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165 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the process by which complex nutrients are briken down into smaller componentes called?
What are the three main functions of the digestive system?
Digestion, Absorption, and Elimination
What layer of the digestive tract are the goblet cells located in?
The Mucosa
What is the layer of Serous membrane that covers organs called?
The Visceral Layer
What is the layer of serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and folds over the abdominal organs?
The peritoneum
What is the outtermost layer of the digestive tract wall called?
The Serosa
The crown of a tooth is covered in a very hard substance called what?
What are the teeth between the incisors and the molars called?
What is the first part of the small intestine called?
What is the small tube containing lymphoid tissue that is attached to the cecum called?
The appendix
The longitudinal muscle in the wall of the large intestine forms bands called what?
Teniae Coli
What are the largest salivary glands called?
Parotid glands
Glygogen is stored in the accessory digestive organ called what?
The Liver
Which abdominal gland secretes glucagon and digestive enzymes?
The pancreas
What is the substance that is synthesized in the liver and emulsifies fat?
What is the muscular organ that stores bile?
The gall bladder
Which duct delivers bile to the duodenum?
The common bile duct
Which enzyme digests starch?
How are individual nucleotides produced?
By the actions of Nucleases
In digestion, large food particles are split into their building blocks using water and enzymes. What is the term for this process?
What is the enzyme that breaks down lactose?
How is glycerol produced?
From the break down of lipids/fats
What does trypsin break down proteins into?
Amino Acids
What is the process by which nutrients pass from the digestive tract into the blood?
What are the millions of tiny fingerlike projections in the lining of the small intestine called?
What are the specialized vessels that absorb fats called?
What is the hormone that increases stomach motility and secretion?
How is the contraction of the gallbladder stimulated?
By an intestinal hormone called CCK
What is a yellowish coloration caused by liver disease?
What is the correct order of tissue from the outtermost to the innermost layer in the wall of the digestive tract?
Serous membrane, smooth muscle, submucosa, mucosa
Which layer of the digestive tract wall forms the teniae coli?
The smooth muscle layer
Which of the following is not a subdivision of the peritoneum? Endothelium, Mesentry, Greater Omentum, Mesocolon
The endothelium
Where is the lesser omentum
Between the stomach and the liver
Which portion of the peritoneum is attached to the small intestine.
The mesentry
What is the normal number of cuspids in the adult mouth?
What is the hardest substance found in a tooth?
What regulates the flow of food into the duodenum?
The pyloric Sphinceter
What is the veriform appendix attached to?
The cecum
Which portion of the large intestine empties into the rectum?
The Sigmoid colon
What is the waste product of protein metabolism that is synthesized in the liver?
What are the salivary glands under the tongue called?
Sublingual Glands
What is bilirubin?
A byproduct of the destruction of Red Blood Cells
What is the function of bile?
Emulsification of fats
What do the cyctic and common ducts merge to form?
The common bile duct
Which of the following substances is a protease? Lipase, Hydrochloric acid, Lactase, or Trypsin
Which of the following enzymes is not synthesized by the pancreas? Amylase, Pepsin, Lipase, or Trypsin
Hydrochloric acid activates a protein digesting enzyme produced where?
In the stomach
Most of the nutrients from eating butter would be absorbed in what form?
Glycerol and free fatty acids
What nutrient do lacteals absorb?
Where are most of the body's nutrients absorbed?
In the small intestine
What are the folds in the cell membrane of intestinal cells called?
When a highly acidic chyme arrives in the duodenum, what substance will neutralize the acidity?
Which of the following hormones act on the pancreas? Gastric-inhibitor peptide, Cholecystokinin, or secretin?
All of them
Where are secretin and cholecystokinin produced?
In the duodenum
What is the scientific name for tooth decay?
What is an example of Parotitis?
The viral disease Mumps
What is the formation of stones in the gallbladder called?
How does urine move from the kidneys to the bladder?
Through the Ureters
What is the fiborus connective tissue surrounding the kidney called?
Renal capsule
What is the triangular shaped region in the floor of the bladder?
The trigone
What is the external opening of the urethra called?
The urinary meatus
What is the cluster of capillaries in the bowman capsule?
The Gomerulus
What vessel carries blood into the glomerulus?
The afferent arteriole
What are the blood vellels that surround the loop of Henle?
Peritubular capillaries
What is the small coiled tube that forms urine?
The nephron
What section of the nephron forms a u-shaped tube?
The loop of Henle
Filtration occurs where?
Between the glomerulus and the bowman capsule
What specialized region of the kidney produces renin?
The Juxtalomerular apparatus
How is angiotension activated?
By the renal enzyme renin
By what process do substances move from the glomerulus to the glomerular capsule?
Glomerular filtration
What does the process of tubular reabsorption involve?
The movement of substances from the nephron into the peritubular capillaries
The active transport of penicillian from the blood into the nephron is an example of what process?
Tubuular secretion
Which hormone makes the collecting duct more permeable to water?
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Inadequate production of ADH results in what disease?
Diabetes insipidus
What is another term for urination?
How is the concentration of dissolved substances in urine indicated?
By its specific gravity
What is the main nitrogeneous waste material in the urine?
What is the presence of white blood cells in the urine known as?
What are large kidney stones that fill the renal pelvis and extend into the calyces?
Staghorn Caliculi
What is a dropping of the kidney known as?
Renal ptosis
Inflammations of the bladder that can not be treated with medications is called what?
Interstitial cystitis
The anemia observed in chronic renal failure reflects a deficiency of what hormone?
Waste products from kidney failure require products to be removed from the body how?
