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116 Cards in this Set

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Sports Medicine
relating to performance enhancement or injury care and management
Athletic Trainer
charged w/ injury prevention and health care provision for the athlete; involved from inception until the athlete returns to full competition
WOTS up analysis
Weakness, Opportunity, Threats, Strength
policies
clear written out statements of basic rules
procedures
describes the process
OSAH
Occupational Safety And Health habits
HIPAA
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: protects the athlete from having records shared unless otherwise authorized
Overload/SAID principle
Specific Adaptation of Imposed Demands:
when the body gradually adjusts to exercises/stresses applied
Warm-up
enhances performance, prepares body for physical work, increases circulation and blood flow to muscles, increases metabolic process, core temp, and muscle elasticity, 10-15 min result in 45 min
Cool-down
essential component of workout, brings body back to resting state, 5-10 min, decreases muscle soreness and blood flow and lactic acid levels more rapidly
flexibility
ability to move joints smoothly through a full range of motion (ROM)
active ROM
dynamic flexibility, ability to move joint w/ little resistance, moved by muscle contraction
passive ROM
static flexiility, motion of joint to end points w/o muscle contraction (usually done by someone else)
isometric contraction
no muscle length change occurs during contraction
isotonic contraction
concentric: shortening of muscle
eccentric: lengthening of muscle
agonist muscle
muscle that contracts to produce movement
antagonist muscle
muscle that stretches during movement
ballistic stretching
bouncing movement where repetitive contractions of agonist work to stretch antagonist; most closely resembles msucle activity during sports
static stretching
passive stretch, controlled and less chance of injury
goniometer
measures ROM; protractor that utilizes allignment of 2 arms parallel to longitudinal axis of 2 segments involved in motion
strength
ability to generate force against resistance
power
relationship b/w strength and time
muscular endurance
repetitive muscular contractions (increased strength=increased endurance)
hepertrophy
enlargement of a ody part caused by an increase in the size of its cells
atrophy
decrease in the size of the muscle due to inactivity
repetitions
number of times a specific movement is repeated
repetitions maximum (RM)
the max number of reps at a given weight
one repetition maximum (1RM)
the max amount of weight that can be lifted one time
set
a particular number of reps
intensity
the amount of weight or resistance lifted
recovery period
rest interval b/w sets
frequency
the number of times an exercise is done in a week
isokinetic exercise
involves a muscle contraction in which length of the muscle is changing while the contractions is performed as a constant velocity
circuit training
employs a series of exercise stations that consist of various combinations of weight training, flexibility, calisthenics, and brief aerobic exercises
calisthenic exercise
free exercise, gravities involvement determines level of intensity (pull ups, push ups, etc)
plyometric exercise
rapid stretch, eccentric contraction followed by a rapid concentric contraction to create a forceful explosive movement
recovery period
rest interval b/w sets
frequency
the number of times an exercise is done in a week
isokinetic exercise
involves a muscle contraction in which length of the muscle is changing while the contractions is performed as a constant velocity
circuit training
employs a series of exercise stations that consist of various combinations of weight training, flexibility, calisthenics, and brief aerobic exercises
calisthenic exercise
free exercise, gravities involvement determines level of intensity (pull ups, push ups, etc)
plyometric exercise
rapid stretch, eccentric contraction followed by a rapid concentric contraction to create a forceful explosive movement
nutrient basics
science of substances found in food that are essential to life
carbohydrates
body's most efficient energy source; accounts for 55-70% of total caloric intake
simle sugars (candy) and complex- starch and fibers
starches
complex, body cant use directly, broken down in simple sugars (rice, bread, potatoes)
fiber
structural part of plant not digestible, aids normal elimintation of waste, reduces risk of colon cancer and coronary artery disease (recomended 25g per day)
fats
most concentrated source of energy, essential for growth and development, 40-50% of caloric intake
proteins
required for growth, maintenance, and repair of the body; aid w/ enzyme, hormone, and enzyme production; 12-15% of caloric intake
amino acids
basic units that compose proteins (20), most can be produced by the body and others must be consumed
vitamis
serve as regulators in many body processes
fat soluble- found in fatty foods and oils (A,D,E,K)
water soulble- help regulate metabolism but cant be stored (C,B-complex)
antioxidants
prevent premature aging, cancers, heart disease, and othe health problems; help protect cells from free radicals; (A,C,E)
vitamin dificiencies
illness that results from a deficit in a particular vitamin/mineral
minerals
more than 20 have essential roles in body, many are stored in liver and bones (iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium)
water
