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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain and Spinal Cord
Higher Functions
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Sensory or afferent division
motor or efferent division
sensory (afferent) portion
includes special senses, general somatic senses, visceral senses
motor (efferent) portion
includes somatic motor, autonomic (visceral) motor, sympathetic division, parasympathetic end
neuron
cell of the nervous system specialized to generate and transmit electrical signals, a nerve cell
cell body or soma
contains the the usual organelles including Nissl Bodies AKA chromatophilic substance which is the same as ribosomes
dendrites
(tree branches) fibers attached to the cell body which are receptive to neurotransmitters from other neurons. Transmit TOWARDS the cell body
axon hillock
where the cell body tapers to the axon. Significant because an action potential originates here, the decision maker
axon
neuron process that carries impulses away from the cell body, transmits an action potential
telodendrites
(branches at a distance)
the axon terminates here
contains vesicles filled with neurotransmitters
neurotransmitters
chemical released by neurons that may, upon binding with receptors on neurons, stimulate or inhibit them
synapse
specialized cell junction between 2 neurons, at which neurons communicate
presynaptic neuron
neuron that conducts signals towards the synapse
postsynaptic neuron
the neuron that conducts the signal away from the synapse
unipolar neuron
sensory neuron in which a single short process projects from the cell body but divides like a T into 2 long processes (central process and peripheal process)
unipolar neuron
functionally sensory
bipolar neuron
functionally sensory in the eye ear and nose
bipolar neuron
neuron with just 2 processes, which extend from opposite sides of the cell body
multipolar neuron
motor or associative in function
multipolar neuron
nerve cell that has more than 2 processes, most neurons are multipolar, having several dendrites and an axon
neurons are grouped...
functionally according to the direction the nerve impulse travels to the CNS
Sensory (afferent) Neurons
carrying to or toward
a nerve fiber that carries impulses towards the CNS
usually unipolar
Interneurons (Associative)
nerve cell that lies between a sensory neuron and a motor neuron in a reflex arc, any nerve cell that is is confined entirely within the CNS
ONLY IN THE CNS, ONLY MULTIPOLAR
connects between other neurons
Motor (efferent) Neurons
carrying away or away from, especially a nerve fiber that carries impulses away from the CNS
Always MULTIPOLAR
glial cells AKA Neroglia
nonexcitable cells of neural tissue that support protect and insulate neurons
10-50X more glial cells than neurons
astrocytes
most abundant glial cells of the CNS
isolate and protect neurons
form the brain blood barrier
form a framewrok to support and guide neuron growth, do various repairs
oligodendrocytes
name means few branch cells, smaller than an astrocyte,
produce insulating coverings called myelin sheaths in the CNS
Microglia
smallest and least abundant neuroglia of the CNS, derived from WBCs
act as macrophages and destroy cellular debris and pathogens
ependymal cells
form the roofs of the ventricles in the brain and are responsible for form cerebrospinal fluid

form a simple epithelium that lines the central cavity of the spinal cord and brain
satellite cells
surround neuron cell bodies with ganglia
supporting cell in the PNS
Schwann Cells
surround all axons in the PNS and form myelin sheaths
Nissl Body
means "color loving" are large clusters of rough endoplasmic reticulum, continually renew the membrane of the cell and part of the cytoplasm
Depolarization
when stimulated, the membrane "leaks" potassium out and sodium in causing the potential to change from relatively positive inside to relatively negative inside. The change in polarity is the action potential
Endoneurium
(en do-nu're-um)

a covering around a schwann cell
Fascicles
groups of axons are bound together
Perineurium
wrapping of connective tissue covering a fascicle
Epineurium
the whole nerve is covered by a tough fibrous sheath
Neuron
nerve cell
Nerve Fiber
a long axon of a neuron
Nerve
is a collection of fibers in the PNS
(bundle of axons or fibers)
Tracts
axon bundles (fibers)
in the CNS
Acetylcholine (ACh)
most common neurotransmitter
Synaptic Cleft (gap)
fluid filled space at a synapse between neurons, at which neurons communicate
postsynaptic neuron receptor
the neuron that transmits signals away from the synapse
white matter
myelinated axons, both nerves (PNS) and tracts (CNS)
gray matter
contains neuron cell bodies and unmyelinated processes of neurons

In CNS: Nucleous In PNS: Ganglia
Collection of cell bodies in the CNS
center or Nucleus
collection of cell bodies in the PNS
ganglion
Neuron Organization and Processing
1) Divergence
2) Convergence
3) Serial Processing
4) Parallel Processing
5) Reverberation
Divergence
one neuron synapse with with several, apparently "spreading the word"
convergence
several neuron synpases with a single neuron
serial processing
step-wise, sequential
parallel processing
simultaneous processing of different information
reverberation
feed back mechanism, comparison and computational
cellular organization of tissue
neurons: excitable cells
neuroglia: mostly non-excitable cells
chemical synapse
Most Common
space between 2 cells, signal sent via a neurotransmitter, usually ACh
electrical synapse
direct physical contact between cells=gap junctions

direct signal transduction
RARE, but occurs in the CNS and heart
anaxonix
lacks an axon
Functional Neuron Classification
Sensory (afferent)
Motor (efferent)
Interneurons
myelin sheath
the lipoprotein myelin is wrapped around and around the axon in myelinated nerves.

in the CNS: oligodendrocytes
in the PNS: Schwann Cells
Node of Ranvier
gaps in the myelin sheath n schwann cells
demyelination
1) Multiple Sclerosis (MS): autoimmune disease that attacks myelin sheaths, possible genetic

2) Guillain-Barre Syndrome: autoimmune that attacks myelin sheaths, usually a consequence of an infectious disease
general somatic senses
senses whose receptors are spread widely throughout the outer tube of the body
ie: senses on the skin, in the body wall
special somatic senses
receptors are confined to relatively small areas like the head including hearing and balance, vision
general visceral senses
include stretch pain and temperature, usually felt in the digestive and urinary tracts
special visceral senses
taste and smell, also referred to as chemical senses located on tongue and nasal cavity
somatic motor
part of the PNS stimulates contraction of skeletal muscles in the body
visceral motor
part of the PNS regulates the contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle, secretion of many of the body's glands