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28 Cards in this Set

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Potential Energy transformations
stored water changes to kinetic energy when released through raceway of hydroelectric plant
Kinetic Energy transformations
converted to mechanical energy by water driven turbine then electric energy in generator
Electric Energy transformations
converted to mechanical energy in electric motors, into chemical in charging batteries, into heat in cooking and heating
Specific heat
energy required to raise unit mass of material 1 degree
Energy
E = M Cp deltaT
p = M/V
Open systems
mass and energy flow across boundaries
Closed systems
only energy flows across boundaries
Energy balance
Total energy crossing boundary as heat and work + energy mass entering system - energy mass leaving = net change in energy
enthalpy
thermodynamic property of material used to describe internal changes in heat
Conduction
transfer of heat between two objects in contact with one another
Convection
transfer of heat between two objects separated by a liquid or gas
Drinking water treatment objective
remove contaminants from natural water to make it suitable for human consumption without adverse effects
Standards
organic chemicals, disinfectants, etc...secondary related to taste/odor, SO4, etc
Chemical coagulation
addition of chemicals to cause colloidal suspensions to flocculate and settle by gravity
Turbidity
has to do with degree of cloudiness in water
Flocculation
Slow gentle agitation to induce velocity gradient and promote contact among colloids
Dissolved air floatation
pressured air causes bubbles with stick to colloids, float to surface, and get skimmed off top ... high energy demand but quick and efficient
Backwashing
Pump filters water in reverse of filtration direction to fludize bed
Emissions categories
Primary - direct to atmosphere Secondary - created by chemical reactions in atmosphere
Process creating emissions
Combustion, evaporation, abrasion (plowing, wear on brake pad)
Infiltration
natural air exchange when windows, doors are closed (pressure differences caused by wind and temperature)
Hazard
something bad that might happen
Risk
probability of something bad happening
Risk assessment
Given an exposure to a substance at given concentration and duration what is the likelihood of an adverse effect
Risk management
what is acceptable level of risk? further reduction below this level would not be worth cost
Dose-response: carcinogenic
any dose will produce an effect
Dose-response: non-carcinogenic
threshold dose below which no effect will be produced
LOAEL/NOAEL
Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level/No Observed Adverse Effect Level...lowest dose with adverse effect/highest dose which will not produce adverse effect