most essential nutrient and most abundant in body (60% of body weight), essential for all chemical processes, lack of water can lead to illness or death (2.5L a day)
RDA
Recomended Daily Allowance
DRI
Dietary Reference Intake
mineral supplementation
calcium and iron tend to be low and diets may need to be modified
calcium deficiency
most abundant mineral in body; if body's intake is low, the body will remove calcium from bones causing osteoperosis
iron deficiency
causes anemia, common in females; limits oxygen carrying capacity of blood; athlete may feel tired and week due to muscle inability to generate energy
protein supplementation
about 1-1.5 g/kg body weight of protein should be consumed for increasing muscle mass
pre-event nutrition
long term food consumption is important taking digestion into account
body composition
relationship b/w fat tissue and lean body tissue
averages:
-female 20-25% bw = fat (not below 12%)
-male 12-15% bw = fat (not below 3%)
overweight
excess body weight relative to size and stature
overfat
excessively high percentage of total body weight is fat
obesity
extreme amount of excessive fat
-female >30%
-male >20%
BMI
body mass index- ratio of height and weight
caloric balance
=calories consumed - calories expended
positive caloric balance results in weight gain
negative caloric balance results in weight loss
calories are expended through:
basal metabolism (calories expended at rest) BMR
work (activity that requires more energy than sleeping)
excretion
bulimia nervosa
periods of starvation, bingeing (thousands of calories) and purging through vomiting, fasting and laxatives/diuretics
anorexia nervosa
distorted body image and constant concern about weight gain, deny hunger and are hyperactive
female athlete triad
combination of:
-eating disorder
-amenorrhea (losing menstrual cycle)
-osteoporosis
hyperthermia
elevated body temp
heat stress
prolonged exposure to extreme heat can result in heat illness
metabolic heat production
heat that the body produces when active
conductive heat exchange
physical contact with objects resulting in heat loss or gain (turf heat)
convective heat exchange
body heat can be lost or gained depending on circulation medium (breeze or humidity)
radiant heat exchange
comes from sunshine and will cause increase in temp even in shade
evaporative heat loss
cooling of body temp through sweating
Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index
WBGT- provides an objective means for determining precautions for participation
heat rash
benign condition associated with red, raised rash, combined w/ prickling w/ sweat
heat syncope (collapse)
associated w/ rapid fatigue and overexposure to heat; caused by peripheral vasodilation or pooling of blood in extremities resulting in dizziness or fatigue
heat cramps
painful muscle spasms due to excessive water loss and electrolyte imbalance
exertional heat exhaustion
result of inadequate fluid replacement, unable to sustain adequate cardiac output; core temp is <104º
exertional heatstroke
core temp is ≥104º; life threatening condition; breakdown of thermoregulatory mechanism
exertional hyponatremia
fluid/electrolyte disorder resulting in abnormally low concentration of sodium in blood; caused by drinking excessive amounts of water
hypothermia
core body temp falls below 95º
death is imminent when temp falls below 77-85º
frostnip
involves ear, nose, chin, fingers, and toes; occurs w/ high wind and severe cold
frostbite
due to poor peripheral circulation
-chilblains result from prolonged exposure causing redness and swelling
flash to bang
estimates distance from storm
count of 30 indicates inherent danger
trauma
physical injury or wound sustained in sport produced by internal or external force
mechanical injury
results from force or mechanical energy that changes state of rest or uniform motion of matter
injury
result of external forces directed on the body or can occur w/i the body internally
stress
resistance to a load
yield point
point at which elasticity is almost exceeded
mechanical failure
elastic limit of tissue is exceeded, resulting in damage
tension
force that pulls and stretches tissue
stretching
pull beyond yield point resulting in damage
compression
force that results in tissue crush
shearing
force that moves across the parallel organization of tissue
bending
force on a horizontal beam that places stress within the structure
inert tissue
noncontractile - ligaments, skin, cartilage, capsules, fascia, dura mater and nerve roots
contractile tissue
muscles and its parts including tendons and bony insertions
skin injuries
break in the continuity of skin as a result of trauma
friction blister
continuous rubbing over skin surface that causes a collection of fluid below or within epidermal layer
abrasion
skin is scraped against rough surface resulting in capillary exposure due to skin removal
skin bruise
compression or crush injury of skin surface that produces bleeding under the skin
laceration
wound in which skin has been irregularly torn
skin avulsion
skin that is torn by same mechanism as laceration to the extent that tissue is completely ripped from source
incision
wound in which skin has been sharply cut
puncture
penetration of the skin by a sharp object
irritability
twitch
contractility
muscle able to contract or not
conductivity
balance (cramping)
elasticity
stretching
hematoma
swelling - results from blood and lymph flow into surrounding tissue
strain
stretch, tear, or rip to muscle or tendon