By dialysis
In the case of kidney failure, fluid within the peritoneal cavity would be changed by what process?
Peritoneal Dialysis
What does the word part "-cele" mean?
Swelling, elnarged space
What is the outter part of the kidney called?
THe renal cortex
What is the funnel shaped basin forming the upper end of the ureter called?
The renal pelvis
List a path of blood as it passes through the kidneys.
Glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries, renal vein
Whic of the following strucutres is found in the renal medulla? Glomerulus, proximal convolutes tubule, peritubular capillaries, or the distal convoluted tubule?
The peritubular capillaries
Which of the following structures is not part of the nephron? Glomerulus, Loop of Henle, or the collecting duct?
The glomerulus
What part of the nephron drains into the loop of Henle?
The proximal convoluted tubule
The juxtaglomerular apparatus consits of cells in what?
The distal convoluted tubule and afferent arteriole
What does the juxtaglomerular apparatus synthesize?
What is the active process that moves substances from the blood into the nephron?
Tubular secretion
What drives materials out of the glomerulus into the glomerular capsule?
Blood pressure
Substances are reabsorbed from the distal convoluted tubule into what?
The peritubular capillaries
What does antidiuretic hormone increase?
Water reabsorption in the collecting duct
What is the average daily urine output?
1 to 1.5L
What nitrogenous waste material is normally contained in the urine?
What is the presence of white blood cells in the urine described as?
What is the use if shock waves to break up kidney stones known as?
What does inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney result in?
Of the following, what can renal failure result from? Hydronephrosis, Polycystic kidney, or acute glomerulonephritis
All of them
Which of the following is usually not a symptom of chronic renal failure? Dehydration, Enuresis, Edema, Anema
What is the difference between dialysis and peritoneal dialysis?
Peritoneal dialysis does not use a membrane
What is the term for a removal of the kidney?
What does the word part "cyst/o" mean?
What does the term "pyelocystitis" mean?
Inflammation of the renal pelvis and bladder
What is the sac called that contains the testes?
The scrotum
What do the testes pass through in the abdominal cavity during embryonic development?
Inguinal canal
How are the testes suspended within the scrotum?
By the spermatic cord
Folowing meiosis, what is the number of chromosomes in each daughter cell?
What is the reproductive organ in which a fetus develops?
The ejaculatory duct is formed by the union between the duct from the seminal vessicle and what?
The Vas
What is the muscular layer of the uterus called?
The myometrium
What gland surrounds the urethra and contracts to aid ejaculation?
The prostate gland
What is the tube that carries the ovum to the uterus?
The fallopian tube
What are the lip like folds of tissue in the vulva called?
The labia
What is the lower narrow region of the uterus called?
The cervix
How are simple sugars added to semen?
By the seminal vessicles
Semen passes from the ejaculatory duct into what?
The urethra
What part of the spermatozoa produces movement?
The flagellum
What is the enzyme containing cap on the head of the spermatozoa called?
Which steroid is produced in significant quantities during the luteal and follicular phases?
Early development of the follicle is controlled by which pituitary hormone?
FSH - follicle stimulating hormone
Which sex steroid induces the development of the male secondary sex characteristics?
In males what does Luteinizing hormone stimulate?
The activity of interstitial cells
What do most menopausal symptoms reflect a deficiency of?
What is the normal age related cessation of menstruation that occurs in women?
What is the use of artificial methods to prevent birth called?
The emergency contraceptive pill consists of several doses of what hormone?
What is an x-ray study of the breast called?
What is a viral disorder characterized by blisters on and around the genital organs?
Genital herpes
What is inflammation of the coiled tube that stores sperm?
What is a surgical removal of the uterus called?
What do the word parts "mamm/o" and "mast/o" mean?
Breast, mammary gland
metropathy means what?
Disease of the uterus
What do interstitial cells of the testes produce?
What ligaments hold the uterus in place?
Broad ligaments
What is the glans of the penis formed by?
The corpus spongiosum
The prepuce is not present in individuals who have undergone what?
What is the fold of membrane that is sometimes found bear the vaginal opening called?
The hymen
What coiled tube on the testes stores spermatozoa?
The epididymis
Of the following glands which is found in women? Greater vestibular glands, prostate gland, buukbourethral gland, ot the seminal vessicle.
The greater vestibular gland
What are teh labia and the clitoris a part of?
The vulva
What structure contributes the most liquid to semen?
The seminal vessicles
True or false, Semen is acidic?
What does the head of the spermatozoon contain a large amount of?
Where would an acromosome be found?
In a spermatozoon
What does menses result from?
A decline in estrogen and progesterone
When does the uterine proliferative phase occur?
During the follicular phase
When are progesterone levels the highest?
During the secondary phase
What does testesterone cause?
The development of spermatozoa
What do high levels of progesterone result in?
A decreased level of Luteinizing hormone
What does increased activity of the intersitial cells result in?
A decreased luteinizing hormone secretion
When does menopause occur?
When the aging ovary no longer produces mature follicles
Which birth control method affects gametogenesis?
The birth control patch
Which sexually transmitted infection is caused by a spirochete?
What would hysterectomy be an effective treatment for?
What is cryptorchidism?
A testes that remains in the abdomen
What does a pap smear test for?
Cancer of part of the uterus
What is mastitis?
Inflammation of the a breast
What does metroparalysis mean?
Paralysis of the uterus
Which glands contribute to secretions to semen?
Seminal vessicles, prostate glands, and bilourethral gland
What are the functions of semen?
Nourish and transport spermatozoa, neutralize acidity, lubricate the reproductive tract, prevent infection