Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
5 rules for when to use the apostrophe
1. Ownership
2. contractions
3. Pluralize letter's / #'s
4. Stand in for #'s
5. expressions of time
3 steps to the writing process
1. Pre-writing
2. Writing
3. Re-write
Generating writing ideas
1. Freewriting
2. Brainstorming
3. Clustering/ Mapping
4. Asking questions
5. Journal
Independent clause
Can stand alone as a complete idea and can be written as a simple sentence(main clause)
Dependent Clause
Can't stand alone as a sentence, makes no sense by itself
example: When Flora arrives. (this makes no sense by itself.
Subject + verb to form a complete thought
How can an independent clause be joined to another independent clause
Join two Independent clauses together with a comma and a coordinating conjunction
Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS)
The dog barked all night, but the neighbors didn't complain. -but is the coordinating conjunction
Subordinating Conjunctions
(depends on an independent clause to complete its meaning) after, because, when, whenever, before, as, if, until, while, although
Describe when a comma should separate a subordinate (dependent clause) and a main clause (independent clause)
A comma should separate if the subordinate is before the main. If the main clause comes first there is no comma.
Rules for comma usage #1
Lists, items in a series
Do not use commas when the items are joined by and or or: I enjoy biking and skating and swimming.
You need bolts, nuts, and screws.
rules for comma usage #2
Introductory phrases- more than 2 words transitional phrases- an aside w/in the sentence parenthetical expressions
1 By four in the afternoon, everybody wanted to go home.
2. Ferns, for example, need less sunlight than flowering plants.
3. By the way, where is the judge's umbrella?
rules for comma usage #3
Commas for appositives
-rename or describe nouns or pronouns
Yoko, our new classmate, is our best fielder.
rules for comma usage #4
nonrestrictive and restrictive clauses
Minor uses for comma usage (5)
1.Dates & addresses
3.when addressing someone directly and naming the person.
5. interjections
1. June 6, 2005.
2. "Yes, I'll agree to do the speech."
3. Alicia, where did you put my law books?
4. ah, oh, uh
5. Harold, not Roy, is my scuba diving partner.
Relative clause: what is it? Name two types of relative clauses.
(Who, which, or that) modify noun/ pronoun; makes the sentence more complex
1.non restrictive
2.restrictive clause
Raj, who is a part-time aviator, loves to tinker with machines of all kinds.
Non restrictive
NOT essential to the meaning of a sentence. It does not restrict or provide vital information about the word it modifies. (Must use a comma)
Example: Claude, who grew up in Haiti, speaks fluent French.-who grew up in Haiti doesn't add to the sentence-
restrictive clause
Essential to the meaning of a sentence no comma; restricts the meaning of the word it refers to.
Example: People who crackle paper in theaters annoy me. -who crackle paper in theaters is the restrictive clause, essential to the meaning of the sentence.
5 steps to writing a paragraph
1 narrow topic
2 writing topic sentence
3 generating idea for the body
4 Selecting and dropping idea
5 arrange ideas in a plan or outline
Topic sentence
Main idea for the paragraph
Rules for Semi-colon
1 join two main clauses
2 takes place of a conjunction
(either side of a semi-colon must have two complete sentences)
Conjunctive adverb
Placed after the semi colon helps to clarify the relationship between two clauses; However, furthermore, indeed, in fact, then,,,,
Deep water makes Maurice nervous; therefore, he does not want to join the scuba team
Capitalize titles
1.Always capitalize 1st and last word of title
2.Don't capitalize short conjunctions
3.Don't capitalize short prepositions
Underline titles of long works
2. newspapers & magazines
4. plays
5. record albums
6. Operas
7. Films
Direct Quotations
1. proceeded by a comma/ colon
2. first letter of direct quote is capitalized
3. period alwys goes inside quotation marks
Colon usage
1. to show a direct quote will follow
2. to introduce lists
3. separate chapter/ verse in bible
4. Hour and min
phrase or word not essential to the sentence (could also use commas)
1. emphasize sentence
2. Interrupt sentence
1. Time (transitional words)
2. Space order (discription, directions..)
3. Order of importance
3 things to think of when beginning a writing assignment
1. subject
2. audience
3. purpose
Subject of a sentence
is the who or what word that performs the action or the who or what word about which a statement is made
Compound Subject
some sentences have more than one subject, joined by and:
Her aunt and uncle love country music.
Prepositional phrase
contains a preposition and its object
Example: the sweaters in the window look handmade.
-in the window is the prepositional phrase
Action verb
describes the action that the subject is performing.
Linking verb
Links the subject to words that describe or identify it
Don is a fine mathematician.-is
This fabric feels rough and scratchy.-feels
Words that are always capitalized?
Names, nationalities, religions, races, languages, countries, cities, months, days of the week, documents, organizations, and holidays.
The Protestant church on the corner will offer Spanish and English courses starting Thursday, June 3.
Words that are capitalized only when used as a proper noun?
Streets, buildings, historical events, titles, and family relationships
-don't capitalize the same words when they are used as common nouns.
We saw Professor Rodriguez at Silver Hall, where he was delivering a talk on the Spanish Civil War.
Do you capitalize directions?
No, only geographic locations
1.The tourists went to the South for their winter vacation.
2. Go south on this boulevard for three miles.
Do you capitalize academic subjects?
Only if the academic subject is referred to by the specific name and numer course.
Psychology 101