political structure.
pg. 153 in Nau
non-proliferation treaty
Ireland first to sign
188 signees including 5 major nuclear powers
north korea withdrew
iran in

3 components:
divides world into nuclear haves and have nots
haves: 5 nuclear powers that promise not to release weapons info
have nots: promise not to seek weapons info

institutionalized power domination
encourges the peaceful sharing of useful technology
dual-use problem- created the probability of military program embedded in civilian structure, creates the possibility of cheating
Terrorism/ Assymetric Warfare
includes: guerilla warfare, terrorism, insurgency

some say its the future of warfare

Terrorism: a plan of action, "politics by other means" - the use or threat of violence against non-combatants as a psychological strategy in pursuit of political ends.
4 aspects:
1. violence-either perpetrated or threatened, usually lower level of violence than conventional war
2. non combatants - legally, you can't target non combatants
3. Psychology - use of terror is not intended to win military victories
-targets of terror are not immidiate victims, but the people who live
4. Politics - contest of power, terrorists are not just crimininals. Is it rational, instrumental behavior (goal oriented) or is it immotive, expressive behavior (discursive)? Most is instrumental

What do terrorists want?
The United Nations
normative structure
established oct 1945, 51 original members. replaced League of Nations
"the centerpiece of global governance"

Liberals see UN as an international institution that regulates power.
Realists see as a product of power relations

UN Charter- 4 principals

1. sovereign equality of all member states.
2. maintaining peace and security
3. non-intervention - states shouldn't interfere with each other
4. right of self defense - Art. 51

Bodies of UN:
general assembly- 192 member states
world parliament

security council - executive body, has power over general assembly, maintain international peace
15 members - five permanent
International Court of Justice
The Hague
-15 judges, 9 year terms
-no more than 1 judge from every country
-only has jurisdiction over state actions
-moves at a slow pace
International Criminal Court
the single most important development in in International Law in years
-jurisdiction over people
-began over WW2, but cold war locked up system
-conditions added to allay American fears: U.S. personell couldn't be tried if they were already being tried in the US.

Jurisdiction: -crimes against humanity
-war crimes

entered into force on July 1, 2002, US renegged from treaty of Rome at last minute