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43 Cards in this Set

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What is gerontology?
Gerontology is the study of the biological, psychological, and social aspects of aging.
What is social gerontology?
Social gerontology is a subfield of gerontology that focuses on the social as opposed to the physical or biological aspects of aging.
How is old age defined?
There is no single agreed-upon way to define aging and old age. The most commonly used definition in the United States is chronological age, but there are many other ways to determine when someone is considered old. These include taking on a social role such as widow or retiree, functional age, or subjective age identity. The definition that is most useful depends on the purpose.
What difference does the "old age" definition make?
The definition that is most useful depends on the purpose. For example, chronological age is often used for defining eligibility for a benefit, such as Social Security, but functional age may be a more useful way to determine who is best suited to perform certain activities.
What is a cohort?
A cohort is a group of individuals who have experienced the same event in the same time period.
What is the most common way to define cohorts?
The most common way to define cohorts is by year of birth. Cohorts are shaped by historical events, by their size and composition, and by changes that occur in the social institutions around them
Why are cohorts useful?
Age changes occur in individuals over time; age differences are ways one cohort differs from another. The concept of a cohort is useful for distinguishing age changes from age differences.
What is the life course framework?
The life course framework is an approach to the study of aging that focuses on the interaction between historical events, personal decisions, individual opportunities, and later life outcomes.
How is the life course framework useful to gerontologists?
It combines a concern with individual aging with an awareness of changing age structures. The two core concepts of life course research are transitions and trajectories
What is ageism, and how is it perpetuated?
Ageism is defined as stereotyping and discrimination against people on the basis of age. Stereotypes are a composite of attitudes and beliefs about people as a group. When people act on the basis of these beliefs, they are guilty of age discrimination. Ageism can take many forms. The form ageism takes differs by gender, because there is a double standard concerning aging, whereby men are valued by their accomplishments and women by their appearance. Because of this double standard, women are more likely than men to attempt to conceal their age.
What are the two core concepts of life course research?
The two core concepts of life course research are transitions and trajectories.
What are some of the problems with the use of chronological age?
lumps together people in widely varying generations into a single category.
Social gerontologist divide older people into three subcategories, what are they?
Young-old, age 65 to 74
Middle-old, age 75-84
Oldest-old, age 85 and older
What are social roles defined by social gerontologists in regards to social roles and age?
Social roles are sets of expectations or guidelines for people who occupy given positions, such as widow, grandfather or retiree.
What are the main ways to define age?
Chronological, Social roles and age, functional age and subjective age.
What is functional age and how can it be measured?
Definitions of functional age are based on how people look and what they can do. Functional age can be measured by such normal physical changes as stiffness of joints, diminished short-term memory, reduced skin eleasticity, etc. Physical features such gray hair and wrinkles.
to better define people by their functional capactities, three categories were created, what are they?
Well, somewhat impaired and frail.
Well elderly are defined as?
People who are healthy and active.
Somewhat impaired elderly are defined as?
Those in transitional stage. Beginning to experience chronic ailments and need assistance from comm. service agents.
Frail elderly are defined as?
They show some mentla or physical deterioration and depend on others for carrying out their daily activities.
People who are successful in compensating for functional limitations are able to maintain?
Subjective age identity "you are as young as you feel"
What are the most important factors in subjective age identity?
Activity level and health. Health is the most important factor. Gender is also influential
What is one of the most complex issues social gerontologist face?
Distinguishing age changes from age differences.
To help distinguish differences between age in individuals and between groups, what concept is used?
Cohort - the "aggregate of individuals who experienced the same event within the same time interval"
What is an age-cohort?
Defined as, all individuals born into a population during a specific time period.
What is cohort aging?
The continuous advancement of a cohort from one age category to another over its lifespan.
Social gerentologist reserve the term, generattion for studies in?
Family processes, kinship linkages
What is a cohort effect?
Distinctive experiences that members of a birth cohort share and that shapes them throughout their lives.
What are some compositional differences that distinguish one cohort from another?
Character, race, gender and ethnic composition.
What are some demographic differences that distinguish one cohort from another?
Average family size, average age at marriage and life expectancy.
What is a social institution?
Sets of roles and rules that define an enduring social unit. Ex. family, educational system, workplace.
Can cohorts be linked to other cohorts?
Yes.
Why is cohort analysis important?
Strengthens studies of historical change and also helps us anticipate directions of furture change.
The term ageism refers to?
A set of beliefs about the aged and involved two kind of activities. discrimination and prjudice.
What is the definition of discrimination?
People are denied opportunities because they are old.
What is the definition of prejudice?
Negative sterotypes about older people.
What are sterotypes?
A composite of ideas and beliefs attributed to people as a group or a social category.
What is new ageism?
The tendency to patronize the elderly and be overly solicitious towards them.
What is the Bem Sex Role Inventory used for?
Measuring gender stereotypes.
What is Social Security?
A social insurance program funded by payroll taxes.
What is Medicare?
Health insurance program for people 65 and older. Enacted in 1965 and avail. to those that are eligible for Social Security benefits.
What is Medicaid?
Program of health insurance for the poor. Eligibility rules are complex and vary from state to state.
What is Supplemental Security Income (SSI)?
Main cash benefit for the elderly poor and for disabled poor of all ages.