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63 Cards in this Set

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Anatomy
A branch of science that studies the general structure of the body and the relation of its parts to each other.
Surface Anatomy
Study of the surface markings of the body.
Gross Anatomy
Study of the structures without a microscope.
Systems Approach
Study of the bodily systems.
Regional Anatomy
Study of specific regions.
Developmental Anatomy
Study of development from fertilized egg to adulthood.
Radiographic Anatomy
Study of body through the use of X-rays.
Microscopic Anatomy
Study of cells and tissues with a microscope.
Physiology
Study of the gunctions (Normal Vs Pathological) of a living organism.
Applied Physiology
Study of how the body responds to stresses, such as exercise, work and the enviroment.
Comparative Physiology
Study of fuctions of two animal organisms.
Human Physiology
Study of the functions of the human species.
Pathologic Physiology
Study of disease or tissue function.
Neurophysiology
Study of functions of the nerve.
Cardiovascular Physiology
Study of functions of the heart.
Respiratory Physiology
Study of functions of the respiratory systems.
Reproductive Physiology
Study of functions of the reproductive organs.
Digestive Physiology
Study of fuctions of the stomach.
Homeostasis
A condition in which the body's internal environment remains within certain physiological limits.
Chemical Level
Lowest level of structural organization.
Structural Oraganization
Chemical level, Organelle, Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism.
Organelle
Smallest structure found within a cell, has a specialized function.
Cell
Basic structural and fuctional unit of any living organism.
Tissue
Group of cells working together to perform a specialized function/activity.
Organ
Group of tissues working together.
Organ System
Group of organs working together.
Organism
Group of organ systems working together; a functional living unit, one living individual.
Components of the Integumentary System
Components - The skin and structures derived from it.
Components of the Skeletal System
Components - All the bones of the body, their associated cartilage, and the joints of the body.
Components of the Muscular System
Components - Specifically refers to skeletal muscle tissue. Other muscle tissues are smooth and cardiac.
Components of the Nervous System
Components - Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organs, such as the eye and ear.
Components of the Endocrine System
Components - All hormone-producing glands and cells such as pituitary gland, thyroid gland, and pancreas.
Components of the Cariovascular System
Components - Blood, heart, and blood vessels.
Components of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
Components - Lymph, lymphatic vessels, and structures or organs containing lymphatic tissue (large numbers of white blood cells called lymphocytes), such as the spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and tonsils.
Components of the Respiratory System
Components - Lungs and a series of associated passageways leading into and out of them.
Components of the Digestive System
Components - A long tube called the gastro-intestinal tract and associated organs such as the salivary glands, liver, gallbbladder, and pancreas.
Components of the Urinary System
Components - Organs such as the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra that together produce, sotre, and elimate urine.
Components of the Reproductive System
Components - Organs (testes and ovaries) that produce reproductive cells or gametes (sperm and ova) and other organs such as the uterine (fallopian) tubes and uterus in females and the epididymis, ductus (vas) deferens, and penis in males that transport and store reproductive cells.
Body Cavities
Dorsal body cavitity, Ventral cavity, Abdominopelvic cavity
Dorasl Body Cavity
Posterior aspect of the body divied into the cranial cavity and vertebral (spinal) cavity.
Cranial Cavity
Formed by the cranial (skull) bones housing the brain.
Vertebral (Spinal) Cavity
Formed by the vertebra: houses the spinal cord and the beginnings of the spinal nerves.
Ventral Cavity
Anterior aspect of the body: divided into two subdivisions by the diaphragm
Thoracic Cavity
Has three components, Pleural, mediastinum, and Pericardial.
Pleural
Surround Lungs.
Mediastinum
Region between lungs, extending from the sternum (breastbone) to the vertebral column
Pericardial
Between the lungs, surrounding the heart.
Abdominopelvic Cavity
Divided into two separate cavities: Abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity.
Abdominal Cavity
Upper portion containing the stomach, liver, pancreas, gall bladder, small intestine, and most of the large intestine.
Pelvic Cavity
Lower portion containing the urinary bladder, appendix, sigmoid colon, rectum, and reproductive organs.
Functions of the Integumentary System
Function - Helps regulate body temperature, protects the body, eliminates some wastes, helps produce vitamin D, and receives certain stimuli such as temperature, pressure, and pain.
Functions of the Skeletal System
Function - Supports and pretects the body, assists in body movements, houses cells that give rise to blood cells, and stores minerals.
Functions of the Muscular System
Function - Participates in bringing about movement, maintains posture, and produces heat.
Functions of the Nervous System
Function - Regulates body activities through action potentials (nerve impulses) by detecting changes in the internal and external environment, interpreting the changes, and responding to the changes by inducing muscular contractions or glandular secretions.
Functions of the Endocrine System
Function - Regulates body activities through hormones, chemicals transported in the blood to various target organs of the body
Functions of the Cardiovascular System
Function - Distributes oxygen and nutrients to cells, carries carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells, helps maintain the acid-base balance of the body, protects against disease, prevents hemorrhage by forming blood clots, and helps regulate body temperature.
Functions of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
Function - Returns proteins and plasma to the cardiovascular system, transports fats from the gastrointestinal tract to the cardiovascular system, filters body fluid, helps produce certain white blood cells, and helps protect against disease through the production of proteins called antibodies, as well as other responses.
Functions of the Respiratory System
Function - Supllies oxygen, eliminates carbon dioxide, helps regulate the acid-base balance of the body, and produce vocal sounds.
Functions of the Digestive System
Function - Performs the physical and chemical breakdown and absorption of food for use by cells and eliminates solid and other wastes.
Functions of the Urinary System
Function - Regulates the volume and chemical composition of blood, eliminates wastes, regulates fluid and electrolyte balance, helps maintain the acid-base and calcium balance of the body, and helps regulate red blood cell production.
Functions of the Reproductive System
Function - Reproduces the organism.
Action Potentials
Nerve impulses.
Lymphocytes
Any of various white blood cells.