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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
four stages of carcinogenesis
initiation (irrev)- due to viral, bacterial, radiatin, chem
promotion(rev)- selective clonal growth and expansion depends on environment
conversion/transformation- further genetic change
progression- clinical CANCER
role of oncogenes
regulate cellular function including signal for division and growth, oncogenes produce excessive amounts of normal gene product or abnormal gene product leading to dysregulation of normal cell growth
roleof tumor supressor genes
inhibit regulate inappropriate cell growth
gene/alteration/loss/mutation/inactivation results in loss of control of cell grwoth ex are p53, BrCA1-2
What is benign
non cancerous growths, often encapsulated localized, they resemble cells they originate from - oma
what is malignant
genetically unstable, cancerous growth, invade and destroy local tissye, unencapsulated, often metastasize
how does metastic dz develop
tumor cells are shedding neoplastic cells, angiogenesis occurs that is development of new blood vessels and then the cells survive in circulation and attach to endothelium
describe the cell kill hypothesis
only a certain % of cells are killed there is never 0 cells shrink tumor to 10^4 cells and host factors can possibly eliminate
Describe the cell cycle
G0- resting phase, variable time
G1- first gap phase, enzyme manufactuing, prep for DNA syn
S- Synthesis of DNA, tumors that are growing quickly have a large % of cells in this phase
G2- second gap phase, prep for mitosis, movement of cellular components
M- mitosis, cell division occurs, breakdown of tubulin, mitotic spindle
what is the type of chemo. induction
used in advanced diseases, usually when radiation or surgery would have been ineffective
what is the type of chemo consolidation
aggressive chemo given after initial induction regimen, goal for eradicating resistant disease,
what is the type of chemo adjuvant
systematic chemo given or along with surgery or radiation ther. goal is to destroy micromestatic disease
what is the type of chemo neoadjuvant
systemic therapy given before localized ther. goal is to destroy micromestatic disease and to make the localized disease easier to manage
what is salvage type of chemo
given after initial fails,
what is complete response
complete disappearnace of all cancer witn no evidense of disease for one month
what is partial response
50% or greather decrease in tumor size; no evidence on new disease for at least one month
what is overall response
complete response plus partial response
what is stable disease
tumor does not grow by 25% or more, or shrinks by less than 50%
what is progressive disease
tumor growth of 25% or new disease detected
disease free survival means
time from complete response to relapse/death
overall survival means
the time from treatment to death